Rocks and the Rock Cycle
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Rocks and the Rock Cycle






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  • 1. Creek beds, river banks, road cuts and railroad cuts, excavation sites, cliffs, beaches 2. Rock walls and buildings, brick buildings (made of clay), concrete buildings/ foot paths (made from limestone), glass windows (glass is made of sand), steel structures (Steel is made from iron ore).
  • Igneous Latin for fire, sedimentary Latin for settle
  • Intrusive rocks cool slowly underground. Extrusive rocks cool within a couple of weeks of reaching surface.
  • Igneous is Latin for fire
  • Latin for settle
  • Changes in appearance or mineral composition
  • Greek for change

Rocks and the Rock Cycle Rocks and the Rock Cycle Presentation Transcript

  • Rocks and the Rock Cycle Image source:
    • Can you think of some places where rocks and minerals can be found?
    • … and what about in cities or towns ?
    • Rocks and minerals are all around us.
    • It takes millions of years for rocks to form - we must use our natural resources wisely.
    • IGNEOUS (Latin for fire)
    • SEDIMENTARY (Latin for settle)
    • METAMORPHIC (Greek for change)
    Three Types of Rocks
    • Formed when magma (the molten rock that lies under the earth’s crust ) is forced to higher layers of the crust – cools & solidifies.
    • There are 2 types of igneous rocks – Intrusive & extrusive
    • INTRUSIVE - Formed when magma slowly solidifies inside earth. Takes thousands of years to harden. Not seen until surface rocks have been eroded away. Coarse-grained.
    • EXTRUSIVE – Formed when magma ERUPTS from volcanoes or escapes through cracks to form lava. Lava cools quickly – and forms into rocks. Fine-grained, e.g. Pumice and basalt.
    Igneous Rocks
    • Igneous rock is a volcanic rock that forms when magma cools and hardens. Intrusive igneous rock solidifies underground. Extrusive igneous rock solidifies above ground.
    DEFINITION Images source:
  • Igneous Rocks Earth’s Surface Molten Rock Volcanic eruption Igneous Rock LET’S VIEW A VOLCANIC ERRUPTION!!! Image source:
    • Erosion --> rocks and minerals break down into small pieces called sediments .
    • Carried by ‘the elements’ & deposited in river beds or sea beds.
    • Accumulate (build-up) in layers --> pressed together by weight of new sediments. Compressed sediments are ‘cemented’ & harden to form new rock.
    Sedimentary Rocks
    • Have you ever noticed layers or bands in rocks? These are the layers of sediment.
    • Examples:
    • Sandstone, limestone, chalk and shale
    • Fossils are often found in sedimentary rocks.
    • Why do you think this might be?
    Sedimentary Rocks
    • Sedimentary rock is a rock formed near Earth’s surface from pieces of other rocks, plant or animal remains, or by the build-up of chemical solids.
    DEFINITION Images source:
  • Sedimentary Rocks Weight and pressure of sediment particles Land Sea Image source:
    • Igneous and sedimentary rocks can be changed into a different kind of rock by extreme heat or pressure – the changed rock is called metamorphic rock.
    • Original rock may be forced into new arrangements, sometimes new minerals form.
    • Metamorphic rocks can also change again.
    • Examples:
    • Shale --> Slate Limestone --> Marble
    • Granite --> Granite gneiss Sandstone --> Quartzite
    Metamorphic Rocks
    • Metamorphic rock is a rock formed by the transformation of existing rock, as a result of extreme heat and/ or pressure.
    DEFINITION Images source:
  • Metamorphic Rocks Image source:
    • Animation of the rock cycle: =U7YQ5vwaL98&feature=related
    The Rock Cycle
    • Rock is constantly being changed by; heat, pressure, melting, crystallization, compaction, cementation and weathering.
    • Move rock material through the states of; melts, igneous rock, sediments, sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock.
    • This natural and ongoing cycle is known as the rock cycle .
  • Displayed on IWB for Learners to Label