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Chapter 28

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  • 1. America on the World Stage 1899 - 1909
  • 2. “Little Brown Brothers”
    • Filipinos assumed they would be granted their independence like Cuba
      • Senate refused
    • Feb. 4, 1899
      • Insurrection led by Emilio Aguinaldo
      • Filipinos were defeated & resorted to guerilla warfare
        • US used torture & camps
      • 1901 – Aguinaldo was captured
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. “Benevolent Assimilation”
    • Philippine Commission 1899
      • Established by McKinley
      • William Howard Taft – head
      • Goal was to make appropriate recommendations
    • Improved roads, sanitation, public health, & schools
      • Ill received
    • Philippines will receive their independence on July 4, 1946
  • 7. John Hay Defends China
    • China
      • Defeated by Japan 1894 – 1895
      • Russia & Germany moved in
        • Tore away valuable leaseholds & economic spheres of influence
      • American
        • churches worried about missionaries
        • Business feared European monopolies on Chinese goods
    • Sec of State John Hay proposed the Open Door Policy
  • 8. Open Door Policy
    • 1899 – John Hay sent Open Door Note
      • Sent to all great powers
      • Urged countries to announce that in their dealings, they would respect certain Chinese rights & the ideal of fair competition
      • Eventually all nations agree with the exception of Russia
    • Hay proclaimed that Open Door Policy is in effect
  • 9.  
  • 10. Problems with the Open Door
    • 1900 – Boxer Rebellion in China
      • Over 200 missionaries & whites killed
      • 18,000 multinational soldiers were sent & stopped the rebellion
        • Japan, Russia, Great Britain, France, Germany, & US
    • Hay feared that the rebellion would be used to justify carving up China
      • 1900 – expanded policy to include territorial integrity in addition to its commercial integrity
        • Did not ask for formal acceptance
  • 11.  
  • 12. Presidential Election 1900
    • Republicans – McKinley
      • Platform – prosperity, gold standard, & overseas expansion
      • VP – Theodore Roosevelt
        • Gov of NY but political bosses wanted him out
    • Democrats – Bryan
      • Platform – anti-imperialism
  • 13.  
  • 14. Campaign
    • Approach
      • McKinley – front-porch
      • Bryan & TR traveled & campaigned
    • McKinley won easily
      • Prosperity at home seemed more important than freedom aboard
    • Election was not a mandate for or against imperialism
      • For or against McKinley & Bryan
      • Mandate for prosperity & protection
  • 15.  
  • 16. TR becomes President
    • Sept. 1901 - McKinley is assassinated
      • By a deranged anarchist
    • TR became youngest president
      • Claimed he would carry on the politics of McKinley
  • 17. TR as President
    • “ Speak softly and carry a big stick”
    • Outspoken moralizer & reformer
    • Master politician
    • Beliefs:
      • No respect for checks & balances
      • Constitution was too rigid
      • President should lead
      • Felt he may take any action in the general interest that was not specifically forbidden by the laws of the constitution
  • 18. The Need for a Canal
    • TR understood the outside world more than his predecessors
    • War established the need for a canal
      • USS Oregon – had to travel all the way around South America
    • Canal would increase naval mobility
      • Make defense of new territories easier
  • 19.  
  • 20. Canal Plans
    • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty – 1850
      • Agreement with Great Britain that US would not control such a route
    • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty – 1901
      • Agreed to by Great Britain, US could build & fortify a canal
    • Where?
      • Nicaragua
      • Panama
  • 21.  
  • 22. Nicaragua v. Panama
    • French Canal Company – started building canal but had to stop
      • Wanted US to continue where they left off
    • New Panama Canal Company –led by Philippe Bunau-Varilla
      • Dropped the price of the land from $109 million to $40 million
    • Congress was concerned about volcanoes in Nicaragua
    • Hanna argued in Congress for Panama
      • Congress accepted June 1902
  • 23. Problems in Panama
    • Treaty was negotiated between US & Colombia
      • Granted use of 6 mile canal zone
      • $10 million & $250,000 annually
    • Treaty was rejected by Colombia
    • TR was running for office in 1904
      • Wanted to start building before election
  • 24. Panama Revolution Nov. 3, 1903
    • Panamanians wanted the canal
      • Counted on the prosperity to come
    • Bunau-Varilla raised a “patriot” army
      • Made up of fire departments & Colombian troops that had been paid $100,000
    • Colombian troops were ready to attack
      • US naval forces would not let them cross the isthmus
      • TR justified actions based on former treaty(1846) to maintain “perfect neutrality” of the isthmus
  • 25.  
  • 26. Sealing the Deal
    • TR quickly moved to recognize Panama
    • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
      • Signed by US & Panama
      • Price remained the same, zone increased to 10 miles
    • “ Rape of Panama”
      • Resulted in a downward turn in relations with Latin America
      • “ Big Brother” Policy had begun
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29. Completing the Canal
    • Difficulties
      • Labor troubles
      • Landslides
      • Sanitation
    • Colonel George Washington Goethals
      • Helped with organization
    • Colonel William C. Gorgas
      • Helped made canal zone safe from yellow fever
    • Canal completed in 1914
      • $400 million
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34. TR’s Perversion of Monroe’s Doctrine
    • Latin American countries
      • defaulted on their payments to European creditors
      • Particularly Venezuela & the Dominican Republic
      • 1903 - Germany attacked Venezuelan gunboats & a town
    • TR feared that Germany & Great Britain might remain in Latin America
      • Violation of Monroe Doctrine
  • 35. Roosevelt Corollary
    • In the future, if Latin American countries defaulted on their loans, the US would intervene
      • take over customhouses, pay off the debts, and keep the troublesome powers on the other side of the Atlantic
    • Monroe Doctrine
      • “ Thou shall not intervene.”
    • Roosevelt Corollary
      • “ We shall intervene to prevent you from intervening.”
  • 36. Colossus of the North
    • 1905 – US took over tariff collections in the Dominican Republic
      • DR were not happy with the interference
    • 1906 – US Marines sent to Cuba to stop disorder
      • Stayed until 1909
    • Started “Bad Neighbor” policy
  • 37. TR on the World Stage
    • Russo-Japanese War – 1904
      • Russia was trying to take ports in Manchuria, China – Port Arthur
      • Japanese attacked Russia at Port Arthur
      • Japanese eventually asked US for help
    • Portsmouth, NH – 1905
      • TR helped Russia & Japan work out an agreement
        • Japanese receive no money & some land
    • 1906 – TR receives the Nobel Peace Prize
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Results of Russo-Japanese War
    • Relationship among US, Japan & Russia soured
    • Numerous Japanese laborers moved to California
      • 1906 – 70,000 lived around the Pacific coast
    • 1906 – Japanese were sent to special schools
    • Gentlemen’s Agreement – 1907-1908
      • CA repealed the school order
      • Japanese agreed to stop the flow of immigrants
  • 41.  
  • 42. The Great White Fleet
    • 1907 – TR sent 16 battleships on a cruise around the world
      • Goal was to impress the Japanese & the world
      • TR believed this to be his most important contribution to peace
    • 1908 - Root-Takahira Agreement
      • US & Japan pledged to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the Pacific & to uphold the Open Door Policy
  • 43. The Great White Fleet
  • 44.