Results and implications of a longitudinal
biomonitoring study on mercury exposure
Michael Bader1, Sandra Brill1, Axel Sch...
2
Inorganic Mercury
CNS impairment
kidney damage
inhalational
uptake
~ 80 %
gastrointestinal
resorption
< 0.01 %
dermal
ab...
3
Correlation between airborne and urinary mercury
Bender et al. 2006
Gefahrstoffe – Reinhaltung der Luft 66:465-468
Centr...
4
HBM assessment values for urinary mercury
category remarks value unit
reference value w/o dental amalgam 1 µg/L
HBM-I va...
electrolytic cell
graphite anodes
amalgam decomposer
pump
sodium amalgam
mercury
cathode
5
Chloralkali Electrolysis
http:/...
6
Chloralkali Electrolysis Cell Room
Mercury used in chloralkali cells
European Union 5952 tons
Germany 1676 tons
BASF Lud...
7
Study group
no. of employees job category mercury exposure sampling frequency
184 production always low (semi)annually
2...
8
(Semi)annual sampling: production
month of sampling & number of samples
µg mercury/g creatinine
BAT
BEI
9
Quarterly sampling: maintenance
month of sampling & number of samples
µg mercury/g creatinine
Monthly sampling: cleaning
month of sampling & number of samples
µg mercury/g creatinine
frequent safety instructions
(glo...
Aggregated results
routine maintenance cleaning
employees (n) 184 22 9
samples (n) 531 83 231
median (µg/g crea.) 2 6 16
9...
month of sampling
µg mercury/g creatinine
job rotation
Individual follow-up: three examples
12
t1/2 ~ 40 days
13
Individual follow-up: job change and job entry
month of sampling
µg mercury/g creatinine
job rotation beginners
14
Summary and conclusions
- The terminal half-life (t1/2) of a compound should be considered.
- Biomonitoring, not air mo...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

4.2 M. Bader

370 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
370
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
17
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

4.2 M. Bader

  1. 1. Results and implications of a longitudinal biomonitoring study on mercury exposure Michael Bader1, Sandra Brill1, Axel Schlieter1, Christoph Uebler2, Josef Guth2 1 BASF SE, Occupational Medicine & Health Protection, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany 2 BASF SE, Electrolysis I, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany 1 Occupational Medicine & Health Protection Chief Medical Officer: Dr. med. Stefan Lang
  2. 2. 2 Inorganic Mercury CNS impairment kidney damage inhalational uptake ~ 80 % gastrointestinal resorption < 0.01 % dermal absorption ~ 2 % t1/2 ~ 40 days cold vapour AAS EU 20 µg/m3 Germany 20 µg/m3 US-ACGIH 25 µg/m3 US-NIOSH 50 µg/m3 © iStockphoto.com/Triton21
  3. 3. 3 Correlation between airborne and urinary mercury Bender et al. 2006 Gefahrstoffe – Reinhaltung der Luft 66:465-468 Central conclusion: The assessment of the health hazard of exposed workers should rest upon the deter- mination of mercury in urine, and not on the concentration of mercury in workplace air. Surveillance of 23 workers from 8 plants: mercury in workplace air (PAS, 8-h-TWA, n = 44) urinary mercury (postshift, n = 33) mercury in air (µg/m3) mercury in urine (µg/g crea.) r = -0.030 p = 0.890
  4. 4. 4 HBM assessment values for urinary mercury category remarks value unit reference value w/o dental amalgam 1 µg/L HBM-I value observation level 5 µg/g crea. HBM-II value intervention level 20 µg/g crea. category remarks value unit DFG BAT 1982 200 µg/L DFG BAT 1998 100 µg/L DFG BAT 2005 30 µg/L SCOEL BLV 2007 30 µg/g crea. DFG BAT 2007 25 µg/g crea. BGW 2012 25 µg/g crea. ACGIH BEI 2013 20 µg/g crea.
  5. 5. electrolytic cell graphite anodes amalgam decomposer pump sodium amalgam mercury cathode 5 Chloralkali Electrolysis http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chloralkali.svg
  6. 6. 6 Chloralkali Electrolysis Cell Room Mercury used in chloralkali cells European Union 5952 tons Germany 1676 tons BASF Ludwigshafen 734 tons www.eurochlor.org (2012) ©BASFSE–OccupationalMedicine&HealthProtection
  7. 7. 7 Study group no. of employees job category mercury exposure sampling frequency 184 production always low (semi)annually 22 maintenance infrequently & moderate quarterly 9 cleaning frequently & significant monthly - 214 male employees from an alcoholates production plant - regular biomonitoring since 1989 - comprehensive biomonitoring program since 2010 - experience and summary of the first three years
  8. 8. 8 (Semi)annual sampling: production month of sampling & number of samples µg mercury/g creatinine BAT BEI
  9. 9. 9 Quarterly sampling: maintenance month of sampling & number of samples µg mercury/g creatinine
  10. 10. Monthly sampling: cleaning month of sampling & number of samples µg mercury/g creatinine frequent safety instructions (gloves, trouser pockets, etc.) daily change of working clothes job rotation 10
  11. 11. Aggregated results routine maintenance cleaning employees (n) 184 22 9 samples (n) 531 83 231 median (µg/g crea.) 2 6 16 95 % (µg/g crea.) 8 23 30 %  BAT 0 4 13 cleaning 2010 2011 2012 samples (n) 77 81 73 median (µg/g crea.) 18 18 15 95 % (µg/g crea.) 38 31 22 %  BAT 18 19 3 11
  12. 12. month of sampling µg mercury/g creatinine job rotation Individual follow-up: three examples 12 t1/2 ~ 40 days
  13. 13. 13 Individual follow-up: job change and job entry month of sampling µg mercury/g creatinine job rotation beginners
  14. 14. 14 Summary and conclusions - The terminal half-life (t1/2) of a compound should be considered. - Biomonitoring, not air monitoring, is the current tool of choice for the analysis and assessment of occupational mercury exposure inside BASF SE. - Mercury exposure is under frequent control and generally below the German BGW/BAT. - The intensity of exposure is a criterion for the selection of the monitoring frequency. - Individual excursions trigger temporary job rotation and renewed safety instructions.

×