Nouns are identified by definite criteria, the mostimportant of which are the following:1. A noun is a word preceded by function word called anoun determiner. If it is a proper noun, it is marked bya capital letter. Such expression as the, a, an, my, your,our, few and some are always followed by nouns.The Angkor Vat is a temple-mountain in Cambodia.A proud king undertook his project.Few monuments can equal the Angkor Vat.Much labor and expense were involved.
2. A noun has two inflections, the plural form-s or -es andpossessive or genitive -’s.Manila I a city of churches and bridges.His friends are painters and musicians.Let’s shop at Farmer’s Market and Rustan’s.3. A noun I a word used to name a person, place or thing. Propernoun: Dante, Bach, Rome, French, Los Angeles Times, Liszt.Common Noun: nation, clock, teapot, statue, epic, balletCollective Noun: crowd, regiment, herd, congregationAbstract Noun: dignity, faith, hope, communismMass Noun: rice, salt, tea, water, iron, steel
4. A noun fills certain characteristics position in relation to other parts of speech inphrases and utterances.a) It usually occurs before the verb in theN + V PatternJournalists write.Goya painted and etched.The band I playing.b) It follow such words as at, on, in, to, by, from in thePrep. + N Pattern“Pieta” is by Michelangelo.This statue is at St. Peter’s in Rome.“Environment” is in the cathedral at Florence.Both statues are about 7 feet each.c) It comes after the verb in an S + V + C pattern or in an S + V + N pattern.Mochtar Lubes is an Indonesian writer.He authored Twilight in Djakarta.His other novel is Road Without End.
5. A noun may be identified by various derivationalsuffixes added either to stems or part of speechas verbs, adjectives or other noun.Ex:(-ee) draftee, employee, examinee, payee(-er) painter, writer, engineer, photographer(-ist) violinist, pianist, artist, novelist(-ness) coldness, friendliness, kindness
6. A noun is a word used in various way in the sentence; its position determines itsfunction as follows:a. Before the Verb: as SubjectThe Taj Mahal is in India.The Stonehenge rises on Salisbury Plain.b. After the Verb: as Direct ObjectAlbert Camus wrote The Stranger.Wagner composed Tannhauser.c. After the Verb: a Indirect ObjectAristotle gave scholars the classical definition of tragedy.Alfred Nobel bequeathed the world a priceless legacy.d. After a Linking Verb: as a Subjective ComplementThe Bible is great art.A ballad is a narrative poem intended to be sung.
e. After the Verb: as Object ComplementCritics call Picasso: “the artist of the century.”The English named Spencer “ a poet’s poet.”f. Side by side with another Noun as Appositive.Frank Lloyd Wright, an American architect widely usedcantilevers.“Silent Night,” a Christmas carol is attributed to Franz Gruber.g. Beginning or end of the sentence: as Nominative of AddressClass, please pay attention.Turn on the electric fan, Albert
Noun and Noun Clusters- noun cluster is a group of words in which theprincipal word is a noun. It consists of two parts – thenoun headword itself and the word or wordsaccompanying it. These parts of the cluster, calledmodifiers may be determiners, adjectives, verbs,adverbs, other noun or word groups.
Note of the following illustrations:a. Nouns with determiners as modifiersthe ballad a sonnet our anthemb. Nouns with Adjectives as modifierspointed arches fluted columns solid buttressc. Nouns with Noun ModifiersItalian opera Byzantine architecture tapestry bagd. Noun Clustersthe marble domes, and minarets of the Taj Mahal in AgraEmperor Shah Jehan’s love memorial for his consort MumtazMahal.the still water of a clear lake overlooking the Jamuna riverDomes and minarets, memorial and lake are the noun headwords.The words clustering around them are the modifiers, which maycome either before or after the noun headword.
Noun Clusters: Modifiers After the HeadwordDeterminersATheTheseTheSomeANoun HeadwordworkerchildrenbooksdataparagraphsReceptionAdverb ModifierinsideupstairshereabovebelowAfterwardsgot hurt.are noisy.are new.look accurate.have errors.will follow.
Adverbs are the simplest kind of modifiers occurringafter noun headwords as shown in the frames above.DeterminerstheSomeabothmanya great deal ofNoun HeadwordcomposerepisodessymbolpaintingsmediumsArchitecturePreposition Groupof the sonatain the novelof the Christian Churchin abstractof the visual artswith excessive ornamentation
Instead of the adverb modifier after the noun headword,we may have in its place a prepositional phrase.DeterminersanthatmanyseveralTheNounHeadwordetchingsculptorworksartistsbuttressesSubordinator Groupthat you sawwho won the awardwhose authors are famouswhom we studiedwhich characterize Gothic architecture
A clause modifying a noun headword is usually introducedby the subordinators that, which, who, whose and whom.Number: Singular and Plural and Possessive Case ofNouns.- number is the distinction of word form to denote reference toone, or more than one. It is revealed sometimes by form, sometimes by meaning. A word which denotes one is singular; a wordwhich denotes more than one is plural.
