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como representar dibujos fantasiosos tipo surrealista y otros

como representar dibujos fantasiosos tipo surrealista y otros

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    Arte de fantasia  bruce robertson Arte de fantasia bruce robertson Document Transcript

    • OCR & scan by * rk *
    • ForewordThere is strength through mystery. A and, surprisingly, architecture. Thispicture produced from the images book excludes all the forms mentionedwithin the mind can be a more accurate above and concentrates instead onportrayal of human perceptions than one images, either painted or drawn, on two-based entirely on observations. When dimensional surfaces. It uses exampleswe look at the work of a fantasy artist we by commercial artists, those working oncan respond to the mystery on a number commissions, or artists exploring theirof levels: the source of the ideas, the own visual references and imagination.constituent parts, and the subject matter The vast resource of images made byof the picture. The construction of the people suffering from mental disorderscomposition, its use of the elements of who, as a result of illness or congenitallight and shade, and its depictions of deficiencies, create images directly fromimaginary forms are all crucial. Finally the disturbance of their minds is notcomes our response to the mysteries of included.the artists technique - his painting The greatest source of imaginaryskills. images is literature, both prose and The creation of fantasy art is achieved poetry. The flow of words creates worldsby the interplay of the conscious and the which we mentally visualize. Storiesunconscious mind. This process was from legends, mythology, gothic horrordescribed in 1540 by Leonardo da Vinci, stories, science fiction and fiction itselfthe Italian Renaissance master, as a create images of new worlds in ourchallenge to the artist who must resolve minds. The depiction of thesea conflict between the observed and the imaginings makes a direct appeal to usimaginary, the known and the unknown. through recognition of the element of Images of the imagination appear in common experience in life. Sinceall forms of art, for example: the fantasy art is not totally dependent upondecorative and applied arts, sculpture observable reality, we are likely to beA Macdonald Orbis BOOK The Diagram Group© Diagram Visual Information Ltd 1988 Editorial staff Ben Barkow, Guy Brain, Annabel Else, Moira Johnston,First published in Great Britain in 1988 Patricia Robertsonby Macdonald and Co (Publishers) Ltd IndexerLondon and Sydney David HardingA Pergamon Press plc company Art director Philip PatenallAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be Artistsreproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, Joe Bonello, Alastair Burnside, Robert Chapman,in any form or by any means without the prior Richard Hummerstone, Mark Jamill, Lee Lawrence,permission in writing of the author, nor be otherwise Paul McCauley, Katherine Mothersdale, David OBrien,circulated in any form of binding or cover other than Guy Ryman, Jane Robertson, Michael Robertson,that in which it is published and without a similar Graham Rosewarnecondition including this condition being imposed on Picture researcherthe subsequent purchaser. Patricia RobertsonBritish Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Typeset by Dorchester Typesetting Group Ltd Robertson, Bruce Printed and bound by Purnell Book Production Ltd Techniques of fantasy art 1. Drawings Macdonald and Co (Publishers) Ltd I. Title Greater London House 741.2 NC730 Hampstead Road ISBN 0-356-15324-X London NWl 7QX
    • disturbed by our examination of the • Section One of the book looks at theworks of fantasy artists. They surprise us source of ideas. Where do artists getby their inventions which, once we have their inspiration for imaginary pictures?seen them, live in our minds as ghosts of • Section Two explains the backgroundthe unreal world. to eight famous fantasy paintings: the Today the work of a good fantasy artist artists motivation, the origin of theis in constant demand by the illustrated ideas, and the potentialcommercial world. Examples are audience. This section takes an exampleeverywhere: video cassette covers, from a selection of famous artists workrecord sleeves, science fiction novels, and, although depicting the examples inmovie posters, and advertisements. The full color, concentrates on the ideascommercial artist produces work which behind the pictures rather than theis often derived from the discoveries of techniques used to produce them.fine artists. Nowadays commercial art • Section Three explores methods ofcan become gallery art and is in turn developing ideas and shows how theyreinterpreted — the copier is copied. may be distorted or enlarged in scope byEven the most commonplace image torn the use of collage or changes infrom a magazine can be the source from composition.which unique pictures are created. • Section Four concentrates on theRemember when setting out on the path physical processes required to produce aof producing fantasy images that you fantasy image in a variety of media, andmay be more surprised with your contains interviews with eightdiscoveries than subsequent viewers of contemporary artists. The artists explainyour work. However, each new picture their techniques and discuss theis a new contribution to the vast world of development of an idea into a finishedthe imagination of mankind. product.Acknowledgements 46 Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees, NationalA personal thank you to each of the eight artists whose Gallery, Londonwork appears between pages 96 and 126. Without their 50 Patriomoine des Musees Royaux des Beaux Arts dehelp in patiently explaining their techniques I could not Belgique, Brussels, Belgiumhave produced those pages. Thanks are also due to my 54 Photo: PH3 Fotografia e Audiovisuais Lda,old Professor of Art, Edward Wright, who kindly read collection of Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga,the book and offered very constructive advice about the Lisbon, Portugalideas contained in it, many of which I had remembered 62 Patrimoine des Musees Royaux des Beaux Arts defrom his lectures. Belgique, Brussels, Belgium 65 Copyright ACL, Patrimoine des Musees RoyauxPicture sources des Beaux Arts de Belgique, Brussels, BelgiumThe author has made all possible efforts to contact 68 From ALARMS AND DIVERSIONS in Vintagethe copyright owners of the illustrations reproduced, Thurber Vol II Copyright © 1963 James Thurber bybut apologises in advance for any errors or omissions that permission of Hamish Hamilton Ltd.may have occurred. Copyright © 1932, 1960 lames Thurber. From The Seal in the Bedroom, published by Harper & Row.Page 90 Kunsthistorisches Museum (Albertina), Vienna, 9 Photo: Geoffrey Clements, Collection of the Austria Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 103 Young Artists, London USA 115 Young Artists, London 26 Photo: Michael Robertson 117 Futura Publications, London 34 The Museum of Modern Art, Kay Sage Tanguy 127 Young Artists, London Fund 128 Gollancz Publications, London 38 Photo: Goellette, collection of Musee 129 Young Artists, London dUnterlinden, Colmar, France 42 Photo: Ursula Edelmann, Freies Deutsches Hochstift - Frankfurt am Main
    • ContentsSection One Section TwoGETTING IDEAS SOURCES OF FANTASY10 The subject of fantasy 34 Fantasy of the ordinary12 Picture sources 38 Fantasy of nature14 Studying nature 42 Fantasy of dreams16 Using reality 46 Fantasy of legends18 Using manufactured objects 50 Fantasy of superstitions20 The unseen world 54 Fantasy of faith22 Exploiting photographs 58 Fantasy of popular culture24 Using your own photographs 62 Fantasy of self-indulgence26 Using models28 Using other cultures30 Past masters
    • Section Three Section FourDEVELOPING IDEAS TECHNIQUES AND TIPS68 Elements of surprise 98 Pencils and chalks70 Creating incongruity 102 Pencils and watercolors72 Using the size 106 Inks and watercolors74 Combining images 110 Gouache colors76 Using change 114 Gouache colors and pencils78 Double deceptions 118 Acrylic colors80 Distorting your pictures 122 Acryclic and oil colors84 Superimposing pictures 126 Oil colors86 Human monsters 130 Mastering techniques88 Animals as people 132 Dry medium techniques90 Machines as people 134 Wet medium techniques92 Your point of view 136 Airbrush94 Deliberate accidents 138 Adding textures and tones 140 Combining media 142 Index
    • SectionOneGeneratingideasFantasy art comes from yourimagination, and has its origins in yourimmediate surroundings and the pastexperiences of your life. You shouldbegin with the familiar and develop yourideas to more imaginative levels. Eachnew discovery will increase yourabilities to explore further the sources ofyour imagination. The end result may befar in excess of what you first thoughtyou were capable. Section One begins by describingsome of the most conventient ways ofstirring your mind so that it yieldsimages for your paintings. Where doideas and images come from? Ourcultural origins greatly influence thesources of inspiration. Can reality beused to transform images into ourfantasy world? Perhaps examining apiece of old wood or cut-up cabbage, oran unfamiliar tool, can begin the chainreaction. Discovering unknown worldsin specialized books and magazines canopen the door to a new fantasy picture.Photographs, either your own, or thosetaken from a variety of other sources, canbe incorporated into your pictures. Finally the greatest source of ideasmay be the work of other fantasy artists.Never reject plagiarism — it is the soilfrom which flowers grow. The great 17thcentury scientist Isaac Newton, whenasked in his old age how he had made somany wonderful discoveries, replied:"Because I stood on the shoulders ofgiants." By using his enormous library asthe starting point for much research,Newton had benefited from the previouswork of other great scientists.Henry Koerners paintingMirror of Life portrays anumber of events in theartists life.
    • 9 ©DIAGRAM
    • The subject of fantasyEvery picture tells a story, and nonemore so than those made by fantasyartists. The origins of these visions maybe buried deep inside our memories buttheir ideas spring from folklore andmythology, dreams and the bizarreaspects of reality. Although almostalways painted with very close attentionto realism, they are unreal, the workingsof imagination overpowering theperceived world, creating a suspendedreality.Unseen worldsStory-telling by adults is auniversal and ageless way ofconveying ideas. The story-teller {right} uses his arms todescribe a monsters actions,invoking the childrensimaginations so they seethe demons threat. Fantasyimages begin in the mindand not in reality.Old worlds (right)European artists have alwaysbeen inspired by myths andsymbolism. The Greek mythof Hercules fightingAchelous (as a bull) is alsorecorded in Asian cultures,and in sculpture, on vasesand on walls. For a thousandyears animals symbolizedthe evangelists - St Markappeared as a winged lion.New worldsThe European discovery ofAmerica opened up newsources of myths and imagessuch as this Aztec god(right). Psychologists in the20th century think thatalthough the imagesproduced by differentcultures vary greatly inappearance, the subjectsthey portray are universal.10
    • Dream worldsThe picture (right) is of anightmare experience of theSpanish painter, Franciscode Goya. In 1810 he wasrecovering from an illnesswhich had left him deaf. Theinner silence heightened hisimagination and this newexperience helped him linkhis visions to his observationsof the human condition.Productive worldsThe English 19th centuryauthor Charles Dickens(right) created stories forweekly publications. Hisideas often arose fromobservation and the quietcontemplation of the fire orcarpet patterns. He workedwith his memories to forgenew worlds in which hiscreations took on real form. 11
    • Picture sourcesIdeas have legs; they creep up on you, orjump out of the most unexpected places.Do not sit waiting for inspiration. Collectimages all the time, store up discoveries,review other artists work. When notdirectly working on a finished drawing,experiment with unfamiliar techniques.The successful artist explores allpossible sources and turns them to hisadvantage.Artists sourcesA continuous stream ofinspiration is provided bythe work of other artists. Donot be embarrassed to copyideas, techniques, themes,details and mannerisms. Thedrawing (above right) is byIvan Bilibin, a Russianwhose illustration is derivedfrom 19th century popularRussian folk art.Technical sourcesThe most surprising andvaried sources of imagery aretechnical publications, onengineering or micro-biology, industrialcatalogues or academic textbooks. The unfamiliar can bea starting point for yourdrawing. Many fantasyartists have used bizarrediagrams from surgerymanuals as inspiration forhorrific visions. Thetransparent study of arailway engine (above right)can throw up ideas forfuturistic machines. Themicroscopic creature (right),enlarged a thousand times,could be the start of agalactic monster.12
    • Photographic sourcesPhotographs are an infinitestorehouse of images.Postcards, magazines, books,posters and movie stills canstir the imagination.Photography is particularlyhelpful in painting realisticdetail. A simple view of abuilding (right) can provideideas for a fantastic palace.ExplorationThere are two sources ofideas available while you areactually working on yourdrawing: discoveries madeeither while drawing orduring printing. Differenttools, surfaces, media andprocessors can all providemethods of exploringaccidental results. The wordDANZIG (right) was alteredby first drawing thecharacters in a slow-dryingink and, before it dried,blowing through a drinkingstraw at the wet ink strokeswhile moving the paperaround. Textures often havea graphic quality which isstimulating. The granularsurface (right) is producedby the break up of theprotective coating on metalbefore applying an etchingacid. The distortedmanuscript (right) is theresult of holding part of theoriginal image away from thesurface of the photocopyingmachine. These technicalmethods have producedresults which can inspireyour later designs.
