New York City: The Crossroad of World Trade<br />History 141<br />By: Kasandra Bartels<br />
Episode 1:The Country and the City<br />New Amsterdam:<br />A 17th century Dutch Colonial settlement and was the capital of New Netherland. It later became known as New York City.<br />The first recorded exploration by the Dutch of the area around what is now called New York Bay was in 1609 with the voyage of the ship "Half Moon", captained by Henry Hudson, in the service of the Dutch Republic, as the emissary of Holland's stadholderMaurits.<br />A drawing of New Amsterdam from 1648, the oldest image found.<br />
Episode 1:The Country and the City<br />The New Amsterdam settlement had a population of approximately 270 people, including infants. In 1642, the new director-general Willem Kieft decided to build a stone church within the fort The work was carried out by recent English immigrants, the brothers John and Richard Ogden. The church was finished in 1645 and stood until destroyed in the Slave Insurrection of 1741.<br />New Amsterdam received municipal rights on February 2, 1653 thus becoming a city.<br />New Amsterdam in 1664.<br />
Episode 1:The Country and the City<br />The legal-cultural foundation of toleration as the basis for plurality in New Amsterdam superseded matters of personal intolerance or individual bigotry.<br />In June 1665, New Amsterdam was reincorporated under English law as New York City, named after the Duke of York. He was brother of the English King Charles II, who had been granted the lands<br />King Charles II<br />
Episode 3. Sunshine and Shadow, 1865-1898<br />The Gilded Age<br />The Gilded Age which saw prosperity for the city's upper classes amid the further growth of a poor immigrant working class, and an increasing consolidation, both economic and municipal, of what would become the five boroughs in 1898.<br />The post-war period was noted for the corruption and graft for which Tammany Hall has become proverbial, but equally for the foundation of New York's pre-eminent cultural institutions.<br />The Great East River Bridge during the gilded age era.<br />
Episode 3. Sunshine and Shadow, 1865-1898<br />In a city of tenements packed with cheap foreign labor from dozens of nations, the city was a hotbed of revolution. <br />The upper classes used partisan hand-outs, organized crime groups, heavy handed policing and political oppression to undermine groups which refused to be co-opted. <br />Groups such as ant capitalist labor unions, native American patriot organizations such as the American Protective Association, and reformers of all stripes were fiercely repressed, while crime lords that became too independent disappeared.<br />The Brooklyn Bridge in 1877<br />
Episode 3. Sunshine and Shadow, 1865-1898<br />The modern city of New York — the five boroughs — was created in 1898, with the consolidation of the cities of New York, now called Manhattan and the Bronx, and Brooklyn with the largely then-rural areas of Queens and Staten Island.<br />The Brooklyn Bridge completed in 1883epitomized the heroic confidence of a generation and tied the two cities of Brooklyn and New York inexorably together, and as in the decade from1886 to 1896 Brooklyn annexed the remainder of Kings County, the issue grew more pressing.<br />The five boroughs of New York<br />
A Merger That Puts New York on Top, by Mike Clough<br />The issue with America Online is its ability to dominate the American global information economy. The key factors that could end in failure to this would be Southern California, the Bay Area and Redmond Washington. The decision at hand is buying Time Warner.<br />Over the course of U.S. history, New York has faced a series of challenges to its status as the national metropole.<br />the digital-Internet revolution poses a more serious challenge to New York's national economic hegemony. Not only is this revolution creating new industries and sources of wealth, but it also is fundamentally changing the nature of the national economic equation in ways that reduce the weight of Manhattan's historic advantages.<br />
The City in the Land of the DollarWlTOLDRYBCZYNSKI<br />Rybczynski focuses on what American cities are, instead of what they are not and he starts by talking about Chicago, the fastest growing city in the United States and the one that best embodied the raw energy, the technological innovations, and the contrasts between wealth and poverty in American urban life.<br />The Chicago skyline.<br />
The City in the Land of the DollarWlTOLD RYBCZYNSK<br />Chicago is also a city of factories, granaries and slaughterhouses, which grew at an excessive rate because of the Great Lakes and the nation’s railroad network.<br />The Great Fire of 1871 destroyed Chicago’s business center, yet downtown Chicago was rebuilt with the latest technology, overcoming such a tragic event in American history.<br />Great Fire of 1871<br />
The City in the Land of the DollarWlTOLD RYBCZYNSK<br />The Chicago Fair inspired the "City Beautiful" movement, a push by planners and other professionals to make over Chicago and other American cities in the image of great European capitals like Paris.<br />In Rybczynski'shands this movement's history becomes a telling parable of the clash between the Old World and the New, the city beautiful and the city profitable. In the end, he says, the civic beautifiers lost because they were unable "to face up to the reality of the American city," a reality better represented by highways, skyscrapers, and gridded streets than grand boulevards and civic buildings. But the early-twentieth-century reformers did leave behind impressive parks, museums, and civic centers for later generations to enjoy. <br />Architecture from the City Beautiful Movement<br />
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