1. Most nouns form the plural by adding –s to the singular.boy + s boystree + s treespapaya + s papayasfence + s fencesroom + s roomsEmma + s Emmas2. Nouns ending in a hissing sound (s, ch, sh, x or z) add –es in order to be pronounceable.Box + es boxeschurch + es churchesglass + es glassessix + es sixesrush + es rusheswaltz + es waltzes3. Most nouns ending in f or fe change –f or –fe to –ve before adding –s.calf + calveself + elvesknife + knivesleaf + leavesshelf + shelvesthief + thieves
4. Most nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant sound chande the y to i and add –es to form the plural.city + citieslady + ladiesreply + repliesarmy + armieslibrary + librariessolliloquy + solliloquies5. Noun ending y after a vowel form the plural by adding –s to the unchanged word.bouy + s bouyskey + s keysalley + s alleysjourney + s journeysmonkey + s monkeysvalley + s valleys6. Some nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant form the plural by adding –es.cargo + es cargoesecho + es echoeshero + es heroesmosquito + es mosquitoestomato + es tomatoesNegro + es Negroes
7. A few very common nouns add –en or change the vowel or remain change the vowel or remainunchanged in the plural.ox oxenchild childrenman menfoot feettooth teethsheep sheep8. Most noun of foreign origin retain the foreign plural.alumnus alumni (masc.)alumna alumnae (fem.)Analysis analysesMr. MessieursBacterium bactreiaCrisis crisesParenthesis prenthesesMadam Mesdames9. Most compound nouns add –s or –es to the principal word of the compound.Bookcase bookcasesFootstep footstepshandful handfulsForget-me-not forget-me-notsSon-in-law sons-in-lawRunner-up runners-up
10. Other nouns have kept the foreign plurals,but the regular plural forms (s or es endings)are also used.FormulaCurriculumSyllabusStimulusIndexMemorandumPlateauformulascurriculumssyllabusesstimulusesindexesmemorandumsplateauor formulateor curriculaor syllabior stimulior indicesor memorandaor plateaux
11. A few nouns are regularly plural in form and meaning.ScissorsTongspantsSlacksShortstrousers12. A few nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning.MathematicsStatisticsdramaticsAcousticsEconomicspoliticsAestheticsNewsmeasles
Possessive Case of Nouns- All English nouns have the possessive or genitivecase. There are two possessives, singular and plural, butonly in a few nouns is there any differences in soundamong them.Singular Noun Singular Possessive Plural Noun Plural PossesiveGirlLadyHorseWitchStudentProfessorGirl’sLady’sHorse’sWitch’sStudent’sProfessor’sGirlsLadiesHorsesWitchesStudentsProfessorsGirls’Ladies’Horses’Witches’Students’Professors’
-You will note that the spelling of the possessive of regularnouns is as follows: ‘s is added to the singular for thesingular possessive, and the apostrophe alone (‘) is added tothe plural.-The plural possessive of noun whose plural does not havethe regular –s ending ‘s (with its sound determined by thepreceding sound, as in the case of ordinary plurals) to theplural form of the noun.OxenBrethrenWomenMenDeerhorseOxen’sBrethren’sWomen’sMen’sDeer’sHorse’s
If you object to double sibilantsat the end of a proper nounending in s, x, or z, you mayadd only an apostrophe.CarlosPerezJesusMitosSanchezGutierrezCarlos’Perez’Jesus’Mitos’Sanchez’Gutierrez’Possession is also indicated by placingan of phrase after a noun. In generalthe type of noun determines themethod used.Compare:The girls’ dressesMy father’s friendThe President’s sonMabini’s essaysJoaquin’s storiesThe dresses of the girlsThe friend of my fatherThe son of thePresidentThe essays of MabiniThe stories of Joaquin
To express possession in the case of inanimate objects, a pre-positional phrase with of is normally used. Noun-nouncompounds however, are also used.Compare:The garage doorThe table topThe book coverThe house roofThe flower petalsThe door of the garageThe top of the tableThe cover of the bookThe roof of the houseThe petals of the flower
Noun referring to things, places and concept are oftenfollowed by an of phrase to indicate relationships suchas association, measure, or portion.The town of NalbuanThe lid of the panHalf of the chapterthe rays of the moonThe deck of a shipA ream of paperA cup of sugarA bottle of perfumeA box of candyA pitcher of juice
Possessive forms of certain nouns denotetime, distance, measure and value.A day’s workAn hour’s restTen yard’s distanceA month’s vacationMan’s destinySix pesos’ worthTwo weeks’ payA year’s timeA kilometer’s walkLife’s ironies