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Coastlines Yr 11 Revision Class For Ocr Spec A

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  • 1. COASTLINES What do you need to know?
  • 2. The unit can be divided into two parts:
    • Processes and features
    • What people do to protect sections of coastline that are vulnerable to erosion
  • 3. Key ideas about waves:
    • How are they formed?
    • What affects their size and strength?
    • What happens when they reach shallow water?
    • What happens when they break on the beach?
    • Key words
    • Fetch
    • Prevailing wind
    • Wave refraction
    • Swash
    • Backwash
    • Constructive waves
    • Destructive waves
  • 4. Erosion
    • What affects the rate of coastal erosion?
    • Rock type
    • Geology of the coastline
    • Shape of the coastline
    • Key words
    • Discordant coastline
    • Concordant coastline
  • 5.  
  • 6. How does the sea erode?
    • What are the processes at work?
    • Corrasion or abrasion
    • Attrition
    • Scouring
    • Hydraulic action
    • Solution
    • You also need to know:
    • How the sea sorts material on the beach?
    • What weathering processes are at work on the cliffs?
  • 7. What features are produced by these processes of erosion?
    • 1 More resistant rock types e.g. chalk
    • What is the sequence of their formation?
    • Headlands
    • Caves
    • Arches
    • Stacks
    • Stumps
    • Wave-cut platforms
    • 2 Less resistant rock types e.g. clay
    • What is the sequence of their formation?
    • rotational cliff slumping
    • 3 And don’t forget the bays!
  • 8.  
  • 9. How does the sea move material ( transportation )?
    • You need to understand how longshore drift works along a stretch of coastline
    • In what ways does the sea transport its sediment?
    • Solution
    • Suspension
    • Saltation
    • Traction
    • What influences the size of sediment being transported?
  • 10. Beach Sea Cliff Direction of longshore drift
  • 11. When does the sea deposit material? What features are produced by the process of deposition?
    • Beaches
    • Sand dunes
    • Spits
    • Bars
    • Tombolos
    What is the sequence of their formation?
  • 12. How can the different processes of erosion alter or damage an area of coastline? What do people do to protect the coastline, or deal with the consequences of erosion?
  • 13. You need to learn a case study of how the sea is eroding part of the UK coastline. You will need to know what is being done to protect or ‘ manage ’ this stretch of coastline.
  • 14. What are the causes of erosion on this part of the coastline?
  • 15. Key ideas:
    • Type of rock?
    • Geological structure of the coastline?
    • Prevailing wind direction?
    • Rate of longshore drift?
    • Global changes in sea levels?
    • Human influences?
  • 16. What are the effects of coastal erosion on this part of the coastline?
  • 17. Key ideas:
    • How much land has been lost, since when?
    • How many villages and farms have disappeared?
    • What towns and villages are under threat at the moment?
    • What specific roads or important industrial sites are at risk?
    • What tourist or leisure facilities are under threat?
    • What about the natural (physical) features that are being eroded away?
  • 18. What is being done to ‘ manage ’ or control coastal erosion along this coastline?
  • 19. Key ideas:
    • Hard engineering
    • e.g. revetments, sea walls, groynes, tetrapods, gabions, rip-rap
    • Soft engineering
    • e.g. beach nourishment
    • ‘ Do nothing’ or managed retreat
    • How are the decisions made?
    • Who or what ends up getting protected?
  • 20. What are the consequences of coastal management schemes along this coastline?
  • 21. Key ideas:
    • Knock-on effects further along the coastline
    • accelerated cliff erosion
    • accelerated erosion of natural features (Spurn Head?)
    • prevention of sediment being carried to other coastlines, both nationally and internationally
    • Visual impact of hard engineering schemes
  • 22. Remember:
    • This case study has to be in the UK
    • You can use a case study that is local to you (e.g. Seaford for coastal management schemes)
  • 23. To get maximum marks for a case study question:
    • You must include some real ‘place knowledge’ in your answer
    • It therefore should not be vague and so could really be about anywhere along the UK coastline!
    • You should therefore learn some relevant facts and figures about the stretch of coastline such as the place names, and so on
    • You must also develop the points you make (explain what you mean) and write fluently and in sentences
    • You must try and use geographical terminology wherever you can
  • 24. Good luck, thanks for listening, see you next week!