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Settlement Yr 11 Revision Class For Ocr Spec A
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Settlement Yr 11 Revision Class For Ocr Spec A

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  • 1. SETTLEMENT: What do you need to know?
    • LEDCS:
    • Rural to urban migration
    • MEDCS:
    • Land use zones
    • Improving quality of life in urban areas
    • Provision of services in urban/rural areas
    • Changes in rural areas
  • 2. Rural to urban migration in LEDCs
  • 3. Causes
    • Push factors in the rural areas
    • e.g. poor quality housing, overpopulation due to high birth rates, lack of job opportunities, lack of education, health and welfare facilities
    • Pull factors of the cities
    • e.g. jobs in factories pay more than farming , better standards of education for children, expectations of improved housing conditions
  • 4.  
  • 5. Consequences
    • Problems of LEDC cities
    • Reality of life - poor migrants end up in squatter housing areas (favelas, bustees, shanty towns) e.g. Rocinha (Rio)
    • These housing areas are usually illegally built in low land value parts of the city e.g. by railtracks, on hill slopes, etc.
    • Conditions are cramped, with little or no facilities e.g. running water, sanitation, services
    • Diseases are common, and life is stressful
  • 6. Solutions?
      • Rapid rate of growth means cities cannot cope
      • Planning for growth is difficult
      • Solutions seen to be with ‘Self Help Schemes’ and city/government aided schemes e.g. Favela-Bairio programme (Rio)
      • LEDCs do not have the resources nor the money to cater for the problems
  • 7. You need to know a case study of rural to urban migration in an LEDC
    • e.g. Dhaka, Bangladesh
    • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    • Where are people moving from?
    • Why are they moving? - push and pull factors
    • Problems of depopulation in rural areas
    • Problems in squatter settlements
    • Improvements to the squatter settlements
  • 8. Something must be done!
  • 9. Land use zones in MEDCs
            • Central Business District
            • Inner zone
            • Suburbs
            • Rural-urban fringe
  • 10. Central Business District (C.B.D.)
    • Where is it in the city?
    • What is it like?
    • What sort of facilities/services are found here?
    • What is being done to improve C.B.D.s?
    • Case study example e.g. Swansea
    • Key words :
    • Accessible
    • Peak land value
    • Effective area
    • High order goods
    • Pedestrianised areas
  • 11. Inner zone
    • Where is it in the city?
    • What is it like?
    • What sort of facilities/services are found here?
    • What is being done to improve inner zone areas?
    • Case study example e.g. Swansea
    • Key words :
    • Terraced housing
    • High rise flats
    • Urban rejuvenation
    • Brownfield sites
    • Shopping parades/small convenience store
  • 12. Convenience store Graffiti Terraced housing
  • 13. Suburbs
    • Where is it in the city?
    • What is it like?
    • What sort of facilities/services are found here?
    • What is being done to improve suburban areas?
    • Case study example e.g. Swansea
    • Key words :
    • Residential estates
    • Semi-detached and detached housing
    • Shopping parades/neighbourhood centres
  • 14. Rural urban fringe
    • Where is it in the city?
    • What is it like?
    • What sort of facilities/services are found here?
    • What is being done to improve/develop this area?
    • Case study example e.g. Swansea or South Downs/Brighton area
    • Key words :
    • Green belts
    • Greenfield sites
    • Out-of-town shopping centres
    • Business parks
  • 15. Traffic management in an urban area
    • Case study :
    • e.g. Glasgow or Cambridge
    • What is the problem?
    • What is being done to solve the problem?
    • Key words :
    • Congestion
    • Pollution
    • Ring roads
    • Traffic calming
    • Integrated public transport
    • Park and ride
    • Rising bollards
    • Designated bus lanes
    • Cycle routes
  • 16. Integrated transport systems
  • 17. HIERARCHY of SETTLEMENTS
    • This is a system of grades where one is above another in importance or size. Can be simply stated as the rank order of settlement
  • 18. Size and Number
    • Primate/capital city
    • Conurbation
    • City
    • Large Town
    • Small Town
    • Accessible/large village
    • Remote/small village
    • Hamlet
    • Isolated dwelling/farmstead
    • Decreasing in number, increasing in size
  • 19. Provision of Services
    • As settlements increase in size, the provision of services also increases
    • This is linked to the sphere of influence of a settlement
    • Any settlement or service can have a sphere of influence e.g. a town, village or an out-of-town shopping centre
    • Case study example: an out-of-town shopping centre (e.g. Holmbush)
    • Key words :
    • High order goods
    • Low order goods
    • Sphere of influence
    • Threshold population
  • 20. Village services Would you build on this?
  • 21. Urban to rural migration in MEDCs
    • What are the causes of this movement?
    • What are the consequences of this movement, both in the rural area and the urban area?
    • Case study : North Worcestershire (or Sayers Common)
  • 22. Causes
    • Rapid urbanisation during Industrial Revolution
    • Push factors e.g. expensive housing, traffic congestion, air pollution, crime
    • Pull factors e.g. cleaner air, safety for children, affordable housing, less stressful life
    • Key words :
    • Urbanisation
    • Counter-urbanisation
    • Commuting
    • Increased car ownership
  • 23. Consequences
    • Changing character of villages:
    • e.g. increasing house prices, changing demographic structure
    • Key words :
    • Dormitory settlements
    • Second homes
    • Gentrification
  • 24. Remember:
    • There are 5 case studies for the Settlement Unit:
    • Rural to urban migration in an LEDC
    • Urban zones in an MEDC city (and ways to improve them)
    • Traffic management in an MEDC city
    • An out-of town shopping centre in the UK
    • Urban to rural migration in an area of the UK
    • You must know one place specific piece of information for each one

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