Oil Analysis Report Interpretation

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The oil analysis report is a vital tool for a smooth running operation. Going deeper than the report summaries and knowing how to analyze the oil analysis report can help prevent equipment breakdown and unnecessary equipment teardowns. During this educational webinar you will learn from analyst, Dwon Ruffin, his process for reviewing and analyzing oil analysis reports. Dwon will review some of the most common tests run on industrial equipment and teach you how to read test reports. He will also walk you through marginal and critical reports and teach you how to decipher various alarms. You will walk away with an improved knowledge of oil analysis report interpretation.

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Oil Analysis Report Interpretation

  1. 1. Report Interpretation By Dwon Ruffin
  2. 2. Normal with PC Oil Analysis Normal with WP Lubricant Condition Contaminants Machine Wear
  3. 3. Viscosity Measure of a lubricants resistance to flow at a specific temperature. • Measured by Viscometer – ASTM D-445 – Reported as Kinematic Viscosity in Centistokes (cSt) • • Industrial oils measured at 40ºC Engine oils measured at 100ºC
  4. 4. Viscosity Limits Report with Viscosity Issue • Marginal Limits – Viscosity should be within 10% (+ or -) of specified grade to be in spec – Example: • ISO VG 100 oil should be between 90 and 110 cSt @ 40º • Critical Limits – When the viscosity falls greater than 20% (+ or -) of the specified grade, action should be taken. – Example: • ISO VG 100 <80 or >120 cSt @ 40º
  5. 5. Elemental Spectroscopy Measures the concentration of wear metals, contaminants, and additives in a lubricant.
  6. 6. Spectroscopy • 20 elements measured – Wear metals – Contaminants – Additives • • • • Reported in parts per million (ppm) Measures metals in solution Solid debris below 7 microns in size Blind to larger particles
  7. 7. Wear Metal Sources • Iron (Fe) – Shafts, Gears, Housings, Piston Rings, Cylinder Walls • Copper (Cu) – Brass/Bronze alloys, Bearings, Bushings, Thrust Washers • Lead (Pb) – Bearings, Anti-Wear Gear Additive (Rare) – Tin (Sn) – Bearing Alloys, Bearing Cages, Solder
  8. 8. Wear Metal Sources • Aluminum (Al) – Pumps, Trust Washers, Pistons • Chromium (Cr) – Roller Bearings, Piston Rings, Cylinder Walls • Nickel (Ni) – Pumps, Gear Platings, Valves • Silver (Ag) – Some Bearings
  9. 9. Wear Metal Limits • Limits should be based on trends – Sudden increases indicate problems • Operational conditions can effect wear metal levels – Oil changes, break-in periods, loading • OEM Recommendations Report with Wear
  10. 10. Contaminants • Silicon (Si) – Airborne Dust & Dirt, Defoamant Additive • Boron (B) – Anti Corrosion in Coolants • Potassium – Coolant Additive • Sodium – Detergent Additive, Coolant Additive Report with Contaminants
  11. 11. Report with Additive Issues Additives • Magnesium (Mg) – Detergent Additive • Barium (Ba) – Rust & Corrosion Inhibitor • Calcium (Ca) – Detergent/Dispersant Additive • Zinc (Zn) – Anti-wear Additive • Phosphorus (P) – Anti-Wear Additive, EP Gear Additive • Molybdenum (Mo) – Extreme Pressure Additive
  12. 12. Karl Fischer Water Quantifies the amount of water in the lubricant. • • • • Karl Fischer Titrator ASTM D-6304 Reported in % or ppm Dissolved, emulsified or free water
  13. 13. Sources of Water • Condensation • External contamination – Breathers – Seals – Reservoir covers • Internal leaks – Heat exchangers – Water jackets Report with Water Report with Water – V40
  14. 14. FT-IR Spectroscopy Measures the chemical composition of a lubricant Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer
  15. 15. FT-IR Spectroscopy Report with Oxidation • Oil Degradation by chemical change – Oxidation – Nitration • Contamination – Soot – Glycol
  16. 16. FT-IR Spectroscopy • Additive Depletion – When additives deplete, they are typically still present – Atomic Spectroscopy will indicate their presence, yet they can be chemically inert – Decreased signal strength in the IR Spectrum will reveal excess additive depletion
  17. 17. Acid Number • Measurement of acidic constituents in the oil • Reported as AN • ASTM D-974 • Indicator of oil serviceability – Oil oxidation & degradation produces acidic by-products
  18. 18. Report with AN issues Acid Number New Oil Example • AN is lowest when an oil is new*, and increases with use • AN of a used oil is typically compared to the original AN • Oils with higher levels of additives will generally have a higher AN • Typical AN Values on new oils: o R&O Oil - 0.03 o AW Oil - 0.4 o EP Oil - 0.6 o Engine Oil - 1.6
  19. 19. Particle Count Measures the size and quantity of particles in a lubricant Light Blockage Flow Decay
  20. 20. Flow Decay Method • Also called pore blockage • Passed through 5, 10 or 15 micron screen filter • Flow decay is recorded Filter – Particle counts are extrapolated – No interference from water or entrained air
  21. 21. Particle Count • Particle Counts are broken down into 6 size ranges > 4 microns > 6 microns > 14 microns > 25 microns > 50 microns >100 microns • Reported as particles per milliliter
  22. 22. ISO 4406 Cleanliness Code Report with High PC - AF >4 1945 >6 826 >14 88 >25 21 >50 2 >100 0 ISO 18/17/14
  23. 23. Wear Particle Concentration • 10ml of sample is placed in a syringe • Syringe is placed in the analyzer • Analyzer measures changes in magnetic flux to measure ferrous content • No particle size limit
  24. 24. Wear Particle Concentration
  25. 25. Report high WPC Wear Particle Concentration Report high Iron Report Final • Results are reported in parts per million of ferrous content
  26. 26. Dwon Ruffin MLA 1 Data Analyst druffin@testoil.com & Questions Answers

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