    • Studying natureThe natural world is one of the most should look at the embers of fire, orcommonly-used inspirational sources clouds, or mud, or other similar objectsfor the fantasy artist. The great from which you will find ideas . . .Renaissance painter Leonardo da Vinci because from a confusion of shapes theinstructed pupils to observe: "You spirit is quickened to new inventions."should look at certain walls stained with Natural shapes are everywhere - plants,damp or at stones of an uneven color. If animals, rocks, water. To absorb ideasyou have to invent some setting you will from them you must pay close attentionbe able to see in these the likeness of to the surface detail and record what youdivine landscapes." He suggested "you see with great accuracy. Plant sources Surface sources (opposite) The plant kingdom produces By drawing carefully the thousands of wonderful details of the surface of a leaf shapes, textures and colors. and an old piece of wood The minute seed pods [left], (above and far right), Lee, the diseased acorn [below], aged 18, has produced a the roots of an orchid drawing which can later (bottom) or the spiky limbs become a landscape. Janes of a cactus (below right) are pencil study (below) of a cut exciting beginnings for a cabbage already looks like a fantasy image. magic tree.14
    • Using realityLeonardo da Vincis advice to students(page 14) was echoed 300 years later bythe English poet William Blake. To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower, Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour.This poem is about the details of life, thetiny surface qualities of reality; whileexamining them consider the worldsbeyond reality, in our imaginations.Using everyday objects (right)The close inspection of threeobjects - a corkscrew, a fishhead and a loaf of bread —reveals that each hasdifferent qualities that canbe built up to create a newworld of fantasy (as you cansee on page 72).Your own inspiration bankBy collecting objects, youwill have a library of imageswhich can spark off ideas.When out walking, or whilecleaning out tool boxes -whenever your attention iscaught by the uniquequalities of small objects -try to collect them. Bydisplaying them in a wall-case (opposite), you willcreate your own personalbank of shapes and textureswhich it would be otherwisedifficult to imagine.16
    • Using manufactured objectsObjects made by machines, particularly laws of structure and growth. Materialswith 20th century materials, have an which are molded, extruded, printed,artificial, unnatural form and texture — cast, burnished, glazed, galvanized,plastics, rubbers, artificial fibers, metals polished, coated, fused together, all- all have a man-made quality. possess interesting shapes and surfacesAdvancing technology means that their which are easily available for study andforms need not comply with natural which can stimulate ideas for pictures.Materials (right)1 The rubber drive-belt froma vehicle is formed in onepiece. Its springy resiliencewhen put on a flat surfacecreates new shapes andideas for spatial patterns.2 The metal sugar bowl (thedrawing was copied from aphotograph in a mail ordercatalog) has a highlyreflective surface which canbe used in the creation ofspace stations.3 The commercial scrubbingbrush, from a trade catalog,offers ideas for unnaturalplant textures.4 The simple study of aspiral telephone cable willhelp in the drawing of morerealistic bodies of monstersor parts of futuristicmachines.18
    • FormsIndustrial tools makewonderful models forinventing space-ageweapons. The drawing(above) was made by Davidfrom a collection ofexamples of craftsmenstools (right), published in atrade catalog.ScaleThe minute scale of printedelectronic circuits (below)can be enlarged to stimulatevisions of city plans of thefuture, or the inner workingsof a new robotic creature. 19
    • The unseen worldThere are new frontiers in the productionof images that provide wonderfulopportunities and inspiration for fantasyworlds. Realms unseen by previousgenerations appear in specializedtextbooks. Microphotography enlarged,computer pictures, instructionaldiagrams, or images of long-lostexistence may all startle and surprisewith their freshness and revelations ofworlds previously hidden from us.1 Evolving worlds 2 Past worldsThis fluffy chick is seen A technical reconstructionthrough a hole in its egg. Its of a marine creaturebeak and claws arc large in from the Devonian period,comparison to the rest of its about 400 million years ago,body. With imagination, this could inspire the design of acould be turned into a futuristic fighter space-ship.monster asleep in its lair.
    • 3 Microscopic worldsThe leg of a water beetle,enlarged byphotomicroscopy to a size 20times larger than reality,suggests the beginnings of anew monster.4 Mathematical worldsA series of plastic templateswhich hold a pen point canproduce an infinitelychanging pattern whichresembles a vortex of worldsbeyond our galaxy.5 Invisible worldsThe drawing of a new toywas taken from anapplication to the PatentOffice and could be used inan image of a bionic man.6 Abstract worldsA spinning neutron staremits irregular radio waveswhich can be plotted as asequence of overlappinggraphic lines, an imagewhich resembles a new formof landscape.
    • Exploiting photographsVisual ideas and details can often befound in photographs which, withoutclear visual references, might provedifficult to invent. Most artists haveextensive collections of photographedmaterial which they have built up of thesubjects that particularly appeal to them.Reality, too, can be used as a source, soalways try to photograph places andlighting effects you find interesting.Photographic sources (above)Newspapers, magazines, oldbooks, specializedpublications, postcards, allyield telling images. Arrangeyour collection in sectionsso that you can find aparticular subject later:landscapes, buildings,figures, objects, or generaltopics like compositions,lighting effects or thebizarre.22
    • The real into the unrealThe photograph (left) wastaken while I was on holidayin northern Greece; such astartling cliff needed to berecorded for later use. The19th century Scottish castle(above) is a fairytalebuilding come true. Thesepictures were combined inthe creation of an illustrationfor a comic book series(right). 23
    • Using your own photographsThe camera can be a tool, just like abrush or pen. You can use its ability torecord detail as a means of sorting outthe visual qualities of your ideas. Beginby first sketching your intentions, thenwhen you feel confident with an idea,use the camera on location or in fixedlighting to build up your knowledge ofthe subject. Creating effects comes from below. The total The picture (above right) effect is one of horror and looks ghoulish; it appears to mystery. In fact, the be of a childs frightened photograph was taken of the response to something child while he hung upside terrible. His hair is standing down on a park swing on end, his hands are {above left). grasping out and the light24
    • Building tensionsThe photograph [left] is of astationary car with a smallchild standing in front of it.It could be used for thecreation of two sequentialdrawings involving a caraccident (above).Sand writingMost artists would find itdifficult to record accuratelyletters written in sand. Away of providing yourselfwith a visual reference is towrite the letters in a tray ofsand, then photograph itwith a strong side light (left). 25
    • Using modelsArtists have often built models of parts views of it explored either with a cameraof objects they want to draw in their or with sketches. This technique is oftensearch for interesting views. Present-day used for studies of figure drawings. Inconstruction kits provide replicas of strip cartoons, constructing modelsdetails which would be time-consuming helps you to memorize special features.to build. A model can be modified and26
    • Comic artworkThe action-packed smalldrawings (right) are theresult of building on thephotographic impressions ofthe models and fantasizingon the static compositions ofthe objects.World War II battlesThe model of the tankPzkpfw II from a purchasedconstruction kit was madeby Michael, aged 15. Fromthis and other models he wasable to take photographs(opposite) from differentviewpoints, and also toarrange the objects in avariety of ways so as toarrive at interestingcompositions (below).
    • Using other culturesThe art of cultures we rudely considerinferior to our own, so-called primitiveart, is a wonderful source of ideas. Theenergy and invention of the forms farexceed the sterile realism of Westernportrayals of fantasy. The 19th centuryexplosion of discoveries of the art ofother cultures, as displayed in galleriesor published as illustrations, had aprofound effect on the imaginations ofWestern fantasy artists.The human headThe face has a strongemotional appeal. It hascharacter, and it expressesits nature through its shapes.Every culture has used thisaspect to depict spirits andabstractions; the unseeableportrayed as a distortion ofthe knowable.1 African tribal dance mask2 Northern AustralianAborigine face painting3 Ancient Greek theatermask4 Medieval mystery playdevil mask5 Central American IndianmonsterThe human formEither as costumes orstatues, ancient andprimitive societies used thehuman form as a startingpoint for the depiction of theunimaginable. Their Godsare transformed intovariations of the humanfigure.6 African initiation costume7 Chinese carving of afemale deity8 Classical Greek fertilitygoddess9 Ancient Egyptian statue10 African fetish sculpture28
    • Past mastersIn the mind of a master artist images The spread of imagesfloat to the surface of his consciousness Artists have been creatingand are captured for eternity in his art. fantasy images for thousandsYou should never be embarrassed about of years. However, it is onlycopying their discoveries for your own during the last five hundreduse. They, too, have used previous years (with the advent ofcreative artists as inspiration. But when printing) that the imagescopying the work of others, you should have been spread among adevelop your own ideas beyond the wider audience.original source, using it as a startingpoint.
    • Graphic Art William Blakes drawing of a artist Katsushika Hokusai.Five examples of the work of vision he had while His hundreds of drawings ofgreat graphic artists in the considering quotations from everyday life in Japan greatlyworld of fantasy: the bible. helped his drawing of1 The 16th century artist 3 A detail from the work of imaginary subjects.Peter Brueghel the Elder. A the 19th century artist 5 Unidentified artists coversdetail from an engraving Gustave Dore, whose for popular magazines,entitled The temptation of imagination was stretched showing a variety of 20thSt Anthony. Compare this by illustrating works of century illustrations ofwith examples on pages 38- literary fantasy. popular comics and39, 40, 54-55 and 62-63. 4 A detail from a drawing by magazines.2 The 18th century artist the 19th century Japanese 31
    • SectionTwoSources offantasyI once overheard a beautifulconversation between two children, oneaged six and the other ten years old. Theeldest was explaining that comics havewords in them for people who cannotread the pictures! Fantasy pictures have a meaning.Understanding the pictures is a majorpart of enjoying such works ofimagination. Very often when wediscover new forms of fantasy art wehave difficulty in reading the picture.The roots of the ideas and forms digdeep into many levels of humanexperience, and this section of the bookexamines a selection of these sources.They may come from events in our dailylives, the forms of nature, or from thesubconscious world of our dreams. Theymay have their origins in the collective,subconscious, world of mythology,superstition, folklore and religioussymbolism. Or they may simply be theplayful self-indulgence of the artistexploring his own imagination.The picture (opposite) by the The figure [above) revealsBelgian painter James Ensor our ignorance of the imageuses our knowledge of languages of other cultures.medieval and 19th century Is it a man or a woman? Is it acomic pictures to portray threat or a comfort? To theevil. We know that the Malayan audience, whofigures surrounding his self- understand the shadowportrait are threats to his puppet figure, it is simply asanity, and that somehow matter of their collective(we dont fully understand understanding ofhis private code) the central representations of good andcockerel is an inspiration evil, heroes and villains andand guiding light. servants and kings. This figure is Hanuman, a hero.32
    • Fantasy of the ordinaryNormality is an excellent source of you to make up your own story of thefantasy art because it is everywhere, preceding events. This form of art canalways available, and because of its have a very successful impact, as thoughfamiliarity. The effects are usually casting a spell over the observer. Weachieved by juxtapositions of know reality is around us, and we areincongruous objects and ideas of always disturbed by abnormalityinverted normality. The elements in a because it forces us to re-adjust ourpicture are often arranged as if asking accepted impressions.Preceding pages: engineered by Horror sourcesThe menaced assassin cinematographic techniques. A great source of fantasy artMagritte, 1926 Episodes were invented by is the depiction of horrific two authors, taking it in events. This 19th centuryThis picture draws its ideas turns to write alternate illustration (below) is of afrom the silent movies and chapters. During the particularly gruesome childpopular detective fiction of 1920s Magritte explored murder. The retreating backthe 1920s. One series of many ideas of reality and of the man, the childsfilms, Lepoque de illusion, producing smiling head on the table,Fantomas, was a particular paintings at the rate of one a the trail of blood from thefavourite of Magritte. The day. Every one was like a body under the bed, all set infilms portray the exploits of new hallucinatory vision, a normal interior, producea master criminal who irrational and absurd, a an impression of involuntaryappeared and disappeared purveyor of the paradoxical. and perverse action, thewith unreal ability, an effect work of a madman. (Preceding page) Collection, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Kay Sage Tanguy Fund.
