One of the most famous misconceptions in cartographic history is of California as an island. The origin of this error is Las Sergas de Esplandian, a romantic novel written in 1510 by Garci Rodriguez de Montalvo, stating“that on the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California very close to the side of the Terrestrial Paradise; and it is peopled by black women, without any man among them, for they live in the manner of the Amazons.” This idealized view of California as a kind of Garden of Eden at the edge of the known world was negated by Father Eusebio Kino’s expedition from 1698 to 1701. Kino proved that Baja California, the (currently Mexican) peninsula which runs parallel to the mainland for hundreds of miles, is connected to it in the north.Island of California 1510
California was created by the collision of the North American and Pacific Plates. The state is 158,693 square miles. While the shoreline stretches 1,264 miles across the Pacific coastline. The California-born philosopher and historian, Josiah Royce, has observed California and says that there is nothing subtle about the landforms and landscapes of California. Everything is scaled in bold and heroic arrangements that are easily understood. California’s shoreline
BadwaterLake in Death The highest point in Valley and California is Mount Mt. Whitney Whitney, just 60 miles away is the lowest point, Death Valley, which is 262 feet below sea level. The temperature in Death Valley can reach up to 134 degrees Fahrenheit, as recorded July 10th, 1913. There are two seasons in this region; wet and dry.
In 1857, an earthquake shook the Tejon Pass in S. California, in 1872 Owens Valley shook, in 1906 San Francisco shook, Long Beach in 1933, San Fernando Valley in 1971, San Francisco again in 1989, and again in San Fernando in 1994. California is well-known for its earthquakes, since it is filled with Most common fault: many faults. San Andreas Fault
Because California is mountain country, it is bear country as well. Native Americans considered grizzly bears to be another form of humans, and treated this animal with respect. The California flag has aHistoric Bear Flag raised at Sonoma on bear on it, in honor ofJune 14, 1846, by a group of Americansettlers in revolt against Mexican rule. the grizzly bear whichThe flag was designed by William Todd once inhabited thison a piece of new unbleached cotton. The region in large numbers.star imitated the lone star of Texas. Agrizzly bear represented the many bearsseen in the state.
In its first three decades, the newly established state of California invented and reinvented itself through law, politics, institution building, agriculture and the construction of a trans-Sierra railroad. In the strife-ridden 1870’s, California approached abyss, flirted with self-destruction, then regrouped. On the last five years of Mexican governance, there had been a flurry of land grants, many of them vague and indeterminate. On April 13, 1849, Halleck filed a report questioning the validity of many land grants. And in fall of 1850, many riots broke out when the sheriff sought to evict squatters from the lots. First railroad in the West
For the rest of the century, much of California would remain resistant to small farming. The vast domains of the ranch might pass from Mexican to Yankee ownership, but these extensive landholdings, together with the quasi- feudal economy theyAgriculture in the late 1800’s encouraged, continued to dictate the structure of California agriculture.
Despite the humiliation and the continuing efforts to dismantle it, California- volatile, uncertain, a continuing question- survived and continued the development of its institutional life. Construction of Sacramento Between 1850 and 1854, the capital of the state was moved around San Francisco Bay from San José to Vallejo, back to Vallejo then to Sacramento, then back to Vallejo, then to Benicia, then permanently to Sacramento.
In 1851, Jesuit missionaries from northern Italy founded the firstWesleyan College, today college at Mission Santa Clara. Soon after, the Methodists opened California Wesleyan college in San José. In 1852, the first female seminary, later Mills College, opened in Benicia.
In 185, the legislature commenced plans to build a state prison at Point San Quentin on San Francisco Bay in Marin County, where the prison ship Waban, housing 152 convicts, was already anchored. Architect Reuben Clark, a veteran of Charles Bulfinch’s studio in Boston, was chosen to design the structure. By 1854, the first cell block- called “the stones”- was ready for occupancy. Point San Quentin It remained in use until 1959. California’s oldest prison
The first 40 years of statehood saw California organize its political and socioeconomic structures and lay the foundation of its built environment. The dams, adeqducts, reservoirs, power plants, industrial sites, bridges, roadways, publicDams being built buildings, and stadiums created during this second phase served the growing population of the state.
Irrigation was a reorganization of nature, and all such reordering had their risks. In October 1904, the California Development Company cut a second canal from the western bank of the Colorado across The start of irrigation northern Mexico into the Imperial Valley.
After the 1906 earthquake struck in San Francisco , arch were on hand for the rebuilding of the city between 1906 and 1909. Yet the buildings that were built were able to withstand the quake. However, these new structures had to be observed again and repaired. After the earthquake in San Francisco
South of San Francisco, in the townships of Burlingame, San Mateo, Menlo Park, Atherton, and Woodside, the Italianate or neo-Gothic villas of the nineteenth century had been succeeded by a second generation of estates designed in the Beaux Arts style for the elegant rustication of Bay Area elites. These stately homes-for which architect Willis Polk’s “Filioli” (1916) in San Mateo County, designed for mining and water company heir William Bowers Bourn II, can easily serve as a summation and concluding paradigm-more than fulfilled Bayard Taylor’s prediction in 1850 that the peninsula south of San Francisco was destined to develop as a Tuscan landscape of villas, cypresses, lawns, flowers and fountains. Mediterranean Revival style was also a characteristic of the newly developing neighborhoods of San Francisco.1900’s houses in San Fran
Newcomers fled to California, mainly from the Midwest. Nine tenths of Los Angelinos by 1926, for example, were of European descent. On the other hand, the city supported challenge but persistent Japanese American, Mexican American, and African American Lombard Street in San Fran communities. Between 1910 and 1924, 30,000 Japanese women migrated to the U.S most of them for marriages arranged according to ancient Japanese custom to issei, fist generation immigrants.