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Adventure Tourism and DisasterTourism Agritourism Backpacking and Freehiking Cultural Tourism, CulinaryTourism, Educational Tourismand Ethno Tourism Dark Tourism and War Tourism Ecotourism, Geotourism andSustainable Tourism Health Tourism Nautical Tourism Pop-Culture Tourism and SportsTourism Religious Tourism Space Tourism Voluntourism Wildlife Tourism Sex Tourism
As different kinds of tourism go, adventure tourism isprobably one of the most – well – adventurous.Travelers head for remote, exotic and possibly hostileareas to explore cultures or activities outside of theircomfort zones. To further break it down, adventuretourism – also called extreme tourism– includestourism of native societies, ghettos, jungles andurban areas. It’s related to disaster tourism, whichinvolves visiting areas that have been affected byfloods, hurricanes, volcanoes and more, and inclusivetourism, which is tourism accessible to the disabled.It can also include extreme activities such asmountaineering, bungee jumping, rafting, rockclimbing, zip-lining and trekking.
As a type of both foreign and domestictourism, agritourism involves travel to afarm or ranch, including farm stays atanything from bed and breakfasts to duderanches, produce purchase from farmstands, corn mazes, wine and cheesemaking, and fruit picking. It’s one of thegrowing forms of tourism in areas includingAustralia, Canada, the U.S. and thePhilippines.
Backpacking has two branches – wilderness andtravel. Wilderness backpacking usually involves hiking andcamping overnight in the backcountry with not much morethan a backpack carrying supplies and equipment. In aprofessional sense, it’s used by soldiers, professionalguides, photographers, scientific and academicresearchers, park rangers, and search and rescuepersonnel. Travel backpacking is often used to describelow-cost, independent international travel that includefactors such as using public transportation, staying inhostels instead of hotels, and using a backpack forportability. A lot of times this type of tourism is viewedless as a vacation and more of a cultural learningexperience. For even less reliance on material comfort,tourists can try free hiking, which falls into twocategories: naked hiking or off-trail hiking, where hikersrely on maps, compasses or GPS units to navigate throughuncharted areas.
Cultural tourism, or heritage tourism, involvesimmersion in a society’s lifestyle, its people’shistory, its art and architecture, its religion, and anyother elements that have shaped it and its people. Itcan also include participation in a culture’s rituals orfestivals. This is related also to culinary tourism,where travellers pursue unique and memorabledrinking and dining; educational tourism, whichincludes student exchange programs and study tours;and ethno tourism, where travelers observe acountry’s native people without the intent ofscientific gain.
For the more doom-and-gloom type oftourist, dark tourism – also called blacktourism or grief tourism – involves visitingsites associated with suffering and death.These include castles and battlefields,natural and manmade disaster areas, prisons,and dungeons. It’s also related to wartourism, or travel to active war zones.
As part of the green movement, ecotourism isdefined as small-scale, low-impact travel to fragile,untouched and protected areas. This type ofdomestic and international tourism strives toeducate, provide funds for conservation, benefiteconomic and political development, and promoterespect for cultures and human rights. A lot of timesthis involves volunteer work and the promotion ofrecycling, energy efficiency, water conservation andimplementation of economic opportunities. Takingthis one step further is geotourism, which focuses notjust on sustainability but also on enhancing the area’scharacter. And, though not related as much to theenvironment, there’s also sustainable tourism, whichinvolves sustaining a culture’s population,employment and positive local experiences for bothresidents and tourists.
Also called medical tourism, this form oftourism describes the practice of leavingthe country to get healthcare, or ofproviders traveling to deliver healthcare. Itcan be highly dangerous if the quality oftreatment is low or the facility isn’taccredited, but it includes complexsurgeries, cardiac surgery, dental surgeryand even cosmetic surgery. Often in thesecases, the providers are practicing outsidetheir area of expertise or at a lowerstandard of care.