    • JuxtapositionsIn the 19th century, popularpostcards used arrangementsof figures and objects tosuggest unusual meanings, akind of sexual hint byassociation. The drawing(right) by the 19th centuryBelgian artist Felicien Ropssuggests a sexualrelationship between thefiremans hosepipe and thenude figure.Heightened normalityThe drawing (right), entitledThe death chamber, by theNorwegian artist EdvardMunch, shows the interior ofa bedroom in 1892.Although we cannot see theperson in the bed, weassume from the positionsand expressions of the otherpeople in the room that theyare considering the finalityof death. 37
    • Fantasy of nature"Such tricks hath strong imagination Zoomorphic monstersThat if it would but apprehend some joy. The wood-engraving (below)Or in the night, imagining some fear, is by a contemporary ofHow easy is a bush supposed a bear?" Grunewald, Albrecht Durer,from Shakespeares great fantasy play on and shows anothernature, Midsummer Nights Dream. Temptation of St Anthony. The tangled web of livingNature has always been a source of forms is culled fromfantasy for artists. The complex forms of observations of insects,plants and animals can be used to crustaceans, birds, reptilesdescribe imaginary worlds. Trees can be and mammals.spirits, animals can behave like humans,heaven or hell can be landscapesderived from earthly places.Preceding pages:The temptation of StAnthonyMatthias Grunewald, 1510The painting and details(over) are on an altar panel.The trees, plants andcreatures are from the darkforests of Germany, thehome of wolves, demons andevil spirits. The monsters area strange mixture of animals,some slimy, some feathery,some scaly and some withhuman flesh. They behavelike freaks; they hiss, fight,bellow at St Anthony and ateach other; they torment andare tormented; they aredisfigured and diseased. Themonster (lower left) hasleprous or syphilitic skinblisters. Grunewaldspainting, like the BoschTemptation on pages 54-55,was directed at sufferers. Butits message is that self-inflicted suffering, broughton by evil acts, especiallythose directed at StAnthonys religious order,cannot expect intercessionfrom a patron saint.40
    • Plant spiritsBook illustrators have oftenused fairy tales, with theirsense of magic, to createfantasy from small details innature. A tangled bramblebush can be transformed tocontain hidden forest spirits(right). Cabbage-like leaves(below right) can grow fromthe limbs of a recliningnude.Animal spiritsThe North American WestCoast Indians attribute toanimals a spirit form whichis then painted on theirhouses, objects and garmentsto create an imaginary worldof spirit animals. The two(below) show a killer whaleand a beaver. 41
    • Fantasy of dreamsDreams can be the gateway to dreams. In the 20th century manyimagination. Their inner world can be a psychologists have interpreted ourwell of ideas for fantasy artists. The dreams and fantasies as unfulfilledcreation in literature of the monster secret ambitions and fears. For whateverFrankenstein was the result of a dream reason we dream, the images areby its author, Mary Shelley. Many artists dazzling in their nonconformity toand authors have kept a pencil and reality. Space, form and time are allpaper by their beds so that, on waking, suspended in the mirror of our sleepingthey could write down the new ideas minds.and images which appeared in theirPreceding pages:The nightmareHenry Fuseli, 1781Shortly after completing thispicture, Fuseli wrote to afriend that he had dreamedof how he had made love tohis unrequited sweetheart,the lady believed to be thesubject of this picture. Hepainted a series of thesesubjects, each illustrating ayoung girls dream, but mostlikely depicting his ownfears and anxieties. The girlin Fuselis painting isbelieved to be experiencingan imaginary sexual assault.Fuselis other versions ofthis subject were thought tobe commissions for private Dream landsbedrooms. Copies of this Childrens fiction aboundssubject were sold as popular with dream worlds. Peterengravings, and its sense of Pan, Little Nemo and Alice intimate privacy was turned were all set in the dreams ofinto a jesting, joking, crude children. The illustrationridicule of a young girls (above) is from the 19thfantasies. century story At the Back of the North Wind, in which a boys harsh life is made bearable by his adventures travelling with the fictitious north wind lady. The series (left) is from the American newspaper cartoon, Little Nemo in Slumberland, by the great fantasy artist Winsor McCay.44
    • Tempting devices The source of dreamsEach of the two 19th century This 16th century diagramillustrations (above) portrays (right) illustrateda girl being visited by an contemporary ideas on theincubus. This creature was a root origins and causes ofdemon who visited sleeping dreams. These quasi-females with offerings of medical plans confusedseductive thoughts and physical features with theemotions. spiritual and ethereal. Medieval thinkers oftenInterpreting dreams maintained that dreamThe dreamers companion images were a dialogue with[above right) was a popular supernatural forces or the1840s interpretation of voice of God.dreams, and was consultedby girls as a guide to theirfuture.
    • Fantasy of legendsCentaurs, harpies, satyrs, Cyclops, Egyptian deities, legendary Romangriffins, unicorns and dragons are all heroes and Nordic spirits have been re-conjured out of mythology. The born in later Christian belief to representcharacters and exploits of these early similar or parallel attributes. It is only infantastic creatures have been used over the late 19th and 20th centuries that weand over again by later artists. Legends have become aware of the mythologiesare re-interpreted by each age and a of Asia, Africa and the Americas, thebenign being, which was once a symbol imagery of which has not yet beenof goodness, can become a focus of evil, incorporated into our visual language.a vision of wickedness. Greek gods,Preceding pages:Saint George and the dragonPaolo Uccello, 1456The legend in which StGeorge rescues a maiden byslaying a dragon was apopular subject for bothpaintings and sculptures. Toboth artist and audiencealike it symbolized thestruggle between good (thehero) and evil (the monster),and asserted that virtue andinnocence (the maiden)cannot be harmed by evil.Uccello worked in aChristian environment,decorating churches and thehomes of devout princes.The use of classical andmythological subjects assymbols to express Christianbeliefs was very commonduring the Renaissance.Re-inventing mythologyThe 19th century Englishauthor Lewis Carrollintroduced a new audienceto past legends. In theillustration (right) the artistJohn Tenniel depicts ayouthful hero battling with areptilian dragon. Tennielsvisual inventions were idealfor the world of Carroll, andtheir collaboration makesthe stories about Aliceeverlasting classics offantasy.48
    • Dragon depictionsThe Latin word dracomeans both dragon andserpent, but to artistsworldwide a dragon has legs,often wings and sometimesbreathes fire. Themythological beast appearsin all cultures and is bothfeared and revered.1 The dragon of the Nordicwarriors represented death,destruction and the guardianof hell, so it was a fittingdecoration for a Vikingbattle-axe of the 10thcentury.2 The dragon of medievalheraldry representedprowess and power. A markof authority, the deviceembellished the shield of aknight and was oftenincluded in his heraldicmotif.3 The serpent of CentralAmerican Azteccivilizations represented thepower of darkness and was aguardian of sacred secrets.4 The dragon of China is thebringer of good fortune, andwas the Emperors emblem.As such, it was used as adecorative device onthousands of differentoriental objects andgarments.
