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  • 1. Rice<br /> <br />Section - 1:History of Development of Rice Variety in India  Development of Hybrid RiceVariety Release ProcedureSeed Production ProcedureSection - 2:Details of Rice VarietiesAnnexureSection - 3:State-wise Notified Rice VarietiesSection - 4:List of Denotified Rice Varieties<br /> <br />  Click here for latest update on Rice Varieties in India                      <br />History of Development of Rice Variety in India   <br />Rice breeding programme in India was started by Dr. G. P. Hector, the then Economic Botanist during 1911 in undivided Bengal with headquarters at Dacca (now in Bangladesh). Subsequently, in 1912, a crop specialist was appointed exclusively for rice in Madras Province. Prior to the establishment of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 1929, Bengal and Madras were the only provinces which had specialist exclusively for rice crop. After the establishment of ICAR, it initiated rice research projects in various states of the country and by 1950, 82 research stations in 14 states of the country were established, fully devoted for rice research projects. These research stations, mainly by the pure line method of selection, released 445 improved varieties. These varieties were of various kind such as -<br />Earliness<br />Deep water and flood resistant<br />Lodging resistant<br />Drought resistant<br />Non-shredding of grains<br />Dormancy of seed<br />Control of wild rice<br />Disease resistant<br />Higher response to heavy mannuring.<br />Thus, during the pure line period of selection from 1911-1949, the advantage of natural selection have been fully exploited and there have been varieties available for every rice ecology. During the early period of breeding research programme, varieties were developed suitable for specific stress situation or for resistant to particular disease. When, after World War II, synthetic fertilizers became popular, efforts were made to identify varieties which respond to heavy fertilization.<br />After the establishment of the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) at Cuttak in 1946 by the Govt. of India, rice research and training received an added impetus. There had been a systematic screening of exotic types from the genetic stocks. Besides, for the purpose of direct introduction in the country, many Chinese, Japanese, Taiwanese and Russian types were also tested. The Chinese types, which were first, prior to 1947, tested in Kashmir Valley, found fairly successful and the Japanese and Russian types were found unsuitable under Indian conditions due to poor yield, unacceptable grain qualities and susceptibility to blast.<br />Inter-racial hybridization programme between japonicas and indicas was initiated during 1950-54. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations with a view of improving production of cereal on an international basis after the end of World-War II, launched a collaborative project japonica Xindica hybridization in South-East Asian countries. The object of these project was to transfer the high yielding capacity and response to use higher dose of fertilizers into local indica varieties from japonica varieties. Indica varieties were already well adapted to the local conditions and had tolerance to diseases and pests of the region. A parallel project of japonica X indica hybridization was also started by ICAR with the same objectives. These projects could achieve very limited success. Only four varieties, viz. - Malinja and Mashuri in Malaysia, ADT-27 in Tamil Nadu, India and Circna in Australia were released from more than 700 hybrid combinations.<br />The Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack also started another project in 1960 with a view to evolve high yielding fertilizer responsive varieties with japonica in 11 states. In this project remarkable success was achieved in the development of japonica X indica hybrids.<br />The International Rice Research Institute was established in the Philippines in 1960 and this institute helped in evolving dwarf high yielding varieties with the concept of improving the plant type in indica rices based on the use of a gene from semi-dwarf Chinese varieties. These high yielding varieties were highlighted during the International Rice Year in 1966 by ICAR through national demonstration trials. This was the beginning of moving towards self-sufficiency in rice production. Further, the ICAR launched the All-India Co-ordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) in 1965 that helped in co-ordination of interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research results on the country basis for improving the production, productivity and profitability of rice in India.<br />Inter-racial hybridization programme between semi-dwarf Taiwanese types/derivatives and indica was started during 1965 onwards. India operated its most intensive rice breeding programmes under the AICRIP with the development of Taichung (Native) - I from the semi-dwarf mutant and achieved remarkable success. Padma and Jaya were the first varieties that emerged from the programme. Subsequently, many semi-dwarf varieties were released by the Central Variety Release Committee and also by the different state agencies. Most of these varieties have got high yield potential.<br />During the period of inter-racial hybridization between semi-dwarf Taiwanese types/derivatives and indica which was started during 1965, the most significant achievement is the prolific release of high yielding varieties. Infact 123 varieties were released during this period in 12 years as compared to 51 high yielding varieties released during the four decades prior to 1965. The semi-dwarf varieties have been found superior in efficiency of grain production as compared to the tall traditional varieties.