Foundation Of Human Society(Introductory Anthropology and general Sociology)“DEVIANCE”Kate S. Magpo
• Sociologists view that the violation of culturalnorms is embedded in the society. Deviance isnot the result of a person’ falling in free choice.• Deviance occurs only in relation to culturalnorms that people become deviant becauseothers called them as deviant. Society greatlyinfluences the ways norms and events aredefined.
1. BIOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW OF DEVIANCE• Biological theories of deviance have limited viewon the causes of deviance. One of the theories ofCesar Lombroso is that criminals are physicallydistinctive from non criminals.• Charles Goring found out in his research thatthere were no significant physical differencesamong them.• In 1900, William Sheldon found out that therewas association between criminal ormesomorphic or athletic body structure.
• Gluecks’s research conclude that there wasassociation between mesomorphic bodystructure and crime.• They suggest that this body type was related topersonal characteristics like insensitivity whichwas link to criminal behavior.
2. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTAINMENT THEORY• Psychological theory of deviance focuses onpersonality abnormalities. Both heredity andsocialization are the key factors in psychologicalexplanation of deviance.• Containment theory views that juveniledelinquency is a result of social pressures tocommit deviant acts because of the absence ofmoral values and positive self image.
3. STRUCTURAL- FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS• This approach focuses on the functions thatdeviance performs for society. Emile Durkheimnoted that deviance has (4) four principal functions.- First, difference between what is morally rightfrom what I considered morally wrong.- Second, when society reacts to deviance.- Third, deviance promotes social unity whenmembers of certain society react to it.- Lastly, it courage social change by having differentalternative to existing values and norms.
4. LABELING THEORY/SYMBOLIC-INTERACTION ANALYSIS• Is a process by which a person or an event is labeleddeviant. Deviance is the reaction of people to an actor a person they perceived as deviant. According toEdwin Lemert, there are two concepts of deviance;primary and secondary.*Primary Deviance – refers to an activity when it iscalled as defiant.*Secondary Deviance – refers to an actual behaviorenacted to fulfill the concept of deviant that hasbeen applied and that makes it identified as deviant(Maciones, 1989).
5. MERTON’S STRAIN THEORY• According to Merton, crime and other types ofdeviance are encouraged by everyday events in asociety.• When an individual is successful in pursuing hisgoal and the society approved it, conformityoccurs.3 Types Of Merton’s Strain TheoryA. InnovatorsB. RebelsC. Ritualists
6. SOCIAL CONFLICT THEORYA. The rich and the powerful in the society are able toinsists deviant label.B. The norms and the laws of society protected theinterests of the rich and powerful.C. The laws are unfair and little concern is made.• Splitzer says that the problem population is thosethat appear to thereafter capitalism might be labelas deviant. Two kinds of problem population.1. Social Junk – harmless and consists of aged-retreatists.2. Social dynamite- unemployed and alienated youth.
Types Deviance Behavior1. Infringement or Violation against SelfExamples: drug abuse, suicide, alcoholism, smoking,beggary, illegal gambling, prostitution, runaway andpsychological abortions.2. Violation of Life, Property, Liberty and StateExamples: vandalism, abortion, juvenile delinquency,wife battering, graft and corruption, rebellion,piracy, coup’d etat, organized crime and syndicate.3. Violation against Sex and LawsExamples: homosexuality, sexual harassment, whiteslavery, live in relationships, rape and sextransplant.
• Social control can be classified as formal andinformal.Examples of Informal Control are praise,favorable and favorable.Examples of Formal Social Control1. Church or religious group approval – promiseof salvation and penance.2. Government approval – they are in the form ofcriminal law, civil service rules and regulation.3. Business group approval - such as bonuses,certificate of merit, awards, expulsion andsuspension.