    • Fantasy of superstitionsNaive belief in supernatural forces has transformed by folk culture into thebeen a common inspiration for fantastic machinations of extraordinary forcesimagery. Superstitions often mix crude, which are then portrayed as devils,inaccurate tales about demons and witches, demons, ghosts, vampires anddevils with the spice of sex and other imaginary beings. The intention ofpornography. The stirrings of the lower all such inventions is to frighten and tobelly rise to stimulate the imaginings of obtain power over the innocent, tothe mind to create popular fantasy art. capture and fire their imaginations.Any unexplained event is quicklyPreceding pages:The young sorceressAntoine Wiertz, 1850The detail (overleaf) and thefull painting (right) reveal theopportunities for eroticismin paintings of thesupernatural. The artistachieves his effects byskilfully depicting detailsand by adding disturbingqualities which make uspause and ask questions.What is the old womanteaching the young nude girlto do? Are the other headsthose of real observers,voyeurs of pornography, orspirits to help in theceremony?Voluptuous flesh caught inan erotic pose combineswith the black, cloaked,ancient crone to suggest eviland secret rituals. HISTORIC TRAIL52
    • Demonic creaturesPopular tales of devils thattempt young girls or old hagswho have power over liveswere used by artists to stirup secret fears.1 The discovery of witches, a17th century book ondetecting witches.2 The devil and thedisobedient child, an 18thcentury American storybookillustration on morals.3 A bewitched groom, a 16thcentury German illustrationon the source of illness.4 Witches trail sign(opposite). The touristhighway sign in Salem,USA, commemorates thetime when its bigotedcitizens allowed superstitionto overcome reason andcondemned many innocentpeople to death as witches. 53
    • Fantasy of faithReligious beliefs have provided the and hell have reality. With faith,means for artists to portray worlds other emotions can be personalized, shown asthan the real, physical, observable individuals, creatures and monsters. Toparts of the Earth. Hindu, Buddhist, all believers, regardless of education orChristian, Jewish religious buildings and intelligence, symbolism and pictorialbooks abound with fantasy art. The representation are commonlytemples of ancient Egypt, Greece, understood. But deeply-held beliefsCentral America and Asia all contain must continue within any communitydepictions of fantastic worlds for pictorial language to convey theenvisioned and drawn by the faithful. artists ideas; otherwise his visionsWith faith, everything is real. Heaven become obscure and unintelligible.Preceding pages: and daily churchThe temptation of St procedures. The message ofAnthony the painting is theHieronymus Bosch, circa renunciation of physical1500 delights. Bosch uses symbolic images and puns The paintingThis painting was requested on common words to convey The altar panels (below),by the religious order of St his warning. Without a when closed, have paintingsAnthony. Attached to its profound knowledge of of Christs betrayal andchurch was a hospital which Christian beliefs and crucifixion on the outside.specialized in treating practices, the images appear The silhouette of a mansvenereal disease. A sufferer wild and irreverent. head is shown at the side towho sought a miraculous give an impression of size.cure was asked tocontemplate the horrors ofevil in front of this paintingbefore being given treatment.The painting is no larger thana dressing-table mirror andonly close examination willreveal its details. The manygroups, costumes, objectsand buildings were intendedto convey ideas now lost.Each image is a cartoon ofhuman folly and frailty,many are parodies ofChristian beliefs, well-known bible stories, rituals56
    • SymbolismBecause so many of thefaithful were illiterate,Church leaders usedsymbols for people in itshistory. Christ and the fourevangelists were oftenshown as animals or otherbeings:1 Christ as a haloed lamb2 Mark as a winged lion3 John as an eagle4 Luke as a winged bull5 Matthew as an angelPersonificationThe seven deadly sins, viceschosen by Christians as themost repellent, were givenphysical forms: monsters, asin the 16th century Germanwoodcut [right], or realanimals who were thought topossess an excess of one ofthe vices.Other worldsWith faith, there is life afterdeath in an existence as realas the earthly one. The earlymedieval wall painting(right) shows the ladder ofsalvation, a path eachChristian must follow toavoid eternal damnation andachieve salvation. Faithmakes heaven and hell real;and the emotions, such ashate, love, lust and sloth,have personalities whichcome alive in the bodies ofmen, women and creatures. ©DIAGRAM 57
    • Fantasy of popular cultureWherever there is an audience artists Comic sourcesperform their skills at weaving magic Pictures are the best way toand fantasy. Comics, childrens classics, capture childrens attentionadult fiction, theatre, movies, videos and so, before television, artistsrecord sleeves are all media which developed the comic strip toprovide space for creating images from a high art. Today adults often find fantasy comicsthe imagination. The great fictional more attractive than children.writers, past and present, have invented From the creators of Batman,special worlds to which artists have Superman, Rupert Bear,responded by developing their own Barbar the Elephant andvisual forms. Tintin came new worlds. Here are three examples ofPreceding pages: great comic artists at work:Weird Tales 1924-40 1 Frank Bellamy, an EnglishUS popular magazine covers illustrator of the 1960s,Pulp magazines are an outlet created space pilot Dan Dare.for fantasy artists. The prose 2 Winsor McCay, illustratoronly hints at acts of violence, of the New York Herald,sexuality, submission and created Little Nemo.torture, performed at night, 3 Wilhelm Busch, late 19thin jungle and dungeon. And century German illustrator,the covers of Weird Tales created Max and Moritz.and others reflect thecontent.60
    • Childrens fictionCarroll, Anderson, Kiplingand Potter and the lesser-known authors of Pinocchio,Goldilocks, Red Ridinghoodand Mother Goose havecreated magic worlds.1 Gullivers Travels, offersgiants, dwarfs and horsesthat talk.Adult literatureThe horror stories of Poe,Shelley, Lovecraft andStoker or the fantasy ofBurroughs, Conan Doyle,Wells, Verne and Tolkien allprovide strange and bizarreimages.2 Mary Shelleys novelFrankenstein has spawnedhundreds of pictures andportrayals on TV and film.The theatrePuppet shows, pantomimes,ballets, operas, plays and thecircus all contain an elementof fantasy.3 The English pantomime,Puss in Boots, is a surrealtale of a cat that talks andwalks on two legs.MoviesFantasy has become moresophisticated, from the 1902films of George Melies toStar Wars, Aliens and Planetof the Apes. Tricks andanimation have enabledartists to forget the laws ofspace, time, matter andlogic.4 King Kong is a classicexample of make-believe. Agiant gorilla is tamed by thebeauty of a young girl.Videos and record sleevesNew media provide freshopportunities for the artist toexercise his imagination.5 Evil Dead, the video,used new techniques toproduce scenes of horror and ©DIAGRAMnightmare reality. 61
    • Fantasy of self-indulgenceEvery individual has a fantasy world of Because this art-form can emerge onlyhis own, but only a very few ever depict from sources already digested in theit in pictures; that this kingdom be subconscious, it invariably containsimagined or dreamed about and then references to the artists ownforgotten seems to be sufficient. But 19th experiences and observations. For it toand 20th century artists have very succeed, it relies very much on sharedfrequently exploited this private realm private knowledge or jokes. Theas a storehouse of ideas which they have observer knows that the artist knowsrecorded, usually in great pictorial that he knows the references in thedetail, and put on public display. painting.Preceding pages: Private fantasiesThe temptation of St The painting (below), TheAnthony caress by the Belgian artistSalvador Dali, 1946 Fernand Khnopff, was painted when he was 38 inA major advantage of all 1896. Understanding of the20th century artists is their picture is greatly enhancedability to gain access to by knowing that the femalevisual sources from different portrait is that of his sister,times, cultures and whom he lovedmaterials. Photographic passionately, but could notreproductions, television possess. This painting is anand movies have provided elaborate private joke.modern artists withresources beyond thewildest dreams of theirforebears. This painting ofThe temptation of StAnthony is an example of anartist being clever.Producing a picture which isintended for public orprivate galleries, a picture todisplay his skills andknowledge, he includes areference to BerninisColumn in Rome and theEscorial Palace in Spain. Themain purpose of suchpaintings is to startle anddraw attention to the artist.Like naughty children suchan artist must bemischievous to succeed.64
    • Frivolous fantasy Many newspapers and magazines offer a ready supply of objects for private fantasy, either social or sexual. This is a means of achieving in imagination new levels of life not at present available by normal means; elevated shoes to increase your height, or plastic aprons (right) to change your sex. Almost all are unbelievable and none fulfill their promises.Folk art fantasyAn illustration of aninvitation to the privateshowing of the Russian artistIvan Bilibin (above). Theexhibition was held inAlexandria (Egypt) and theartist used the traditionaltechniques of Russian folkart to depict a sphinx-likefigure. 65
    • SectionThreeDevelopingideasOnce you have an idea, how do yourealize its potential? This section explores some of thetechniques for developing the imagebeyond its original form. Your picturemay look normal, but you can insert anelement of surprise - for example, byshowing normal objects in an abnormalway - to create a fantasy image. Theelements within your composition maybe changing their appearance. Yourpicture may contain two imagescombined to make one, eithersuperimposed or buried within eachother, to create a double deception. Thecreatures you create can be the result ofthe combination of different animals, egthe griffin; anthropomorphic forms(animals with human attributes), egMickey Mouse; or creatures made upfrom inanimate materials, eg robots. Compositional features or surfacequalities may be altered, thus changing apicture quite radically. A distortion inthe perspective, or turning the viewupside down creates spatial tension andis another way of heightening the dream-like effect. The use of surface qualityadaptation can open many new doors,leading to new ideas for subjects, andturn you back to look at previousexamples of your work for thepossibilities which may lie in them.The 19th century Indianpopular print (right) depictsgods in sculptures and reliefcarvings from Hindutemples. The artist hasmixed these images with thetheme of the life of thesacred River Ganges.66
    • Elements of surpriseThe simple and effective way to achievefantasy in an image is by the subtlepresence of an unusual element. A wayto do this is to add features that fitcompletely into the general appearance,but on examination prove unlikely orimpossible. These intrusive parts createa disturbing feature which can unnerveour first responses to the image.Irrationalities Improbabilities ImpossibilitiesEither the figure (below) is a "Alright, have it your way - The tower (right) is drawnman dressed in womens you heard a seal bark!" The using the normal laws ofclothing or a woman who cartoon (above right) by the illustration. It appears at firsthas grown a beard. The American humorist James glance to be a staircase oninconceivable is invariably Thurber, beautifully the top of a terrace, but upondisturbing. To contemplate a describes the unlikely being examination its constructionbearded woman could be taken as the inevitable. would be impossible.more disturbing than a man Surrealist painters oftenin womans clothes. used this technique to build an image which looks normal but which in reality could not exist. Incongruities Showing normality with abnormal elements can produce simple images which cause a slight surprise. The reader does a double take. The three illustrations (right) show how easily we first think the image is normal, only to discover upon examination that each one has something unusual about it.
    • Creating incongruityWhen combining images, their jointeffect is best described as the sum isgreater than the parts. The property ofsubjects when combined creates a mixwhich exceeds the effect of the basicingredients. Scale, textures, substance,events, space, when mixed irrationallycan create disturbing combinations. Substance Shoes are made to protect our feet so a shoe with toes {left) is a contradiction. Pencils are hard, inflexible objects so a pencil tied in a knot seems impossible. Our prior knowledge of the character of an object means we find it difficult to accept objects having properties different from those we have experienced.ScaleThree monkeys (right)examining a kissing couple.Are they giants? Is thecentral image a T.V. screen, awindow, or a painting?Without additionalinformation the image is anenigma. The viewer isseeking a plausibleexplanation for theincongruous.70
    • Pre-knowledge (above)The painting by PeterBrueghel the Elder ofhunters setting out on a walkappears in many books onthe history of art. This copyby a modern artist omits thefigures. The picture isdisturbing only to those whoremember the huntersoriginal positions (opposite).IrrationalityThe 17th centuryillustration (left) of a kissingcouple is, in its original form(far left), already an imagewhich provokes the questionof who and why? By addingthe cubicled heads watchingthe couple a modern artisthas highlighted this feelingof enigma. 71
    • Using the sizeOur experience of life leads us to assumethe size of objects or creatures. A bear ora bee have a generally imagined size.Fantasy artists use this feature to disturbour views of the normal, placing objectsalongside one another with disregard fortheir actual, related sizes. Ourimaginations are stretched by beingconfronted with the visually impossible.Comparative sizesHuman beings are often usedas an indicator of scale. Thegroups of figures [below]through their contexts are, inone case, made to appear asgiants and in the other asnormal figures dwarfed byan enormous idol.
    • Perceived sizesThe composition (left) wasproduced from studies ofobjects found in a normalkitchen. The drawings(reproduced on page 16)were then re-arranged tocreate a towering idol. Theloaf of bread became a cliff,the bottle-opener amechanical device forworking the idols arms, andthe fish head as the coldunsympathetic totem.ContextThe illustrations by theFrench artist Gustave Dore tothe fantastic stories ofadventures of the Baron VonMunchhausen, achieve theireffect by the use of normalfigures or locations inabnormal situations. Thehorseman (right) ridingalong the sea bed and beingconfronted by gigantic fishesis an example of theimprobable set in theimpossible.MontageFantasy artists havedelighted in using thetechnique of montage, thesticking together of twoimages cut from differentcontexts. This giant insect(below) is from a 17thcentury entomological bookand the struggling hero froma 19th century source.
    • Combining imagesVery often the artist can use normalobjects and, by their strangearrangement and relationship with otherobjects, create new worlds of fantasy. Toachieve the best results you mustconstantly collect images which sparkoff a tiny idea and store them for lateruse.WarriorThe illustration (right) wasmade from three sources. Adetailed drawing of a 5thcentury Greek helmet, aphotograph of a face in awomens magazine, and acut out photo from a 1940scar magazine of a radiatorwere combined.Combat (right)The struggling girl is copiedfrom a ladies keep-fit book,and her contestant is the larvaof a grasshopper, greatlyenlarged, stood on spiderslegs and given wire tendrils.74
    • VictimsThe purpose of this picture(right) was to describe thenightmare idea that we areall victims needing helpfrom a source we cannot seeor understand. The wall wasdrawn from a photograph,turned upside down, of thefloor of an iron foundry. Thehands were created from thestudy [above) of the artistsown hands. The attentivejailer was created froma study of museumillustrations of Pacificcrustaceans. Images of thisnature stir our imaginationbecause they provoke thequestions "Who is behindthe screen? What are theydoing? How do they existtogether and what is thestrange shell creature doing?" ©DIAGRAM
    • Using changeThe great exponent of changing formswas the 19th century scientist CharlesDarwin. The idea that we could begin asone species and develop into anotherwas a startling proposal to people whobelieved in eternal forms. Nevertheless,metamorphosis (the changing form), hasalways existed. Caterpillars change tobutterflies, eggs to birds, seeds to trees.Nothing is constant.Man to birdA contemporary cartoon Man to monster (opposite)(right) ridiculing Darwins Readers in the 19th centuryideas on evolution. were particularly fond of stories involving human changes of form. This is an illustration to the Gothic novel by Stevenson of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. The effectiveness of these stories depends on the assumption that goodness has one face and evil another.Teapot to scorpion (below) Seeing possibilitiesHallucinogenic drugs, The seven objects [right]fatigue and mental were collected frominstabilities can produce illustrations in populareffects where the normal magazines. Try to imagineappears abnormal. Reality other forms which could bechanges with our developed from these.perceptions of it. Successfulmetamorphosis dependsupon the unlikelytransformation of one objectinto another.76
    • Double deceptionsFantasy artists often play with thereaders perceptions of the image. Avisual game of look for the picturewithin the picture is being played.Discovering whether we all draw thesame conclusions about a picture canlead to interesting enquiries as to thevery nature of perception. In childrenscomics and popular newspapers thistheme has developed into a variety ofpuzzle games.
