Fallacies
Definition of a Fallacy <ul><li>An error in reasoning or a mistaken belief </li></ul><ul><li>Weakens your credibility as a...
Hasty Generalizations <ul><li>When the speaker does not have enough evidence to support his conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Mistaken Causality <ul><li>Assuming that because one event follows another, it was caused by it </li></ul><ul><li>Also kno...
False Analogy <ul><li>Comparing things that are dissimilar in some important way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. You used to tea...
Begging the Question <ul><li>Assuming as decided what has actually not been proved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. In an antiabo...
Ad Hominem <ul><li>Latin for “against the man”  </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking the person rather than the point  </li></ul><u...
Non Sequitur <ul><li>Latin for “It does not follow” </li></ul><ul><li>Provide evidence to back up a statement but the evid...
Bandwagon Technique <ul><li>Speaker asks listeners to “jump on the bandwagon,” to become part of an overwhelming group in ...
False Premise <ul><li>An error in deduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Dogs have two ears. I have two ears. Therefore, I am...
Your Task <ul><li>Split into groups of 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm an idea of a product to “sell” to the class </li></u...
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Fallacies

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Fallacies

  1. 1. Fallacies
  2. 2. Definition of a Fallacy <ul><li>An error in reasoning or a mistaken belief </li></ul><ul><li>Weakens your credibility as a speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Many different kinds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hasty Generalizations <ul><li>When the speaker does not have enough evidence to support his conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. You flip through the television channels and all you see is commercials. You conclude the only thing on television is commercials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. On your visit to Africa your plane lands in the desert. All you can see is desert. Therefore, you assume all of Africa is desert. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Mistaken Causality <ul><li>Assuming that because one event follows another, it was caused by it </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as “post hoc” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Watching television causes you to get bad grades. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Wearing my lucky socks makes me win my tennis match. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. False Analogy <ul><li>Comparing things that are dissimilar in some important way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. You used to teach at a school with a 10 student average class size. Now you work at a school with a 30 student average class size. Assuming that classroom management would be the same at both schools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. My Labrador and your poodle are guaranteed to enjoy hunting equally. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Begging the Question <ul><li>Assuming as decided what has actually not been proved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. In an antiabortion speech referring to the fetus as an “unborn child” without discussing when human life begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. How do you like my delicious apple pie? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ad Hominem <ul><li>Latin for “against the man” </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking the person rather than the point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Charging your opponent as “little old ladies in tennis shoes” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Non Sequitur <ul><li>Latin for “It does not follow” </li></ul><ul><li>Provide evidence to back up a statement but the evidence does not really prove the point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. “If combat means living in a ditch, females have biological problems staying in a ditch for 30 days because they get infections . . . . [Moreover,] males are biologically driven to go out and hunt for giraffes.” – Newt Gingrich </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Bandwagon Technique <ul><li>Speaker asks listeners to “jump on the bandwagon,” to become part of an overwhelming group in favor of some person, product or idea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. You should buy an ipod nano. All the cool kids at Jordan carry them around to class. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. False Premise <ul><li>An error in deduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Dogs have two ears. I have two ears. Therefore, I am a dog. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Teenagers are known for being irresponsible. You are a teenager. Therefore, you are known for being irresponsible. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Your Task <ul><li>Split into groups of 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm an idea of a product to “sell” to the class </li></ul><ul><li>Write a commercial/ infomercial for your product </li></ul><ul><li>Include as many fallacies as you can </li></ul><ul><li>When you present the class will identify the fallacies you used </li></ul>

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