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Chapter-3Chapter-3
Software Concepts
COMPUTER’S KEY INGREDIENTSCOMPUTER’S KEY INGREDIENTS
BASIC COMPUTER PARTSBASIC COMPUTER PARTS
COMPUTER’S KEY INGREDIENTSCOMPUTER’S KEY INGREDIENTS
SOFTWARE- Set of programs. Can be
stored in storage devices eg. Phot...
SOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORYSOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORY
SOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORYSOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORY
LOW LEVEL LANGUAGES (LLL’s)
Machine language
◦ Made up of 0s and 1s (bin...
HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES(HLL’s)
o Similar to english
o Easy to code
o Machine independent
o Translator program-compiler used ...
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURECOMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
TYPES OF SOFTWARETYPES OF SOFTWARE
SYSTEM SOFTWARESYSTEM SOFTWARE
APPLICATION SOFTWAREAPPLICATION SOFTWARE
UTILITY SOFTWAREUTILITY SOFTWARE
OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWAREOTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE
ASSEMBLER
◦ Assembler converts assembly language into
binary language
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGEASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
◦ An assembly language program contains a
symbolic operation code and a symbolic
addres...
OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWAREOTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE
COMPILER
◦ Compiler converts high level language into
binary language
◦ Conver...
TRANSLATION PROCESSTRANSLATION PROCESS
POINTS TO REMEMBERPOINTS TO REMEMBER
Linker links the object code to create
machine executable program
Source program an...
OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWAREOTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE
INTERPRETER
◦ Provides program execution
environment
◦ Interpreter interprets ...
COMPILER VS INTERPRETERCOMPILER VS INTERPRETER
COMPILER OPERATION INTERPRETER OPERATION
OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWAREOTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE
LOADERS & LINKERS
◦ System software that combines different program
modules or...
UTILITY SOFTWAREUTILITY SOFTWARE
ANTI VIRUS
◦ Identifies and removes the virus
HOW VIRUS WORKS??? LET’SHOW VIRUS WORKS??? LET’S
TAKE A LOOK…TAKE A LOOK…
BOOT SECTOR VIRUSBOOT SECTOR VIRUS
BOOT SECTOR VIRUSBOOT SECTOR VIRUS
◦ Displaces boot record and copies itself on the
boot sector
◦ Cannot be overwritten by...
WORKING OF ANTI VIRUSWORKING OF ANTI VIRUS
◦ Reads boot sector and refers to its virus
directory
◦ Virus is detected if du...
FILE VIRUSFILE VIRUS
◦ Attacks executable files
◦ Every executable file has a data part and an
instruction part
X X X X
◦ ...
FILE VIRUSFILE VIRUS
◦ File virus attaches itself at the end of the exe file eg at
address YYYY
◦ Modifies jump instructio...
WORKING OF ANTI VIRUSWORKING OF ANTI VIRUS
◦ Reads the first instruction ie jump YYYY and
refers to its virus directory
◦ ...
WORKING OF ANTI VIRUSWORKING OF ANTI VIRUS
o Finally it takes the actual address XXXX of the
start of the executable progr...
OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…
OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…
MACRO VIRUS
◦ MS-Office and Open Office deals with macros
◦ Macros help ...
OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…
E-MAIL VIRUS
◦ Infects the e-mail system by attaching itself as
a messag...
OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…
TROJAN HORSE
◦ Got its name from the famous story of
Greeks attacking th...
OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…
WORM
◦ Keeps on replicating itself on the network
◦ Looks for security h...
WORKING OF ANTI VIRUSWORKING OF ANTI VIRUS
◦ Acts like a security guard and checks for any
suspicious activity
◦ Flags the...
DISK MANAGEMENT TOOLSDISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS
DISK MANAGEMENT TOOLSDISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS
DISK DEFRAGMENTER
◦ Due to lack of continuous memory space on
the disk, files ...
DISK DEFRAGMENTATION…..DISK DEFRAGMENTATION…..
DISK MANAGEMENT TOOLSDISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS
DISK CLEANER
◦ Checks for the inactive files on the disk
◦ Prompts the user if...
DISK CLEANER…..DISK CLEANER…..
DISK MANAGEMENT TOOLSDISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS
BACKUP
◦ Copies the important data from hard disk /
CD / any storage device
◦ ...
BACKUP PROCESS…..BACKUP PROCESS…..