    • Exploring possibilitiesThe pencil drawing {above)of discarded take-away foodwas the first study which ledto the idea of a strangemonster peering from a box(right).Double-take picturesSometimes we are caughtunawares by visual tricks.1 This could be a giant heador a rocky landscape.2 The top illustration couldbe a young girl or an oldlady. The subsequent twoillustrations have addeddetail to clarify eachinterpretation.3 This can be a black-faceddoll, or by turning the pageupside down, an old smilinggranny.4 Is this two confrontingfaces, or a vase containing aleafy plant?
    • Distorting your picturesThe next four pages have examples ofmethods of distorting an original imageto explore the effects the newly-createdimage has on the value of the picture.The only really satisfactory way toachieve new results is byexperimentation and by trying to thinkof unique ways the images you have canbe developed.Graphic techniquesThe tools and techniques ofthe fantasy artist can beexplored to create morepowerful images.1 An original image with afull range of tones.2 The image described aslines traced along the edgesof the dark and light areas.3 The image drawn as onlypure blacks or whites withno intermediate tonalvalues.4 A negative version wherethe dark areas are white andthe light areas dark.5 This is illustration no. 3distorted by photocopying itwithout placing it directlyonto the photocopiers glassplate.Double visual (right)By carefully disguising thejoints in the assembly of thisimage the hand appears tohave seven fingers.80
    • distorting your picturesTwo further methods of Matrix distortions Montage distortionchanging your images The illustration is covered 5 Sliced and re-arranged.A By the distortion of a by a grid. You distort the 6 Cut into circular strips andsuperimposed grid. image by re-plotting re-arranged.B By mutilating and re- according to a grid whore the 7 Duplicated at a variety ofassembling the image or axes move in one or more sizes and super-imposed.multiples of it. directions. 8 Montaged with negative 1 Extending the vertical. elements. 2 and 3 Retaining the 9 Cut into strips and edited. horizontal but distorting the 10 Super-imposed vertical. enlargements. 4 Extending the horizontal.82
    • Superimposing picturesOne successful way to achieve fantasypictures is by superimposing images.This is frequently done with thephotographic technique of doubleexposure. Alternatively, two matchingimages can be successfully combinedwithout a high degree of sophisticationby the use of tracing paper overlays.Exploring the head1 Michaels pencil studyself-portrait is mademenacing by the addition ofa snarling lion copied from anature magazine and thesurprised creaturesprotruding from his ears.2 The ghoulish faceproduced by Mark wasachieved by a self-portraitstudy superimposed over atracing study of a skull.3 In this 17th centuryportrait of a nobleman theartist wished to make astatement about the subjectscharacter via thesuperimposition of theupside down portrait. Turnthe book upside down to seethe second face.4 A very popular 19thcentury motif was to haveimages which appear to beone subject, but containanother. In this postcard wecan find death.84
    • Human monstersMythology has been the breeding-ground for many half-human monsters.The synthesis of creatures and humanforms has been used to imply that thehybrid contains some of thecharacteristics of the combinedcreatures appearance. By adding partsof creatures thought to be repellent, egclaws and scales, the frequentlyunpleasant nature of the mythologicalcreature could be more easily described.Classical and ancienthybrids1 A Harpy, with eagles 4 An Egyptian god, with atalons. rams head on a lions body.2 Medusa, with her head of 5 A Satyr, with goat-like legssnakes. and horns.3 The Sphinx, with cat-like 6 A Centaur, combining thebody and contemplative bodies of a man and a horse.smile.
    • Exploratory groups Folklore sources (below) Personality portrayalsThe five drawings (above) Strange stories of unlikely The 19th century postcardare a students studies for creatures flooded the (below) grafts a female facedeveloping an image of a literature of early explorers onto a cats body to hint athalf-naked female figure on and navigators. feline characteristics.the bodies of a variety of 1 A 19th century skeleton ofcreatures. a human fish, the work of a skillful taxidermist. 2 Mermaids and mermen decorated many early maps.
    • Animals as peopleAttributing human characteristics toanimals has been a long tradition amongfantasy artists. The fictional animalworld of popular childrens literatureabounds with human-style walking andtalking animals. Bears blow their noseson spotted handkerchiefs, dogs quoteSocrates, elephants go to the barbersshop and foxes eat their supper usingknives and forks. Representational worlds Dream worlds (above) This device {left) represents The 19th century author a mythological demon dog. It Lewis Carroll created a was used to decorate a dream world for his heroine doorknob in Renaissance Alice. Here, among rabbits, Italy. walruses and frogs, human properties were attributed to animals so that they could converse with Alice.
    • Allegorical worlds (above) Childrens worlds Satirical worlds (above)The shadow puppets of Movies, TV, comics and The 19th century illustratorMalaya include animals who popular stories abound with Granville depicted animalstalk and walk as humans. animal creatures. How many performing humanThese fantasy figures are can you name in this activities. He used thisinterchangeable with gods, collection (below)? Do you technique primarily so thatspirits, servants, animals, know where they appear in he could expose the follies ofwarriors and villains. Each childrens entertainments contemporary society.figure represents ideas and and what other famous onesmorals. have been omitted? 89
    • Machines as peopleThe inanimate object can be made Substituted fleshanimate by the imagination of the The painting (below left) isfantasy artist. Fruit becomes a face, by an 18th century artist.metal a limb, furniture a body and, in the Fish, fruit and plants were incorporated in suchsolid world of sculpture, iron or marble compositions more as abecome human flesh. In the imagination display of the skills of theof fantasy artists all materials can be artist than as a serious piecegiven life. The artists play God of fantasy art.persuading us to believe in theircreations.90
    • Manufactured flesh Collected flesh Constructed fleshThe depiction of robots, The assembled parts of The drawing (below) is notusually machines in human manmade objects have been of an imaginary giant,form, have been the strong grouped in this drawing covered in ant-like humans.interest of 20th century (below left] to represent a It is a picture representingfantasy artists. Advances in goldsmith. These 18th the construction of thetechnology have had a century illustrations were Statue of Liberty in Newconsiderable influence upon mocking the craftsman. York. Sculptors useartists visions of the perfect inanimate substances torobotic figure (below left). describe animate forms.
    • Your point of viewTo achieve drama in a fantasy artcomposition the artist can use visualdistortions of the elements, extremes oflighting, dramatic scale variations, andunusual or disturbing positioning of thefocus of attention. These tricks areparticularly exploited in the productionof comic book art, where the repeateduse of the comic strip as a vehicle forimages and text can be monotonous.92
    • Viewpoint CompositionArtists often select a Note the use of dark andviewpoint from which the light areas (4) to direct theelements draw us into the readers attention. Thepicture (1 and 2). Drawings cutting away of the edges ofneed not conform to the subjects (5) or selectingactual laws of optical dramatic positions (6) addsperspective (3). Some emphasis.elements can be enlargeddramatically. 93
    • Deliberate accidentsAn accidental occurrence in the you are not working directly on aproduction of a drawing may not always finished drawing practise experimentingbe detrimental. Accidental marks on a with new media, unfamiliar tools anddrawings surface may enhance it and surfaces so as to master the effects andinspire new ideas. Many artists use them confidently. Remember to beexperiment with textures and keep open to the unexpected.examples of random discoveries. WhenUnexpected sources Surface accidentsA popular 19th century The watercolour paintinghobby was autograph (right) is by Victor Hugo, thecollecting, and this led to the French 19th centurypublication of a book novelist. While outentitled Ghosts of my sketching he often rubbedfriends. The book contained substances such as cofffeeblank pages on which grounds and cigar ash intofriends of the owner wrote the surface. He also used atheir names in ink along a type of pencil whichvertical crease. The page was produced soluble marks tofolded over so that the ink deepen and dramatize thesmudged, producing a tonal effect. However thesedouble blot or ghost. The techniques should be usedghost (right) is of the with caution as they cansignature of Florence M. destroy the surface of yourWoon, a dry version of work.which is printed [left). Shape accidents The 18th century artist Alexander Cozens developed an idea based on making landscapes from inkblots. He thought that natural accidents resembled nature and inspired visions of imaginary places. The picture (right) was producedThe kaleidoscope effect by dabbing a clothMultiple versions of an dampened with ink onto aimage can be made striking flat piece of paper. This wasby producing them from a then placed, inked sidecut-out of a folded sheet. The down, onto another piece ofpattern {right) began as a paper which had previouslysingle figure and emerged as been crumpled up. He gavea dancing circle of figures. the resulting pattern ofThis method generates inkblots to his students tomultiple images which it use under a piece ofwould otherwise be hard to translucent paper to produceinvent. fantasy landscapes.94
    • SectionFourTechniquesand tipsThis section begins with a selection ofeight pictures, each created by acontemporary fantasy artist, and eachpicture is an example of the way inwhich the artist has mastered his chosenmedium. You too must constantlypractice with the medium you find mostconvenient, and from which you obtainthe best results. However, do continue toexplore new media when not workingon your finished paintings. Always try to keep your work surfacesclean and your tools in good workingorder. Never buy cheap brushes, pens orpaper. An initially high expense canprove a worthwhile investment and helpyou to avoid frustrations incurred whenusing cheaper, less reliable, tools. Always resolve as much as possibleeither on independent sketches orstudies, or by obtaining detailedreferences. Consequently, you shouldnever have to arrive at a point during thepainting when major elements are stillunresolved and which could develop ina form you find unacceptable. Study closely the surfaces of otherartists works to discover their method ofworking. Be careful when examiningreproductions as these are often greatlyreduced versions of the original and, assuch, can imply working methods otherthan those used by the original artist.Try to see the work of fantasy artists inexhibitions or art galleries and, ifpossible, visit the studios of artistswhose works you admire.Three studies, in pencil (A),crayon (B), and brush (C), fora science fiction illustration.The top three are slightlyreduced from the original,whereas the bottom three aregreatly reduced.