<br /> <br />Development of Hybrid Rice   <br />Research programme was initiated during 1970 to develop hybrid rice variety in the country. There was no success in this programme during the subsequent two decades. However, the research programme was accelerated and intensified from 1989 with a mission mode project. With this concerted research efforts, a remarkable success was achieved within a short span of 5 years and half a dozen rice hybrid rice varieties were developed from public and private sectors. The first four hybrid rice varieties were released in the country during 1994. Subsequently, two more hybrid rice varieties were also released. By the end of 2001, a total of 19 hybrid rice varieties were released.<br /> <br />Variety Release Procedure   <br />Any variety of agricultural or horticultural crops in being recommended by the Central Seed Committee constituted under the Seeds Act, 1966 for its release and notification for commercial cultivation. This committee is headed by the Secretary (A&C), Dept. of Agriculture & Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture.<br />The Central Seed Committee consists of two sub-committees -<br />Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of varieties for agricultural crops, chaired by DDG (FC), ICAR.<br />Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of varieties for horticultural crops, chaired by DDG (Hort.), ICAR.<br />The proposal for release and notification of a particular variety is submitted by the concerned breeder through his respective Institute of ICAR or a breeder of the University through his respective State Govt. This proposal is scrutinized and considered by the sub-committee and if the proposal for release of variety is for more than one state, such a variety is released by the Central Seed Committee. In case proposal for release of variety is for one state or specially for a particular zone of the state, such variety is released by the State Seed Committee.<br /> <br />Seed Production Procedure   <br />Under the seed production programme, the following classification of seed is in vogue -<br />1.Nucleus SeedThe seed or the research material produced by the breeder by various selection procedure in a pure line variety or clone is known as nucleus seed.2.Breeder SeedIt is the seed or vegetative propagating material produced by the breeder who develops or evolves the particular variety. The breeder seed is also produced by other Agricultural Universities under the direct supervision of the breeder of the concerned crop. Breeder seed is the source for the production of foundation seed.3.Foundation SeedFoundation seed is a progeny of breeder seed. It is produced from the genetically pure breeder seed. Foundation seed is produced by the National Seeds Corporation (NSC), State Farm Corporation of India (SFCI) and all States Seeds Development Corporations.4.Certified SeedCertified seed is produced from foundation seeds. This seed is certified by the State Seed Certification Agency established under the State Governments. Certified seed is produced by the National Seeds Corporation, State Farm Corporation of India and State Seeds Development Corporations under the supervision of State Seed Certification Agencies.<br />Details of Rice Varieties: <br />s<br />Rice varieties in india:<br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />The latest edition of Problems and Prospects of Rice Export from India was brought out by the Directorate of Rice Development, Patna in February'2003. Rice is contributing significantly in the economy of the country, and from its export considerable amount of foreign exchange is realized. Infact, Basmati Rice and Non-Basmati Rice, both are exported from India to various countries around the world. The variety Basmati is unique in its quality characteristics and it has good demand in the international markets, but presently India is facing stiff competition with other competing countries in the world. This publication illustrates the attempt made by the Directorate to compile various problems, prospects and other related aspects of Rice Export from India.<br />The exercise is expected to be of use to agricultural scientists, policy makers, extension workers, traders, farming community, exporters, govt. organizations and other related agencies.<br /> <br />Exports at a Glance   <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Introduction   <br />Rice is one of the important cereal food crop of India. Rice contributes about 43% of total food grain production and 46% of total cereal production in the country. It continues to play vital role in the national exports. The percentage share of rice in total national export was 4.5% during 1998-99. The percentage share of agriculture export in total national export was 18.25, whereas the percentage share of rice export in total agriculture export was 24.62 during 1998-99. Thus, rice export contributes nearly 25% of total agriculture export from the country.<br />Rice is also an important cereal food crops in South East Asia. Thailand, Vietnam, Mynammar, China and Japan are the important countries besides India growing rice. Among the exporting countries Thailand, Vietnam, India and Pakistan are the important countries exporting rice in sizeable quantity. Thailand ranks first in the export of rice in the world followed by Vietnam and India. However, India is likely set to be second largest rice exporter in the world during the current financial year. China and Indonesia are likely to boost their import of rice, which will facilitate to India to increase its rice export. Besides, the Govt. of India has also fixed high target of export of rice from India including broken rice. The Govt. of India has also fixed the export price of rice quite competitive in the international market. These measures are expected to contribute in boosting the export of rice from India.<br />The Govt. has also created four zones in addition to earlier 28 zones to boost the export of agriculture products from the country, these new zones are -<br />Apple zone in Himachal Pradesh<br />Mango zones in Andhra Pradesh<br />Flower zone in Tamil Nadu<br />Basmati rice export zone in Punjab.