Report Interpretation
By Matt McMahon
Oil Analysis
Lubricant
Condition
Contaminants
Machine
Wear
Normal with PC
Normal with WP
Viscosity
• Measured by Viscometer
– ASTM D-445
– Reported as Kinematic Viscosity in
Centistokes (cSt)
• Industrial oils m...
Viscosity Limits
• Marginal Limits
– Viscosity should be within 10% (+ or -) of specified
grade to be in spec
– Example:
•...
Elemental Spectroscopy
Measures the
concentration of wear
metals, contaminants,
and additives in a
lubricant.
Spectroscopy
• 20 elements measured
– Wear metals
– Contaminants
– Additives
• Reported in parts per million (ppm)
• Measu...
Wear Metal Sources
• Iron (Fe)
– Shafts, Gears, Housings, Piston Rings, Cylinder Walls
• Copper (Cu)
– Brass/Bronze alloys...
Wear Metal Sources
• Aluminum (Al)
– Pumps, Trust Washers, Pistons
• Chromium (Cr)
– Roller Bearings, Piston Rings, Cylind...
Wear Metal Limits
• Limits should be based on trends
– Sudden increases indicate problems
• Operational conditions can eff...
Contaminants
• Silicon (Si)
– Airborne Dust & Dirt, Defoamant Additive
• Boron (B)
– Anti Corrosion in Coolants
• Potassiu...
Additives
• Magnesium (Mg)
– Detergent Additive
• Barium (Ba)
– Rust & Corrosion Inhibitor
• Calcium (Ca)
– Detergent/Disp...
Karl Fischer Water
• Karl Fischer Titrator
• ASTM D-6304
• Reported in % or ppm
• Dissolved, emulsified
or free water
Quan...
Sources of Water
• Condensation
• External contamination
– Breathers
– Seals
– Reservoir covers
• Internal leaks
– Heat ex...
FT-IR Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer
Measures the
chemical
composition of a
lubricant
FT-IR Spectroscopy
• Oil Degradation by chemical change
– Oxidation
– Nitration
• Contamination
– Soot
– Glycol
Report wit...
• Additive Depletion
– When additives deplete, they are typically still present
– Atomic Spectroscopy will indicate their ...
Acid Number
• Measurement of acidic
constituents in the oil
• Reported as AN
• ASTM D-974
• Indicator of oil serviceabilit...
• AN is lowest when an oil is new*, and
increases with use
• AN of a used oil is typically compared to the
original AN
• O...
Particle Count
Measures the size
and quantity of
particles in a
lubricant
Light
Blockage
Flow Decay
Flow Decay Method
• Also called pore blockage
• Passed through 5, 10 or 15
micron screen filter
• Flow decay is recorded
–...
Particle Count
• Particle Counts are broken down into
6 size ranges
> 4 microns > 25 microns
> 6 microns > 50 microns
> 14...
ISO 4406 Cleanliness Code
>4>4 19451945
>6>6 826826
>14>14 8888
>25 21
>50 2
>100 0
ISO 18/17/14
Report with High PC - AF
Wear Particle Concentration
• 10ml of sample is placed in a syringe
• Syringe is placed in the analyzer
• Analyzer measure...
Wear Particle Concentration
Wear Particle Concentration
• Results are reported in parts per million of
ferrous content
Report high WPC
Report high Iro...
Questions
Answers
&
Matt McMahon CLS
Senior Data Analyst
matt@testoil.com
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Oil Analysis Report Interpretation

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The oil analysis report is a vital tool for a smooth running operation. Going deeper than the report summaries and knowing how to analyze the oil analysis report can help prevent equipment breakdown and unnecessary equipment teardowns. During this educational webinar you will learn from industry expert, Dwon Ruffin, his process for reviewing and analyzing oil analysis reports. Dwon will review some of the most common tests run on industrial equipment and teach you how to read test reports. He will also walk you through marginal and critical reports and teach you how to decipher various alarms. You will walk away with an improved knowledge of oil analysis report interpretation.

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Transcript of "Oil Analysis Report Interpretation"