Another of our different types oftourism combines sailing and boating withvacationing and travel. Many of these typesof tourists live on their boats and take portin different areas to explore. In fact, it’sbecome such a popular kind of tourism thatmarinas have been built specifically fornautical tourists in Europe, South Americanand Australia.
Pop-culture tourism is pretty much exactly what itsounds like – going to visit locations featured inbooks, film, music, TV and other forms ofentertainment. Trips can be domestic orinternational depending on what tourists want to see– and being featured in pop culture is a huge boost inpopularity for many locations. Just ask the Duke ofNorthumberland, who lives in the castle that wasused as Hogwarts in the Harry Potter movies. Kind ofalong the same lines is sports tourism, where peopletravel to see a sporting event outside of their normalenvironment. This type of tourism rakes in about$600 billion each year.
Also referred to as faith tourism, this typeof tourism encompasses people of faithwho travel independently or in groups toholy cities or holy sites for fellowship,missionary or pilgrimage. The largest massfaith pilgrimage takes place annually inMecca, Saudi Arabia, and many religiouspilgrims aren’t traveling for the samereasons as those pursuing other differenttypes of tourism. Often, they list atangible understanding and appreciationof their religion, a feeling of security intheir beliefs, and personal connection asthe main purposes of faith travel.
Space tourism is – travel in space!Obviously, most of this is done for businesspurposes because the average person can’tafford a quick getaway to outer space …though it can be done! The Russian SpaceAgency is the only one that offers it, butallegedly it comes in at a whopping $20-35million per flight. That definitely makesthe price of simpler types of domestictourism seem like pocket change!
This growing form of tourismfeatures travel for charitable or volunteerpurposes – this is one of the more populartypes of domestic tourism, but can alsoreach internationally. Trips can range fromwildlife cleanup to medical aid in a foreigncountry, and more. Also included in this istraveling for the purpose of scientificresearch to promote understanding andnecessary actions needed for a sustainableenvironment.
In its simplest definition, wildlife tourism is the observationof wild animals in their natural habitats. It’s especiallypopular in countries with large areas of undeveloped land,such as Africa, South America, Australia, India, Canada,Indonesia, Bangladesh and more. There is some controversyabout this type of tourism, as the pros and cons are equallyarguable. On the con side, there’s disturbance of theanimals’ breeding, feeding and overall living patterns, inaddition to the development of hotel construction on thenatural land to account for tourists. Alternately, however,this kind of tourism increases habitat restoration,conservation breeding, research and financial donations, andalso prevent the illegal.
Some tourists travel overseas for sex Americans comprise an estimated 25% of all sex tourists Men mostly choose Asia (Bangkok, Philippines, Indonesia, SriLanka), but the trends has spread to Brazil, Cuba, Costa Rica,Eastern Europe and African countries (Kenya, Tunisia, SouthAfrica) Women mostly choose Greece, Caribbean Basin, Genoa and Kenya(Africa), Bali (Indonesia) and Phuket (Thailand)
Supply factors Poverty of the prostitutes Limited alternative opportunities to improve living Destination factors Facilitating infrastructure (nightclubs, hotels) Laxity of police control Motivation factors Anonymity Cheap Wish to try something new with a different race Buy their egos back Fleeing from unhappy relationships at home
Are the tourists helping the poor women? Some people think that the sex workers sell theirservices at their own choice Some people think that the workers are selling theirservice as other available labor Sex tourism can contribute to national economy But sex workers May be infected with AIDS or other sexually transmitteddiseases, and so are their family members Only get a small portion of money; most of it goes to thepimps; some have to pay the police; some lose theirmoney to theft
In a very large nutshell, that covers it!Tourism as a whole is a profitable industryfor tour guides, hotels, hospitality workersand more. And working in the tourismindustry can be doubly beneficial – not onlydo these employees profit financially fromtheir jobs, but they also get to travel andcombine their personal interests with theirjobs!