Region Attitude Social groups Field of discourse Medium
People is SOCIAL influenced by a GROUP social groups (user)People live Is related to thein a region FIELD OF REGION activity in whichor have DISCURSE (user) people is involved,lived in a TYPES OF the speaker has aregion. VARIATION repertoire of varieties. (law, cookery, football) Is conditioned by the relationship of the ATTITUDE MEDIUM Can be: participants in the particular -Spoken Situational situation. The -Written variation of Depends on the attitude are proximity of the called “stylistic”. participants.
Dialects Geographical dispersionLinguistic variation. -Poor communication -Relative remoteness DIALECTS BECOMING SO DISTINCT Different languages E.G Germanic Dutch English German Swedish
LANGUAGES Variation in speech -Education, Socioeconomic group, Ethnic group, Age, Sex Uneducated Educated speech speech Regional use, form of EnglishNon standard regional dialect that cuts across regional boundaries
saw: Forms thatOutsider could not identify -New Englander see tend to be differences in -Pennsylvanian seen replaced by -Virginian seed “saw” with schooling Outsiders tend to use “school forms” Just it Educated expression “I SAW” English cuts regional form boundaries Has been outlawed from “I don’t want no cake” educated English, but Double negative people use it expression in uneducated speech, wherever English is spoken
“Educated English” Used in: Dictionaries, schools, grammars , guides to usage, printed matter Distinctive forms only a “STANDARD small class of words : ENGLISH” -colour -centre -levelledUniformity:-Orthography (leastimportant)-Spelling andpronunciation system
World-wide agreement is extraordinary It is increasing because of theGrammar and Vocabulary globalization -Cultural Uniformity in neutral or material formal style of written -non cultural material
BrE AmE Overwhelmingly predominantFew grammatical differences: There are more lexical differences:-AmE has two past participles for “get” -BrEradio sets has valves-BrE has only one -AmEradio sets have tubesBrE:-Singular verb may be used -BrE Television sets have tubes-Plural verb with collective -AmE noun -BrE Transitors and computer-AmE singular verb -AmE software Mass communication neutralizes differences
SCOTS Is nearly independent to BrE and AmE Has a highly independent set of lexical, ‘Lallans Scots grammatical, phonological and orthographical conventionIs a separated language than a regional dialect
HIBERNO ENGLISH OR IRISH ENGLISH National standard , independent of BrE by educational and broadcasting servicesCANADIAN ENGLISH Follows British rather than U.S -has a modest area of independent lexical useClose to AmE,economic, socialand intellectually
-Remote from AmE and BrESOUTH AFRICA -Educated use is identical with BrE NEW ZEALAND -Is more like BrE than any other non-European variety. -Has adopted words from indigenous Maoris -Has been influenced by Austria and U.S
AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH -Dominant form of English in the Antipodes. -Is an influence in the northern hemisphere, particularly in Britain.Caribbean English (creol)
“ReceivedAmE BrE Pronunciation” RP They have an special different form in pronunciation which -Associated with the links the national older schools andstandards to the regional Universities of England. varieties.