BACKUP SOFTWARE FOR OUTLOOK
FILE MANAGEMENT TOOLSFILE MANAGEMENT TOOLS
o SOME TOOLS AT GLANCE…..
◦ Windows explorer
◦ Google desktop
◦ VCOM power disk...
FILE MANAGEMENT TOOLSFILE MANAGEMENT TOOLS
o FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY THESE
TOOLS…..
◦ Storage
◦ Indexing
◦ Searching
◦ Sort...
APPLICATION SOFTWAREAPPLICATION SOFTWARE
WORD PROCESSOR
◦ Documentation software to create
presentable documents
◦ WYSIWY...
WORD PROCESSOR VENDOR
WINDOWS BASED
• MS-WORD XP
• MS WORD 2007
• WORD PERFECT
• AMI PRO
• OPEN OFFICE-WRITER
MICROSOFT
MI...
SCREEN SHOT- WORD 2007SCREEN SHOT- WORD 2007
SCREEN SHOT- OPENOFFICESCREEN SHOT- OPENOFFICE
WRITERWRITER
APPLICATION SOFTWAREAPPLICATION SOFTWARE
SPREADSHEET PACKAGE
◦ Also known as ESS (Electronic Spreadsheet
Software) progra...
SPREADSHEET MANUFACTURER COMPATIBLE
PLATFORM
1-2-3 LOTUS DEVELOPMENT • Apple Macintosh
• IBM microcomputers
EXCEL MICROSOF...
SCREEN SHOT- EXCEL 2007SCREEN SHOT- EXCEL 2007
SCREEN SHOT- OPENOFFICESCREEN SHOT- OPENOFFICE
CALCCALC
APPLICATION SOFTWAREAPPLICATION SOFTWARE
BUSINESS SOFTWARE
◦ Used in commercial organizations
◦ Some popular business sof...
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  • Transcript of "Chapter 3"

    1. 1. Chapter-3Chapter-3 Software Concepts
    2. 2. COMPUTER’S KEY INGREDIENTSCOMPUTER’S KEY INGREDIENTS
    3. 3. BASIC COMPUTER PARTSBASIC COMPUTER PARTS
    4. 4. COMPUTER’S KEY INGREDIENTSCOMPUTER’S KEY INGREDIENTS SOFTWARE- Set of programs. Can be stored in storage devices eg. Photoshop etc. HARDWARE- physical components eg. monitor, mouse, motherboard etc. FIRMWARE-software that are permanently stored in an electronic device eg. ROM LIVEWARE- people who use the computer eg. users, programmers, coders
    5. 5. SOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORYSOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORY
    6. 6. SOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORYSOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORY LOW LEVEL LANGUAGES (LLL’s) Machine language ◦ Made up of 0s and 1s (binary code) ◦ Difficult to understand ◦ Difficult to code ◦ Deals with absolute memory addresses Assembly language (early 1950’s) ◦ Uses mnemonic/symbolic codes ◦ Uses assembler for conversion to binary code ◦ Machine dependent(1:1 correspondence b/w assembly & machine instructions) ◦ Deals with symbolic memory addresses
    7. 7. HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES(HLL’s) o Similar to english o Easy to code o Machine independent o Translator program-compiler used for conversion to binary code o Eg. COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL SOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORYSOFTWARE-A BRIEF HISTORY
    8. 8. COMPUTER ARCHITECTURECOMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
    9. 9. TYPES OF SOFTWARETYPES OF SOFTWARE
    10. 10. SYSTEM SOFTWARESYSTEM SOFTWARE
    11. 11. APPLICATION SOFTWAREAPPLICATION SOFTWARE
    12. 12. UTILITY SOFTWAREUTILITY SOFTWARE
    13. 13. OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWAREOTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE ASSEMBLER ◦ Assembler converts assembly language into binary language
    14. 14. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGEASSEMBLY LANGUAGE ◦ An assembly language program contains a symbolic operation code and a symbolic address: OP-CODE OPERAND LOAD A (load A into the accumulator) SUB L (subtract L from the accumulator) STORE B (store the contents of accumulator to B) ◦ It uses symbolic memory addresses ◦ It is machine dependent-does not run on different machines.