    • Pencils and chalks Nick Cudworth 50" x 30" (127cm x 76cm)Nick Cudworth works entirely withcolored pencils, crayons and chalks. Heachieves the clean effects by masking-offareas with paper cut-outs, while heworks on exposed areas. His workingmethod means that when all the areasare completed he must review theoverall effects and carefully adjust thoseparts which did not merge with theadjacent areas.Elements used The idea• A full size human Unlike most of the otherskeleton. examples reproduced in this• An example of the work of section of the book, this oneGauthier DAgoty (an 18th is not intended forcentury French illustrator). reproduction. It is one in a• A black and white series of studies of theillustration by Jan Van Eyck skeleton which were frameddepicting Adam and Eve. and sold in an art gallery in• Parquet flooring. the same way as a painting. Research The skeleton appears to be viewed from above, sitting on a carpet and holding an object. This view is achieved by fixing a full sized skeleton to the wall of the artists studio. The pelvis is attached to the vertical surface so that the legs hang downwards, and the upper torso is suspended forwards on strings hung from the ceiling. (If you turn the previous pages sideways so the feet point downwards you will see this effect). A detailed study was then made of the subject on tracing paper to the final size of the drawing.100
    • Planning Applying colorsNick traced the main details Nick used finely groundof the DAgoty illustration. powders of chalk, pastel-Using the technique of sticks and colored pencils.proportional squares he He built up his designs withtransferred the design onto soft, carefully fused values.the background of this He applied these on themaster drawing of the design of the backgroundskeleton. Around the central carpet and constantlycarpet theme he plotted a referred back to his originalpattern of parquet floor tiles, source references (f). Whenusing those in his home for this was complete hereference. He then prepared replaced the mask, removeda careful separate tracing of the mask of the skeleton, andthe Adam and Eve unit. then worked the details ofThese studies provided him the bones into the silhouettewith his master tracing (a). (g). Eventually, Nick removed the mask for the Progressing the drawing parquet floor tiles and Nick used a technique of colored them (h). masking. Only selected areas were revealed. The others Shadow effect were protected from Nick cut separate masks to smudging by a protective reveal the shadow areas and cut-out of paper. He then reworked the shadows overapplied a soft B pencil the initial drawing (i). Whento the reverse side of his the design was complete hetracing (b) to enable him to began to rework all the areas,transfer all the key lines onto and particularly the edges ofa sheet of paper which he the masked surfaces usingused as a mask (c). When wax crayons, pastels andthis was complete he colored pencils to fuse thegummed the back surface of elements into one cohesivethe masking sheet and, using design. Finally he removeda scalpel, he carefully cut the central area of the smallout the skeleton from the object held by the skeletondesign, and stored this shape and completed the copy offor later use (d). To position the Van Eyck figures (j).the design on his intendedsurface he held down hismaster mask with paperweights then replaced theskeleton, pressing it onto thesurface securely. Thesurrounding mask was thenremoved (with the exceptionof the central Van Eyckelement). He replaced hismaster tracing and carefullyrecorded onto the drawingsurface the details of thedesign (e). 101
    • Maurice Wilson Illustration for a fairy tale, unpublishedPencils and 17 3/4" x 11 3/4" (45cm x 30cm)watercolorsMaurice Wilson worked for over fiftyyears producing delicate studies of realand imaginary creatures and plants. Hewas renowned for his ability to portraycreatures using very little referencematerial to aid the task, sometimesreconstructing long-dead creatures withonly a few surviving bones as a guide.He worked mainly with water solventinks, adding highlights in acrylic paints.After planning his pictures he usuallybegan painting the dark areas, buildingup the main elements in watercolor andadding lighter areas with opaquepigments. The study on the previous twopages of fairies in a magic wood is in theearly stages of painting. Unfortunatelywhile producing this picture Mauricesadly died, aged seventy three years.This is his last, and as it is incomplete,his most revealing work. His hugeknowledge of geological, geographical,botanical and anatomical detail made itpossible for him to get a high degree ofrealism working from memory.Nevertheless he would frequently returnto nature studies for some new aspect ofreality and to maintain a freshness ofvision. He believed that great care mustbe taken over truth to nature to endowthe fantasy image with a high degree ofrealism. Nature study The pencil study [left] is a reduction of a sketch, by Maurice, produced from a study of a tree in a wood. These observations reinforce knowledge and aid the development of accurate detail.104
    • Preliminary sketches Adding detailThe composition is worked Once the composition isout several times in resolved Maurice developsgeneralized sketches the tiniest details simply by(above). This is how the imagining the surfaces he islandscape evolved. painting. The mischievousConsequently, the final fox-like creature (right) is thepicture is an amalgamation result of thousands ofof many of the ideas that studies made of mammalshave become fused in from nature andMaurices memory. photographs. 105
    • Ian Miller One of four paintings forInks and watercolors a calendar, unpublished 15"xl2"(38cm x30cm)Ian Miller trained as a fine artist and references as he believes these canslowly developed from an oil painter to inhibit his exploration of the shapes andone who uses inks and watercolors surfaces of the drawing. Having workedextensively. Although his ideas have in Hollywood on film animation, he hasgreat freedom of expression, the detail developed some of the habits ofwithin each picture is carefully animation artists who work onresolved. His images come almost nonabsorbent surfaces. His work oftenentirely from memory - they are stored has an element of the grotesque and thedetails of the observed world which he Gothic, which creates a sense of uneasecan recall and build on. He seldom uses in the viewer.photographic or technical source1 Ian dampened a sheet ofhot press paper which has avery hard smooth surface.He then stuck it to a boardusing tape. It contracted as itdried, giving a firm, tightworking surface.2 Using a brush Ian applied acoat of masking fluid to thelower section of thecomposition. This allowedfiner edge work than cut-outfilm or paper masks wouldhave.3 Airbrush backgroundswere produced with Iansmix of watercolor and watersolvent dyes. Their delicacyheld the stronger elements ofthe drawing.108
    • 4 Ian applied a techniqueused in animation artworkand carefully dried thepicture at each stage. Heused an ordinary hairdryerto blow cold air onto thework.5 Ian used a movable sheetwith a cut-out hole (rather asa surgeon uses sheets) forworking on each section. Hewore fingerless gloves whichavoid static and dustproblems as well as keepinggrease off the surface. Healso used the gloved handnot holding the brush as awiping surface for his brush.6 When the individualsections were finished Ianremoved the masks and tiedtogether any discordantareas. Detail wasstrengthened with technicalink pens.7 If you look closely at theleft hand tree you will seethat a fine mist has blownacross it. This final breath ofmystery was added when thedrawing was complete. Thefinal touches show the skillof a master craftsman. ©DIAGRAM 109
    • Giovanni Caselli Illustration for The evolution of Early Man,Gouache colors published by Eurobook Ltd, UK 15 3/4 x 25 1/2" (40cm x 65cm)Giovanni Caselli is an acclaimed master Present-day sourcesof the creation of images of earlier Hills, birds, faces and figurecivilisations. He produces pictures of shapes are all derived fromworlds for which we do not have photographic sources incontemporary visual record in a form magazines such as the National Geographic. Fromwhich meets present-day needs. His his collection of over apictures are based upon an imaginative thousand color magazinesand sensitive understanding of the Giovanni can find referencesdiscoveries of archeologists and which act as a visual archivehistorians. He brings the past alive for of the smallest details in histhe present-day reader of history. His landscapes.imaginary pictures are the result of The spear (right) is an objectextensive research and constant found in a grave of huntersupdating of his archives of the smallest of this period. There are nodetails of those past worlds. He visual records of how thesuccessfully incorporates this reasearch weapons really looked.into pictorial situations based upon Giovanni began hismodern landscapes which stand as a reconstructions of the hunters by studyingconvincing framework for his archeological finds of thereconstructions. period. The skull (below) has a projecting but swept-back face. Giovanni incorporatedThe painting (previous page) Contemporary sources of this information into anThis illustration of information illustration of the head of aNeanderthal hunters is a Early man used art to depict present-day eskimo.reconstruction of the life of creatures and events centralhomo sapiens 80,000 years to his existence. Theago. It shows how they may illustration (below left) is ahave looked returning from a Neanderthal manssuccessful killing during the representation of woollytime when Europe was mammoths. It was paintedextensively covered with a on the wall of a cave, and issemi-permanent layer of ice. one of the few surviving records of life at that time
    • Materials Size PlanningNormally Giovanni works on Working for reproduction Giovanni produced a pencilbirch plywood panels which (pictures to be published), sketch of the composition sohave been sized with a Giovanni painted his that he could build up all thecovering of gesso (similar to composition half as large elements required withinplaster of Paris). This again as the reproduction size. one grouping. He used a softprovides a very smooth This made the detail sharper lead pencil on tracing paper,surface and a more and crisper during and worked to the size of thepermanent base than canvas, reproduction. final painting.paper or card. Tracing down After working out all the major details, and possibly reserving particular areas independently on separate sheets, he transferred the composition to the board using a hard pencil. This left a fine groove in the surface which does not appear in reproductions, but which guided him during the painting of the picture. Implementing He began by painting in the three major areas. Foreground (a) in dark sepia, middle distance (b) in purplish brown, and sky (c) in ochre. He then copied the details from photographs or his own pencil reconstruction using gouache. Development This painting was progressed from dark base colors to light areas, each successive layer of detail being produced by an increasing thickness of pigment. Large areas were produced with thin washes of lighter colors, highlights and small dark details with thick gouache. The work was mostly produced with a variety of brushes, but areas such as the freezing breath [detail left) and the sunset were achieved using a fine foam sponge. ©DIAGRAM 113
    • Robert Chapman Illustration for a science journal,Gouache colors and pencils unpublished 16 1/2" x 8 1/2" (42cm x 22cm)Robert Chapmans technique is to work of up-to-date planetary features. Hisin water solvent colors, building up the main skill is in using an airbrush todetails of his compositions from many describe different surface qualities. Hereferences and sources. His extensive normally works in a larger format thanknowledge of astronomy ensures that the final, printed illustration.the final paintings are true descriptions1 Robert first worked out the 2 The foreground and planet 3 Robert then splatterbasic composition on tracing Jupiter were masked out sprayed white dots onto thepaper, basing the elements and the sky sprayed a dark sky, which was finallyupon references collected blue. When dry, an uneven lightly fixed with a sprayingover many years. He then application of soft patches of of gum to prevent damagesketched in the framework of black was sprayed onto the during later work.the composition in soft blue to create an illusion ofpencil onto artists depth.watercolor board.4 The mask over Jupiter was 5 The mask over Callisto was 6 The mask on the sky wasremoved and the sky was removed and the major dark removed and the side viewmasked out. Bright, light areas painted in, followed by of Jupiters bands painted inbands of color were lighter areas. All the with brush rule technique.handpainted onto the paintwork was kept thick on Finally, any tinyplanets surface and then the moons surface to irregularities between eachoverpainted with darker simulate a rough texture. masking were removed, anddetails. These bands were the tiny space probe,fused with patches of Voyager III, added.spraying to blend the tonestogether. The surfacegranulation was achieved byadding pencil over drypaintwork.116
    • Splatter work (right)Uneven splatter dots can beachieved by removing thenozzle of the airbrush andshooting bursts of paint atthe surface. Great care mustbe taken to avoid accidentalheavy clustering of splatter.Practise on spare paperbefore applying thetechnique to your work.Mixed media work (right)When the paintwork is dry,very subtle changes incolor and texture can beachieved by rubbing over thesurface with the side of apencil, chalk, or crayon.This technique must beapplied near completion,because you cannotsatisfactorily paint back overthe pencil work.Brush rule work (right)When adding very accurateline work, you can use a finesharp brush and, with verylittle paint, add brush lineswhich are very straight. Holdthe rulers edge up from thesurface, and run the brushsmetal collar along the rule.Practise this techniquebefore applying it to yourpainting.Dry brush work (right)Coarse textures can beachieved if you apply thickpaint with an old brush.Because the paint is dabbedonto the surface, or draggedonto it, do not use new orgood quality brushes. Takecare not to apply too muchpaint as this can peel off ifhandled roughly or canbuild up, creating artificialshadows which appearwhen your painting isphotographed for ©DIAGRAMreproduction.