  1. 1. Report Interpretation By Matt McMahon
  2. 2. Oil Analysis Lubricant Condition Contaminants Machine Wear Normal with PC Normal with WP
  3. 3. Viscosity • Measured by Viscometer – ASTM D-445 – Reported as Kinematic Viscosity in Centistokes (cSt) • Industrial oils measured at 40ºC • Engine oils measured at 100ºC Measure of a lubricants resistance to flow at a specific temperature.
  4. 4. Viscosity Limits • Marginal Limits – Viscosity should be within 10% (+ or -) of specified grade to be in spec – Example: • ISO VG 100 oil should be between 90 and 110 cSt @ 40º • Critical Limits – When the viscosity falls greater than 20% (+ or -) of the specified grade, action should be taken. – Example: • ISO VG 100 <80 or >120 cSt @ 40º Report with Viscosity Issue
  5. 5. Elemental Spectroscopy Measures the concentration of wear metals, contaminants, and additives in a lubricant.
  6. 6. Spectroscopy • 20 elements measured – Wear metals – Contaminants – Additives • Reported in parts per million (ppm) • Measures metals in solution • Solid debris below 7 microns in size • Blind to larger particles
  7. 7. Wear Metal Sources • Iron (Fe) – Shafts, Gears, Housings, Piston Rings, Cylinder Walls • Copper (Cu) – Brass/Bronze alloys, Bearings, Bushings, Thrust Washers • Lead (Pb) – Bearings, Anti-Wear Gear Additive (Rare) – Tin (Sn) – Bearing Alloys, Bearing Cages, Solder
  8. 8. Wear Metal Sources • Aluminum (Al) – Pumps, Trust Washers, Pistons • Chromium (Cr) – Roller Bearings, Piston Rings, Cylinder Walls • Nickel (Ni) – Pumps, Gear Platings, Valves • Silver (Ag) – Some Bearings
  9. 9. Wear Metal Limits • Limits should be based on trends – Sudden increases indicate problems • Operational conditions can effect wear metal levels – Oil changes, break-in periods, loading • OEM Recommendations Report with Wear
  10. 10. Contaminants • Silicon (Si) – Airborne Dust & Dirt, Defoamant Additive • Boron (B) – Anti Corrosion in Coolants • Potassium – Coolant Additive • Sodium – Detergent Additive, Coolant Additive Report with Contaminants
  11. 11. Additives • Magnesium (Mg) – Detergent Additive • Barium (Ba) – Rust & Corrosion Inhibitor • Calcium (Ca) – Detergent/Dispersant Additive • Zinc (Zn) – Anti-wear Additive • Phosphorus (P) – Anti-Wear Additive, EP Gear Additive • Molybdenum (Mo) – Extreme Pressure Additive Report with Additive Issues
  12. 12. Karl Fischer Water • Karl Fischer Titrator • ASTM D-6304 • Reported in % or ppm • Dissolved, emulsified or free water Quantifies the amount of water in the lubricant.
  13. 13. Sources of Water • Condensation • External contamination – Breathers – Seals – Reservoir covers • Internal leaks – Heat exchangers – Water jackets Report with Water Report with Water – V40
  14. 14. FT-IR Spectroscopy Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer Measures the chemical composition of a lubricant
  15. 15. FT-IR Spectroscopy • Oil Degradation by chemical change – Oxidation – Nitration • Contamination – Soot – Glycol Report with Oxidation
  16. 16. • Additive Depletion – When additives deplete, they are typically still present – Atomic Spectroscopy will indicate their presence, yet they can be chemically inert – Decreased signal strength in the IR Spectrum will reveal excess additive depletion FT-IR Spectroscopy
  17. 17. Acid Number • Measurement of acidic constituents in the oil • Reported as AN • ASTM D-974 • Indicator of oil serviceability – Oil oxidation & degradation produces acidic by-products
  18. 18. • AN is lowest when an oil is new*, and increases with use • AN of a used oil is typically compared to the original AN • Oils with higher levels of additives will generally have a higher AN • Typical AN Values on new oils: o R&O Oil - 0.03 o AW Oil - 0.4 o EP Oil - 0.6 o Engine Oil - 1.6 Acid Number Report with AN issues New Oil Example
  19. 19. Particle Count Measures the size and quantity of particles in a lubricant Light Blockage Flow Decay
  20. 20. Flow Decay Method • Also called pore blockage • Passed through 5, 10 or 15 micron screen filter • Flow decay is recorded – Particle counts are extrapolated – No interference from water or entrained air Filter
  21. 21. Particle Count • Particle Counts are broken down into 6 size ranges > 4 microns > 25 microns > 6 microns > 50 microns > 14 microns >100 microns • Reported as particles per milliliter
  22. 22. ISO 4406 Cleanliness Code >4>4 19451945 >6>6 826826 >14>14 8888 >25 21 >50 2 >100 0 ISO 18/17/14 Report with High PC - AF
  23. 23. Wear Particle Concentration • 10ml of sample is placed in a syringe • Syringe is placed in the analyzer • Analyzer measures changes in magnetic flux to measure ferrous content • No particle size limit
  24. 24. Wear Particle Concentration
  25. 25. Wear Particle Concentration • Results are reported in parts per million of ferrous content Report high WPC Report high Iron Report Final
  26. 26. Questions Answers & Matt McMahon CLS Senior Data Analyst matt@testoil.com

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