    15. 15. OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWAREOTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE COMPILER ◦ Compiler converts high level language into binary language ◦ Converts source code(written in HLL) to object code(computer’s language) ◦ Checks the whole code at once, not line wise ◦ Eg. Turbo C++ compiler
    16. 16. TRANSLATION PROCESSTRANSLATION PROCESS
    17. 17. POINTS TO REMEMBERPOINTS TO REMEMBER Linker links the object code to create machine executable program Source program and executable program are same Source program doesn’t run in a computer but the translated executable program runs
    18. 18. OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWAREOTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE INTERPRETER ◦ Provides program execution environment ◦ Interpreter interprets the source code and executes it. ◦ Interprets the code line wise ◦ Examined code is decoded ◦ Executed through equivalent sequence of machine code ◦ Eg. GW Basic interpreter
    19. 19. COMPILER VS INTERPRETERCOMPILER VS INTERPRETER COMPILER OPERATION INTERPRETER OPERATION
    20. 20. OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWAREOTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE LOADERS & LINKERS ◦ System software that combines different program modules or functions into machine language program is LINKER ◦ System software that moves the executable code from magnetic storage to the main memory is LOADER Loader LINKER OPERATION
    21. 21. UTILITY SOFTWAREUTILITY SOFTWARE ANTI VIRUS ◦ Identifies and removes the virus
    22. 22. HOW VIRUS WORKS??? LET’SHOW VIRUS WORKS??? LET’S TAKE A LOOK…TAKE A LOOK…
    23. 23. BOOT SECTOR VIRUSBOOT SECTOR VIRUS
    24. 24. BOOT SECTOR VIRUSBOOT SECTOR VIRUS ◦ Displaces boot record and copies itself on the boot sector ◦ Cannot be overwritten by any other program ◦ During booting the copy of virus is loaded in the main memory ◦ Virus passes control to the boot record, thus infecting the OS ◦ Any new disk inserted also gets infected in the same way and it goes on…
    25. 25. WORKING OF ANTI VIRUSWORKING OF ANTI VIRUS ◦ Reads boot sector and refers to its virus directory ◦ Virus is detected if during search, any definition matches its directory ◦ Overwrites the correct boot record over the infected one ◦ Marks bad sector as clean ◦ Keeps an eye on all activities ◦ Scans any peripheral attached
    26. 26. FILE VIRUSFILE VIRUS ◦ Attacks executable files ◦ Every executable file has a data part and an instruction part X X X X ◦ The first instruction makes the control jump on the specified address ie address of the start of instruction part of the program ◦ Data part of the exe file is not entered into
    27. 27. FILE VIRUSFILE VIRUS ◦ File virus attaches itself at the end of the exe file eg at address YYYY ◦ Modifies jump instruction from XXXX to YYYY ◦ YYYY is the address of virus, where control will jump ◦ Now virus will be activated in main memory ◦ The last statement of virus JUMP XXXX will be inserted and program starts executing X X X X Y Y Y Y
    28. 28. WORKING OF ANTI VIRUSWORKING OF ANTI VIRUS ◦ Reads the first instruction ie jump YYYY and refers to its virus directory ◦ If virus is detected then it does one of the following:-  Repairs the file-removes virus code after address YYYY  Isolates the file –no one can access it  Deletes the file
    29. 29. WORKING OF ANTI VIRUSWORKING OF ANTI VIRUS o Finally it takes the actual address XXXX of the start of the executable program o First statement jumps to address XXXX X X X X Y Y Y Y 1 3 2 Infected file Virus code removed and first statement modified
    30. 30. OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…
    31. 31. OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES… MACRO VIRUS ◦ MS-Office and Open Office deals with macros ◦ Macros help automating tasks ◦ Macro virus infects the normal.dot file of MS- Word. This file stores the default settings such as font, font size, file content etc. ◦ Damages the formatting ◦ Doesn’t allow editing of the document ◦ Sometimes doesn’t allow saving the file
    32. 32. OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES… E-MAIL VIRUS ◦ Infects the e-mail system by attaching itself as a message ◦ Picks up addresses and sends fabricated messages ◦ This way it keeps replicating
    33. 33. OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES… TROJAN HORSE ◦ Got its name from the famous story of Greeks attacking the city of Troy ◦ Generally comes along with games ◦ When the games is run, it becomes activated
    34. 34. OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES…OTHER IMPORTANT VIRUSES… WORM ◦ Keeps on replicating itself on the network ◦ Looks for security holes on the machines attached to the network
    35. 35. WORKING OF ANTI VIRUSWORKING OF ANTI VIRUS ◦ Acts like a security guard and checks for any suspicious activity ◦ Flags the suspicious program ◦ Scans the computer ◦ Identifies and repairs the infected files
    36. 36. DISK MANAGEMENT TOOLSDISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS
    37. 37. DISK MANAGEMENT TOOLSDISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS DISK DEFRAGMENTER ◦ Due to lack of continuous memory space on the disk, files are stored in fragments ◦ Some fragments get spilled over to other cylinders ◦ File access becomes slow-as movement of cylinder head from one cylinder to another is a slow task ◦ Disk defragmenter brings all the fragments together
    38. 38. DISK DEFRAGMENTATION…..DISK DEFRAGMENTATION…..
