LATIN Influence on ENGLISH and GERMANIC.Words as:-wall Were borrowed from Latin-kitchen into Germanic (and through-wine Germanic into English)-mil-street Its influence continues through Medieval and Renaissance times, through the catholic church, Humanism and Renaissance.English starts when the Germanic tribes and theirlanguages reach the British Isles (449)
Started as a Germanic dialect spoken in small part of England, nowadays itis spoken by over a billion people all over the world.-English has adopted -approximately a half of thewords from other vocabulary of English comes fromlanguages French and Latin
Differences on three levels: Caedmon’s Hymn:SoundsWordsSentences-Hefaen Heaven (no leter “v”) -English has 25 consonants, other-uard guard (“u” is pronounced differently) languages have-Lack of grammatical words as of, the, and we different quantities.-OE sentence (1) contains less words than the -The most unusualmodern one (this additional words have a consonant is the “th”grammatical function) (It represents 2 different sounds)-There are many differences!
English syllable -One of the functions of the language is tostructure is indicate who does what to whomCOMPLEX Languages differ in how they mark theseThere are words as: functions through: a) Endings on the verbs and nounsStrikes and split b) Word order and grammatical words (prepositions and pronouns)3 consonants at the c) Old English- synthetic/Modern E.Analyticbeginning Have almost no endings they-In Spanish we adapt use word order and grammatical words to mark thethe sound “sk” to element’s function“esk” as in School to -Whereas many languages of the Americas have:ESchool Prefixes on the verb and the verb can represent an entire sentence Navajo nanishté has 3 prefixes and a stem (na-ni-she-té) “arround yo I carried”
VARIETIES They are different, even though they are English in their grammarsExternal changes: Internal changes:-Language contact (between -occur when speakers stop using endingsspeakers of different languages) (or inflections) and start to rely on words such as of, for, the and have.-Innovations by speakers -more predictable-issues of political or social -Change a vowel or a consonant:identity Old English hamhome-Unpredictable skip ship-have to do with social, -prepositions start being used to introduceeconomic, geographical, political, sentences.and historical reasons.
Prescriptive rules:-Are taught in school-include “don’t split infinitives” and “don’t end sentences with a preposition”.-Are based on Latin, on logic, or on an attempt to conserve an older stage of the language.-Internal changes can be markers of identity.e.g.: “eh” as a marker of identity in Canada.
OLD ENGLISH (OE) 450 - 1150 H 8th and 10the century the Scandinavians J influenced on the Latin words: grammar. Year 450, Germanic •Abbot Some words such as: -egg, keel, leg, ill, add, dialects pushed out •Altar bask, call, crave, screech and thriveCeltic Languages to the periphery, e.g. Wales •hymn