    • Jim Burns Book jacket design for Majipoor Chronicles,Acrylic colors published by Victor Gollancz Ltd, UK 27 1/2 x 19 1/4 (70cm x 49cm)Jim Burns is a renowned artist who world of vehicles, people, buildings,works for publishers and movie monsters and landscapes. Using acrylicdirectors in the science fiction genre. He paints applied with both brush andlectures at conferences on the role of the airbrush, almost all of his inspirationvisual artist in creating new images to springs from his ability to seematch the advancing ideas. His images opportunities for creating futuristicare impressive because they have a high worlds from contemporary sources suchquality of reality, and depict a futuristic as glossy magazines. Book jacket design Jim has produced many covers for science fiction books and he always insists on being allowed time to read the book and interpret its subject. Authors who have seen his work specifically ask for his imaginative interpretations. The cover (left) is for a collection of stories about the fantastical world of Majipoor. Jim has caught brilliantly the isolation felt by the girl as she enters the alien city. The composition is particularly striking in that it draws the reader into the subject by the acute perspective and the dominant foreground elements. Notice how carefully Jim has subdued the colors behind the text so that the typography does not conflict with the tonal values of the image.120
    • Painting technique Sources Other applicationsThe painting of the Majipoor Jim has an enormous Jim has been asked to applyChronicles cover was collection of photographs his creative ideas to theproduced on fiberboard cut out from glossy world of movies and even towhich had been primed with magazines. He finds that present-day vehicle design.acrylic gesso to produce a Italian fashion magazines He worked in Hollywood onstrong, smooth base. The and sports-car magazines are the movie Bladerunnerlarge, even areas of color are a good source for where his enthusiasm forairbrushed layers of thin sophisticated images. The futuristic vehicles wasacrylic paint. The luminous reflective polished surfaces incorporated in the moviecolors are produced by which characterize his work sets. The sketch (below)combining layers of acrylic echo the polished style of shows one of his many ideaspaint with glazes. modern magazine for vehicles in the movie. In photography. Europe he has also produced ideas for new electrically- powered vehicle design in which traditional body shapes have been completely rethought. 121
    • Alan Craddock Book jacket design for Planet of the Damned,Acrylic and oil colors published by Futura, UK 21 1/2" x 27 1/2" (55cm x 70cm)Alan Craddock is one of a new artist, but was inspired and givengeneration of artists who have confidence by his high school artdeveloped their skills to suit the needs teacher. All his technical skills haveof publishers of science fiction and the been developed by a process ofrising popularity of a comic culture. experimentation and his efforts atFrom childhood he collected small- mastering his craft. His images areformat comics and advertisements for simple in composition, forceful, directbodybuilding aids. He is a self-trained and memorable.Folk heroes (right)Alans enormous knowledgeof popular American comicculture means that he canuse hero figures as a basis forhis ideas. Flash Gordon,Buck Rogers, Superman,Spiderman, The IncredibleHulk, Doctor Death, TheSpook, Conan the Barbarian,Deathlock and a gallery ofother square-jawed,bodybuilding giants strutthrough his pictures. Theyremind the science fictionreaders of their own comicstrip heroes. Figure construction Color Alan frequently starts with a Alan developed his own figure from a comic. In the color system using oils and painting (opposite) he acrylic paints to produce copied the pose of his hero, radiant lighting and The Spook (left). This negro luminous images. He zombie has a muscular sprayed a glaze over each physique and a dark, shiny section of the work, building skin texture. Alan added up thin layers of translucent futuristic weaponry and a color over earlier brushwork lifeless female form. or spray-work.
    • Composition (above) The medium colors applied thinly. One ofThe painting was composed Alan worked on strong his most successfulin order to enable the smooth artists board and techniques is to gentlypublisher to print the title built up all the detail in remove the surface of theand other details on the pencil directly onto the painting using a hard pencilcover. Artists are often surface of the board. He then eraser. Carefully handled,required to produce work in sprayed on (without using this technique createssuch a way that the elements masks) thin layers of acrylic highlights and reveals colorsof the picture are positioned paints. He completed the applied previously.to suit the requirements of painting using artists oilthe publisher. 125
    • George Sharp Illustration from The High Kings,Oil colors published by Ballantine, USA 23V2" x 17%" (60cm x 45cm)George Sharps technique is to combine produce an effect of glowing inner light.very detailed photographic references The surface is a very finely texturedwith his highly accomplished skills in canvas, which George stretches andfigure and animal drawing. He normally primes himself to produce a veryworks in oils, initially applied in thin smoothly surfaced finish and a card-likelayers, which build up the detail to absorbency.Choosing the composition Establishing the imagesThe idea for the scene was an 4 George uses a photographicimage which developed in projector to transfer hishis mind. The story seemed studies onto canvas [left).to spark off the picture of a This method enables him todark sea cave, occupied by a paint the tonal areas directlybasking, fat, contented onto the surface without thedragon. presence of outlines and1 The first stage was to obtain construction marks. You canphotographs of caves, and use a home transparencyGeorge was lucky to have a projector and transfer yourfriend who took photographs pictures onto the wall againstof the spectacular volcanic which you have placed yoursea caves on the Canary work surface.Islands. 5 George begins with the dark2 To select a suitable view, areas of the cave to establishGeorge first transferred the the composition. He thenfloor planes of the cave onto projects his drawing of thetracing paper. dragon into the central area.3 He then composed, in great Using this method enablesdetail, a pencil study of a fat you to combine any numberdragon. Great care was taken of elements very accurately,at this stage to resolve the but care must be taken toconstruction and features of imagine a common source ofthe invented dragon, as lighting to avoid the imagesworking out details on the appearing out of context.canvas destroys the purity ofthe final work. Remember, aproblem left until thepainting stage is a problemwith increased dangers ofspoiling the cleanliness ofthe final result.128
    • Building up the detailThe dark areas were slowlybuilt up to form the majorstructures of the composition(a), and, within thesestructures, textures wereestablished by dabbing thewet surface with pieces ofkitchen roll (b) (detail right,actual size). This techniqueis excellent for naturalsurfaces, but requires greatcare as you are unable torepeat or revise the results if Constructing the dragonthey are unsatisfactory. Detail on the dragon wasDuring the painting, the achieved with a very finehighlights (c) are worked brush, and care was taken toback into the picture by using smooth the dark drawingthicker, opaque colors. lines into each form. The anatomy is a mixture of crocodile (for the head), birds claws (for the feet), amphibian (for the smooth underbelly) and the pose is one of lazy, relaxed enjoyment. ©DIAGRAM 129
    • Mastering techniquesThe work of artists discussed in this these are difficult to convey in a book.section has shown that the techniques Without reading the text you might notused have a great influence over the have realised that the frozen breath onqualities of the work. You can only the figures in Giovannis painting (pageexpress yourself well if you are 110) was added with a sponge, that theconfident in your method. The pictures rock surface in Georges painting (pagein this book are only reproductions and 126) was produced by removing theas such can do little to inform you of the paint with a paper tissue, and that Nickssurface quality of the works examined. painting (page 98) is really a pencil andSize and color are equally important and crayon drawing.1 Pen and ink 2 Brush and ink 3 Chalks, brush and inkThis detail shows the Brushes create lines of In this example chalks havescratchy quality of a pen varying thicknesses with been highlighted with aused with confidence and ease. They are commonly touch of white paint. This isspeed. The original was used among comic book now rarely used.obviously drawn much illustrators who will oftensmaller. This technique is plan in soft pencil and goseldom used now by over the plan with ink and aillustrators. finely-pointed brush.130
    • 6 Flat area work This is a copy of a Mexican stamp design. This type of drawing is produced using a fine pencil to plan the design, then the large areas are filled-in using a paintbrush. ©DIAGRAM4 Technical pen and brush 5 Splatter technique 7 Reproduction methodsThis is an actual size copy of Here the dramatic effect is This example is a wooda movie still. The large dark achieved using a tooth brush engraving, a copy of a studyareas are produced using ink to spray the ink on (see page by the 19th century artistand brush. The gradations 136). Practise this method Gustave Dore. The engraversare added in the form of dots beforehand and use it with employed great skill tomade with a technical pen. caution. reproduce the textural and tonal qualities of the original watercolor. 131
    • Dry medium techniquesPencils, chalks and crayons are tools of range of tonal values which canconvenience. Pencils are ideal for represent the qualities of later, morethinking out your ideas and planning as resolved work. Dry medium tools need athe lines can be covered over easily suitable texture for their use - such aswith paint. Chalks and crayons are very cartridge paper — but even so, finisheduseful for building up tones. Pencils are work must be sprayed with fixativeavailable in a wide range of lead solution to prevent smudging.strengths - the hardest produce the Unfortunately, one drawback of thisfinest and lightest marks, the softest the medium is that the subtle qualities of thedarkest and roughest marks. They can lines and tones produced maketherefore be used to record a very wide reproduction of the image difficult. Thinking it out The pencil drawing (left) is one of many produced by the architect Sant Elia who used a pencil to sketch his ideas of futuristic cities. Pencils are ideal for quickly working out your ideas, revealing your first thoughts, and reworking the original image. Tonal studies The two pencil studies (above right and right) are by Lee aged 18 years. Both drawings, which he intends to use as reference material, show the ability of the artist to use the pencil to obtain a wide range of tones from the soft lead of a single pencil. Planning Having worked out your ideas you can use pencils to construct the composition and also produce independent studies of individual sections of the design. The illustration (right) is a preliminary sketch for a science fiction composition.132
    • Wet medium techniquesFantasy artists usually use wet mediumtools to produce drawings intended forreproduction as they make clear, strongmarks. Since these marks are difficultto erase the artist normally preplans hisdesign in light pencil or chalk. Workingwith a wet medium requires you to usestronger papers than with pencils orchalks, as the moisture can cause thesurface to buckle. There are two types oftool, those containing their own ink;technical pens, ball point pens, felt tippens, and those you dip into ink such asbrushes and dip-in pens.Dip-in pensThese are very useful to givea drawing energy and life asa good strong pen nibproduces lines which revealthe pressure and speed of thehand. The drawing (right) byHeinrich Kley beautifullycaptures the imaginaryblack-feathered crow man.Technical pensArchitects, engineers anddesigners use pens whichproduce a regular thicknessof line. These are best usedon plastic sheets or hard,smooth card as the fine pointcan easily snag on thesurface of rough papers.Each pen produces aconstant line thickness so avariety of pens must be usedto achieve a drawing withvarying thickness lines likethe example (right). Thisdrawing uses rules andtemplates to guide the penduring drawing.134
    • BrushesDrawing with a brush offersthe opportunity ofproducing lines which canthicken and narrowdepending on the pressure ofthe hand or the amount ofink on the brush. Brushes areable to produce efficientlyboth fine lines, such as thewhiskers on the drawing(right) or large solid areassuch as the victims garment.Felt tipped pensThere are many varieties offelt tipped pen, varying inthickness and color. Thesenormally use kerosene as anink base so marks cannoteasily be refined. They arealso very easily used up asthe contents dry out aftersome use and the pen mustbe discarded. The drawing(right) uses fine pens for thedetail and broad pens for thelarger areas.Ball-point pensThese are very rarely usedfor final designs but veryuseful as a means of quicklyjotting down ideas. Thedoodles (below) by Mike,aged 14, show how quickand easy drawing with aball-point pen can be. 135
    • AirbrushUsing an airbrush requires a different methods of good airbrush artists. Theytype of skill from that used with brushes usually work from simple dark areas toor pencils. The paint is finely sprayed intricate light ones. Graduating betweenonto the surface and can achieve either such areas is a very skilled job. Whilevery smooth even areas or fine working the artists protect sections ofgradations — both of which are difficult the painting with paper masks so thatto achieve with other tools. The only the areas they are directly workingtechnique has been greatly exploited by on are exposed. In the hands of mastersartists depicting science fiction subjects. very fine detail is achieved, oftenIt is often difficult to detect the working reinforced with careful brushwork. Toothbrush technique Coarse gradations and textures similar to spray work can be achieved using an old toothbrush and a small stick rubbed across the inked bristles. Before applying paint or ink, mask areas you dont want it applied to.Progressing a painting the design, subsequently the board.Robert Chapman began the covering the board with a 3 The dark background areaspainting {far right) by film of clear masking were sprayed.producing a careful pencil material. 4 Next, he removed thesketch of the idea. He 2 He then removed the outer central mask and cut a newworked with a hard pencil areas having first cut a very mask to protect theon tracing paper using careful line around the background areas whiletemplates to construct central object using an working on the centralaccurately the ovals of the extremely sharp scalpel. design.major parts of the design. This aspect of working with 5 Bob cut a series of masks1 He then transferred-down an airbrush requires a great within the central area toonto finely-grained cartridge deal of skill to avoid cutting enable him to spray differentboard the major elements of too deeply into the surface of
    • areas with a variety of Science fiction worlds image. Using the airbrushgradations of color. This is an airbrushed requires a steady hand and6 When all the surface of the painting by Robert Chapman smooth movement. One ofboard had been painted, Bob [see page 124). the most impressivebegan drawing-in the detail The artist must hold clearly qualities of airbrush artists iswith a fine brush. He made in mind the tonal values of their ability to add verysure that there were no white the areas obscured under the small gradated values suchareas left where the edges of mask to avoid producing as shining lights or softlythe masks had been. He results which flatten the darkened forms.finished off by applyingcarefully placed, small areasof bright spraywork.
