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12.1 Yome

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  • 1. Overview of Human Biomonitoring Initiatives Under the Government of Canada’s Chemicals Management Plan International Symposium on Biological Monitoring September 10, 2013 Manchester, UK Julie Yome Chemicals Surveillance Bureau Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch Health Canada
  • 2. Chemicals Management Plan In 2006, the Government of Canada launched the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) to advance and improve the management of chemical substances and safeguard the health of Canadians Risk Assessment Research Reporting, Communication & Cooperation Risk Management Monitoring & Surveillance Compliance, Promotion & Enforcement 2
  • 3. National Biomonitoring Programs Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycle 1 – 15 sites (2007-2009) Cycle 2 – 18 sites (2009-2011) Cycle 3 – 16 sites (2012-2013) Cycle 4 – 16 sites (2014-2015) Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (10 sites) Northern Contaminants Program (4 regions) First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative (13 communities from 5 eco-zones) 4 3 sites 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 1 2 1 4 2 4 sites 3 2 3 2 2 sites 4 4 2 1 4 2 sites 2 4 31 2 4 1 13 14 3 22 14 2 3 3 4 21 3 1 2 3 3 1 444 3 1 232 2 2  3 sites 1 4 2 3 4 Other studies: • Targeted population biomonitoring • Biomonitoring supportive research • Targeted environmental monitoring
  • 4. Canadian Health Measures Survey National survey on the general health and lifestyles of Canadians to provide information on chronic and infectious disease, physical fitness, nutrition, and other factors that influence health – includes a biomonitoring component Partners: Statistics Canada Health Canada Public Health Agency of Canada Design • Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2 year cycles • Age groups: 3-5, 6-11, 12-19, 20-39, 40-59, 60-79 years • Nationally representative of 96% of the Canadian population Household Component • Interview • Indoor air (≥ cycle 2) and tap water (≥ cycle 3) sampling Mobile Examination Centre Component • Direct physical measures, including blood and urine 4
  • 5. CHMS Milestones 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Mar 2007 – Feb 2009 15 sites Cycle 1 biomonitoring report (August 2010) 6-79 years (n = 5,600) 92 chemicals Cycle 2 biomonitoring report (April 2013) Aug 2009 – Nov 2011 18 sites 3-79 years (n = 6,400) 91 chemicals Jan 2012 – Dec 2013 16 sites 3-79 years (n = 5,700) 105 chemicals Cycle 4 Cycle 3 Cycle 2 Cycle 1 2007 Cycle 3 biomonitoring data to be published (May 2015) Jan 2014 – Dec 2015 16 sites 3-79 years (n = 5,700) same chemicals as Cycle 3 5
  • 6. First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative The FNBI is a national human biomonitoring health survey for First Nations people living on reserve (south of 60o) conducted in 2011 Partnership between Health Canada & the Assembly of First Nations Objectives • Establish baseline information on environmental chemicals in First Nations across Canada • Compare exposure levels of First Nations’ peoples with the CHMS population Components • Lifestyle questionnaire • Direct physical measurements (e.g., weight, BMI, blood pressure, etc.) • Biospecimen collection (blood and urine) Survey Design • 13 randomly selected First Nation communities across Canada • Over 500 randomly selected participants (40-45 per community) • Participants - First Nation living on reserve, 20+ years old • 97 chemicals measured – align with CHMS cycle 1 6
  • 7. Northern Contaminants Program Established in 1991 in response to concerns about human exposure to elevated levels of contaminants in wildlife species important to traditional diets of northern Aboriginal peoples Key Objectives • Reduce/eliminate contaminants in traditional/country foods • Support informed decision making on food use for individuals and communities Approach • Government/stakeholder partnership • Biomonitoring studies over several years in various Canadian Arctic communities • Focus on metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, etc.) and persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PBDEs, etc.) 7
  • 8. Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Principal Investigators Tye Arbuckle, Health Canada William Fraser, Université de Montréal Study Design • 2,000 pregnant women recruited during 1st trimester and followed until 8-10 weeks after delivery • 10 clinical sites across Canada • Data collection: 2008-2011 • First results expected: 2013 • Biobank established Primary Objectives • Assess what pregnancy health risks, if any, are associated with exposure to heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury, etc) • Obtain baseline data on maternal and neonatal exposure to priority environmental chemicals (via biomonitoring) 8
  • 9. MIREC Research Platform Arbuckle et al. 2013. Cohort profile: the maternal-infant research on environmental chemicals research platform. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013 Jul;27(4):415-25. MIREC-ID • Follow-up on infant development at birth and 6 months of age to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals had any effect on infant growth, development, and behaviour MIREC-CD3 • Follow-up on child development at 3 years of age • Online survey to collect data on potential links between prenatal exposures, language, and behaviour MIREC-CD Plus • Follow-up on child development between 15 months to 5 years of age • Assess exposure to metals (in blood of children < 3 years of age), and measure growth, development, and behaviour Biobank • Established to store biospecimens and data for future research 9
  • 10. SELECTED RESULTS 10
  • 11. Blood guidance level for general adult population (20 μg/L) Blood Total Mercury - CHMS Cycles 1 & 2 Proposed blood guidance level (8 μg/L) for children and women of childbearing age (Legrand et al. 2010) 11
  • 12. Mercury – CHMS Cycle 1 compared to FNBI * 12 * Data should be used with caution – COV between 16.6% and 33.3%
  • 13. Mercury - Northern Contaminants Program Total mercury concentrations (µg/L whole blood) in pregnant women in Arctic Canada 13
  • 14. Mercury - Women of Child-Bearing Age Exceeding 8µg/L Differences between populations Down from 53%  in 1997 20% 2.2% 2.7% Down from 10%  in 1997 1.9% 14
  • 15. PCB 153 – CHMS Cycle 1 compared to FNBI 15
  • 16. PCB153 - Northern Contaminants Program PCB 153 concentrations (µg/kg plasma lipid) in pregnant women in Arctic Canada 16
  • 17. Mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) CHMS Cycles 1 & 2 compared to FNBI 17
  • 18. For Additional Information Julie Yome Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch Health Canada Ottawa, Canada Telephone: (613) 957-4188 julie.yome@hc-sc.gc.ca Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals www.healthcanada.gc.ca/biomonitoring Canadian Health Measures Survey www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/contaminants/human-humaine/chms-ecms-eng.php Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals www.mirec-canada.ca www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/contaminants/human-humaine/mirec-eng.php Northern Contaminants Program www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/ncp First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative www.afn.ca/uploads/files/afn_fnbi_en_-_2013-06-26.pdf Other Canadian Health Monitoring and Surveillance Initiatives www.chemicalsubstanceschimiques.gc.ca/plan/surveil/index-eng.php 18