    39. 39. DISK MANAGEMENT TOOLSDISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS DISK CLEANER ◦ Checks for the inactive files on the disk ◦ Prompts the user if these files have occupied large space ◦ User may delete or take back up of these files
    40. 40. DISK CLEANER…..DISK CLEANER…..
    41. 41. DISK MANAGEMENT TOOLSDISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS BACKUP ◦ Copies the important data from hard disk / CD / any storage device ◦ Stores it on another disk- called backup disk ◦ In case of system disk failure/accidental loss, backup file can be restored using backup facility
    42. 42. BACKUP PROCESS…..BACKUP PROCESS….. BACKUP SOFTWARE FOR OUTLOOK
    43. 43. FILE MANAGEMENT TOOLSFILE MANAGEMENT TOOLS o SOME TOOLS AT GLANCE….. ◦ Windows explorer ◦ Google desktop ◦ VCOM power disk pro ◦ Free commander
    44. 44. FILE MANAGEMENT TOOLSFILE MANAGEMENT TOOLS o FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY THESE TOOLS….. ◦ Storage ◦ Indexing ◦ Searching ◦ Sorting
    45. 45. APPLICATION SOFTWAREAPPLICATION SOFTWARE WORD PROCESSOR ◦ Documentation software to create presentable documents ◦ WYSIWYG type- What you see is what you get ◦ Features like auto error correction, spell check, grammar check etc.
    46. 46. WORD PROCESSOR VENDOR WINDOWS BASED • MS-WORD XP • MS WORD 2007 • WORD PERFECT • AMI PRO • OPEN OFFICE-WRITER MICROSOFT MICROSOFT WORD PERFECT CORP. LOTUS DEVELOPMENT SUN MICROSYSTEMS LINUX / UNIX BASED • Vi EDITOR PART OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM APPLE MACINTOSH BASED • MAC WRITE • WORD • WRITE NOW • WORD PERFECT • OPEN OFFICE- WRITER CLARIS SOFTWARE MICROSOFT T/MAKER WORD PERFECT CORP SUN MICROSYSTEMS
    47. 47. SCREEN SHOT- WORD 2007SCREEN SHOT- WORD 2007
    48. 48. SCREEN SHOT- OPENOFFICESCREEN SHOT- OPENOFFICE WRITERWRITER
    49. 49. APPLICATION SOFTWAREAPPLICATION SOFTWARE SPREADSHEET PACKAGE ◦ Also known as ESS (Electronic Spreadsheet Software) program ◦ Matrix sheet made up of rows and columns ◦ Intersection of a row and column is a cell ◦ Each cell is identified by its cell address ◦ Visi Calc was the first spreadsheet package followed by Lotus 1-2-3, MS Excel
    50. 50. SPREADSHEET MANUFACTURER COMPATIBLE PLATFORM 1-2-3 LOTUS DEVELOPMENT • Apple Macintosh • IBM microcomputers EXCEL MICROSOFT • Apple Macintosh • IBM microcomputers IMPROV LOTUS DEVELOPMENT • IBM-compatible QUATTRO PRO BORLAND • IBM-compatible
    51. 51. SCREEN SHOT- EXCEL 2007SCREEN SHOT- EXCEL 2007
    52. 52. SCREEN SHOT- OPENOFFICESCREEN SHOT- OPENOFFICE CALCCALC
    53. 53. APPLICATION SOFTWAREAPPLICATION SOFTWARE BUSINESS SOFTWARE ◦ Used in commercial organizations ◦ Some popular business software are:  Inventory management system  Payroll system  Financial accounting
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