    • Adding textures and tonesThere are two ways of adding tone or Selecting a texturetexture to a drawing. If the drawing is to A large range of tones andbe reproduced, you can either instruct textures, both regular andthe printer to add mechanical tone or irregular, are available, butadd the tone yourself and experiment they tend to be costly. Only buy the ones which youwith tonal values. You can do this using know you want to use, andself-adhesive or rub-down sheets of store unused piecesmechanically produced tone. Store carefully. A few examples ofsheets carefully, keeping them flat and the available range arefree from dust. shown (below). A Rub-down В Self-adhesive film Applying rub-down tone (below) 1 Complete a line drawing. 2 Lay the sheet of tone over your drawing and rub down using a blunt tool (a burnisher is ideal). Lift the sheet up occasionally to check the effect. 3 Move the unused tone to another area and apply again. You can build up the texture by laying one pattern over another.138
    • Applying self-adhesive film still attached) over your area you want tone on.(below) work. Using a scalpel, cut 4 Lay a piece of spare paperUsing this method you will out roughly, but not on the area and burnish allhave strong, black wastefully, the area over using a smooth bluntcontaining lines with a required. Remove the tool.variety of textures. Avoid backing sheet and the 5 Make sure there is no dirtusing tones of either type unused pieces of tone with on the drawing beforeover large areas. care. Put the shaped area of adding any further tones.1 Complete your line tone over your work and rub 6 Repeat this process addingdrawing. down in the centre only to other tones.2 Lay part of the texture keep the piece in place.sheet (with the backing sheet 3 Carefully cut around the 139
    • Combining mediaDrawings can accommodate a wide integral part of the drawing. Try not tovariety of unusual textures. Explore the use methods which damage the surfacepossibilities. Often the use of several of the picture. All the examples on thesetechniques leads to exciting discoveries pages are of primitive, coarse textureswhich can be used in later drawings. which, when applied correctly, can giveTextures should not be employed for your drawings life and vitality.their own sake - they should be an Stipple Regular textures can be made using a large, blunt- ended brush and stippling the tones (left). Protect the other areas with a mask, and do not use thin ink or paint, as this can cause blotches. Always test the effect of a freshly loaded brush on a piece of scrap paper before applying. Frottage A pattern can be added by placing your drawing over a coarse-grained surface (such as a piece of wood) and rubbing over the drawing with a soft pencil [left]. Make sure the drawing does not move during the process. Only pastel, crayon and pencil are suitable tools for this method. Smudging A very common technique, but take care to avoid a messy result. The end of your finger (left), soft material, or a putty rubber can be used to spread the tone. Spray fixative over the finished drawing to prevent accidental smudging.
    • Resistant materials (below) Scratch back (above)You can create interesting Exciting effects can beeffects using wax with obtained by carefullywater-based tone. scratching over your inkA Cover part of your picture drawing with a sharp bladewith wax, either by rubbing or scalpel. Scratch with thea candle or wax crayon over edge of a blade only to avoidit, or use liquid wax applied damage to the surface.with a brush. Remove only a very thinВ Add a wash of tone. This layer, and remember thatwill shrink back from the subsequent redrawing maywaxed areas and expose the be difficult.earlier drawing. 141
    • А Childrens literature, 88-89Accidents, deliberate, 94-95 Chinese carving, 28Achelous and Hercules, 10 Chinese dragon, 49Acrylic colors, 118-121 Christian belief andAcrylic and oil colors, 122-125 symbolism, 56-57African art, 28-29 Combining images, 74-75Airbrush, 136-137 Combining media, 140-141Alice, 44, 48, 88 Comics, 60-61American Indian art, 10, 28-29, Cozens, Alexander, 94-95 41,49 Craddock, Alan, 122-125Animal spirits, 41 Cudworth, Nick, 98-101Animals as people, 88-89 Cultures, other, 28-29Australian Aborigine face painting, 28 DAztec art, 49 da Vinci, Leonardo, 14 DAgoty, Gauthier, 100-101В Dali, Salvador, 62-64Bellamy, Frank, 60 Dan Dare, 60Bilibin, Ivan, 12, 65 Deceptions, double, 78-79Blake, William, 16, 30-31 Demonic creatures, 53Bosch, Hieronymus, 54-56 Dickens, Charles, 11Brueghel, Peter the Elder, 30-31, Distorting your pictures, 80-83 71 Dore, Gustave, 31, 73,131Brushes, 134-135 Double deceptions, 78-79Burns, Jim, 118-121 Dragons, 49 (see also St George)Busch, Wilhelm, 60 Dreams, fantasy of, 42-45 Dry medium techniques, 132-133с Durer, Albrecht, 40Carroll, Lewis, 48, 88Caselli, Giovanni, 110-113 ЕCentaur, 86 Egyptian god, 86Central American Indian art, Egyptian statue, 28-29 28-29 Ensor, James, 32-33Change, using, 76-77 Evangelists, the four, 57Chapman, Robert, 114-117, Everyday objects, 16-17 136-137 Evil Dead, 61142
    • Inspiration bank, 16-17Faith, fantasy of, 54-57 Irrationalities, 68Fantasy, 10-11,32-65 of dreams, 42-45 J of faith, 54-57 Jekyll and Hyde, 76-77 of legends, 46-49 Juxtapositions, 37 of nature, 38-41 of the ordinary, 34-37 К of popular culture, 58-61 Kaleidoscope effect, 94 of self-indulgence, 62-65 Khnopff, Fernand, 64 of superstitions, 50-53 King Kong, 61Frankenstein, 61 Kley, Heinrich, 134Fuseli, Henry, 42-44 Koerner, Henry, 8-9G LGouache colors, 110-113 Legends, fantasy of, 46-49Gouache colors and pencils, Little Nemo, 44, 60 114-117Goya, Francisco de, 11 MGranville, 89 McCay, Winsor, 44, 60Greek fertility goddess, 28-29 Machines as people, 90-91Greek helmet, 74 Magritte, 34-36Greek myth, 10 Majipoor Chronicles, 120-121Greek theater mask, 28-29 Malayan puppets, 32, 89Grunewald, Matthias, 38-40 Manufactured objects, 18-19Gullivers Travels, 61 Mastering techniques, 130-131 Matrix distortion, 82-83H Max and Moritz, 60Harpy, 86 Media, combining, 140-141Harrison, Harry, 122-125 Medieval mystery play mask,Hercules and Achelous, 10 28-29Hokusai, Katsushika, 31 Medusa, 86Horror sources, 36 Melies, George, 61Hugo, Victor, 94-95 Mermaids, 87Human monsters, 86-87 Microscopic objects, 21 Miller, Ian, 106-109I Models, 26-27Ideas, Montage, 73, 74-75 developing, 66-95 Montage distortion, 82-83 generating, 8-31 Munch, Edvard, 37Impossibilities, 68-69 Munchhausen, Baron Von, 73Improbabilities, 68 Mythology, 86-87Incongruities, 68-69, 70-71Incubus, 45 NIndian (Hindu) art, 66-67 Nature, (see also American Indian Art) fantasy of, 38-41Inks and watercolors, 106-109 studying, 14-15 143
    • indexNewton, Isaac, 8 models, 26-27Normality, heightened, 37 nature, 14-15, 20-21 other cultures, 28-29О Patent Office designs, 21Oil and acrylic colors, 122-125 photographic, 13, 22-25Oil colors, 126-129 plants, 14Ordinary, fantasy of the, 34-37 technical, 12 unseen world, 20-21р Sources of fantasy, 32-65Past masters, 30-31 heightened normality, 37Patent Office designs, 21 horror, 36Pencils and chalks, 98-101 juxtapositions, 37Pencils and gouache colors, 114-117 Sphinx, 86Pencils and watercolors, 102-105 Stevenson, R L, 76-77Pens, 134-135 Superimposing pictures, 84-85Peter Pan, 44 Superstitions, fantasy of, 50-53Photographic sources, 13, 22-25 Surprise, 68-69Plant spirits, 41Plants, 14 тPopular culture, fantasy of, 58-61 Technical sources, 12Puss in Boots, 61 Techniques, dry medium, 132-133R mastering, 130-131Reality, using, 16-17 wet medium, 134-135Rops, Felicien, 37 Techniques and tips, 96-141 Tenniel, John, 48s Textures, 138-139St Anthony, temptation of, Thurber, James, 68 by Bosch, 54-56 Tones, 138-139 by Dali, 62-64 by Durer, 40 U by Grunewald, 38-40 Uccello, Paolo, 46-48St George and the Dragon, 46-48 Unseen world, 20-21Salem witches, 53Sant Elia, 132 VSatire, 89 Van Eyck, Jan, 100Satyr, 86 Viewpoint, 92-93Self-indulgence, fantasy of, 62-65 Viking battle-axe, 49Seven deadly sins, 57Sharp, George, 126-129 W Shelley, Mary, 44, 61 Watercolors and inks, 106-109Size, using, 72-73 Watercolors and pencils, 102-105Sources (of images), 12-13, 32-65 Weird Tales, 58-60 everyday objects, 16-17 Wet medium techniques, 134-135 inspiration bank, 16-17 Wiertz, Antoine, 50-52 manufactured objects, 18-19 Wilson, Maurice, 102-105 microscopic objects, 21 Witches, 83144
    • TECHNIQUES OF FANTASY ART contains interviews with a selection of internationally famous fantasy artists. Each artist describes in a step-by-step manner the stages in the creation of one of their major works. The examples, reproduced in full colour, have been selected to illustrate the variety of media techniques - coloured pencils, watercolours, coloured inks, gouache and oil paints, and mixed media. Each artist reveals thesecrets of their working techniques so that you can understand the graphic qualities of the picture. TECHNIQUES OF FANTASY ART is a practical and totally realistic way of creating imaginary images. The book provokes ideas,advises the best methods for capturing and developing your ideas, and, most importantly, explains how to translate your ideas into either a drawing or a painting with a higher degree of competence. TECHNIQUES OF FANTASY ART will help you improve your own drawing abilities, understand the techniques and skills of other artists work, and introduce you to a world that has no limits to its imaginary forms.