When the speaker does not have enough evidence to support his conclusions
Ex. You flip through the television channels and all you see is commercials. You conclude the only thing on television is commercials.
Ex. On your visit to Africa your plane lands in the desert. All you can see is desert. Therefore, you assume all of Africa is desert.
Assuming that because one event follows another, it was caused by it
Also known as “post hoc”
Ex. Watching television causes you to get bad grades.
Ex. Wearing my lucky socks makes me win my tennis match.
Comparing things that are dissimilar in some important way
Ex. You used to teach at a school with a 10 student average class size. Now you work at a school with a 30 student average class size. Assuming that classroom management would be the same at both schools.
Ex. My Labrador and your poodle are guaranteed to enjoy hunting equally.
Begging the Question
Assuming as decided what has actually not been proved
Ex. In an antiabortion speech referring to the fetus as an “unborn child” without discussing when human life begins
Ex. How do you like my delicious apple pie?
Latin for “against the man”
Attacking the person rather than the point
Ex. Charging your opponent as “little old ladies in tennis shoes”
Latin for “It does not follow”
Provide evidence to back up a statement but the evidence does not really prove the point
Ex. “If combat means living in a ditch, females have biological problems staying in a ditch for 30 days because they get infections . . . . [Moreover,] males are biologically driven to go out and hunt for giraffes.” – Newt Gingrich
Speaker asks listeners to “jump on the bandwagon,” to become part of an overwhelming group in favor of some person, product or idea.
Ex. You should buy an ipod nano. All the cool kids at Jordan carry them around to class.
An error in deduction
Ex. Dogs have two ears. I have two ears. Therefore, I am a dog.
Ex. Teenagers are known for being irresponsible. You are a teenager. Therefore, you are known for being irresponsible.
Split into groups of 3
Brainstorm an idea of a product to “sell” to the class
Write a commercial/ infomercial for your product
Include as many fallacies as you can
When you present the class will identify the fallacies you used