<br />With the creation of these four new zones the export of agriculture products from the country have risen to 32 zones, which will cover the export of various agriculture products in the country. Therefore, the special emphasis is being laid down to strengthen these zones for increasing agricultural products including export of basmati rice from India. The basmati export zone has been set up in Punjab to tap the potential of basmati rice to increase its export in the international market. In fact Indian basmati rice is well recognized in the international markets because of its quality. Keeping in view the export potential of basmati rice, the Govt. of India has launched aggressive export promotion policy to further develop the basmati rice by adoption of improved production technology including improved high yielding new seeds. The scheme for export of basmati zone will cover Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Kapurthala, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Nawanshahar districts of Punjab.<br />The estimated outlay of the scheme is Rs.23.3 crore, in which the centre's share would be Rs.11.85 crore, the share of State Govt. of Punjab would be Rs.1.85 crore. Balance amount Rs.9.6 crore will be met from private entrepreneurs. The aim of this programme is to increase export of basmati rice in particular and overall export of rice in general.<br />It is, therefore, attempt has been made by the Directorate of Rice Development, Patna to analyse the problems and prospects of rice export from India and to bring out in a compiled form. By using the navigational links under Compiled Contents title, you can browse through information on various problems/constraints of rice export including basmati from India to various countries in the world, prospects of rice export including basmati rice, various strategies and suggestions  to increase export of rice from India to earn more foreign exchange needed for the development of the country, and even find the list of rice exporters.<br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />RICE EXPORT SCENARIO<br />India is one of the important countries in the world in export of rice. India's exports are expected to go up further during current financial year. Hence, Indian rice exports are set to reach second place in the world markets after Thailand edging out Vietnam in the process as per the report of the Food and Agricultural Organisation.<br /> <br />Basmati Rice Background <br />Rice export from India constitutes the major share of Basmati rice. Nearly two-third of Basmati rice produced in India is exported. Basmati rice is the leading aromatic fine quality rice of the world trade and it fetches good export price in the international markets. Infact, Basmati rice is a gift from "Mother Nature" to the Indian sub-continent and grows in the Indo-Gangatic plains only.<br />The meaning of Basmati can be derived from "bas" which means aroma and "mati" meaning sense. Thus the word Basmati implies 'ingrained aroma'. So it is the aroma that gives basmati its novel characteristics unmatched by any other rice grain anywhere else in the world. Many scented varieties of rice have been cultivated in the Indian sub- continent from time immemorial but basmati distinguishes itself from all other aromatic rice due to its unique aromatic characteristics coupled with silky texture of its long grain. The great Punjabi poet Varis Shah has described basmati-scented rice in his poem of Heer and Ranjha in 1766. The other poets such as Mushkin and Sukhdas have also traced back to Abul-4 Fazl Allami's Ain-e-Akbari about scented grain.<br />Thus, it is quite evident that basmati rice perhaps from its very accurence has been recipe entertainer of the Royal Society. Now, it is still considered "dream of the masses" and "charm of the classes".<br />The supremacy of basmati rice can not superceded by any other scented variety because of its unique characteristics viz superfine kernels, exquisite aroma, sweet taste, silky texture, delicate curvature and linear kernel elongation with least breadth and swelling on cooking. Because of its quality characteristics, basmati rice is fetching higher price in the international market. Hence, basmati rice can be equated with "champagne" among wines and 'scotch' among whiskies.During pre-partition times, basmati rice was grown in India only but after partition, its heritage is shared between India and Pakistan. Presently, major growing states of basmati rice in India are Haryana, Punjab, Western U. P. and Uttranchal.<br />Basmati rice being novel product is characterized by its unique grain size, aroma and cooking qualities. Being high value product, it has got good export demand. Hence, the export has been very high and exports have been steadily growing. The export of basmati rice during 1991-92 was 2.66 lakh mts, a quantum jump of 96.6% at 5.23 lakh mts in 1996-97. During the year 2000-01, basmati rice export touched an all time high record figure of 8.52 lakh mts (provisional) showing on increase of 62.9% over 1996-97. During 2001-02 basmati rice export was 6.66 lakh mts. (Provisional) showing downwards trend compared to previous year's export of 8.52 lakh mts (provisional), but the export of non-basmati rice registered an increase of 124.6% during 2001-02 over 2000-01.<br />Global Scenario <br />(A)  Basmati Rice<br />Gulf region remains the major markets for Indian basmati rice and inside Gulf, Saudi Arabia accounts for the major chunk of basmati imports from India. Pakistan is the sole competitor for India in the international market for basmati rice. During 1998-99, 1999-2000 and 2000-01, total quantities of basmati rice exports from India were 5.98 lakh mts., 6.38 lakh mts. and 8.52 lakh mts. in which the percentage share of Asia was 85.69%, 82.12% and 73.38% respectively. The percentage share of Asia has decreased for basmati rice, during 1998-99, 1999-2000 and 2000-01 but the export to Europe has increased in linear order from 11.41% in 1998-99 to 14.37% in 1999-2000 and 20.46% during 2000-01 respectively.<br />The export to North America has also increased in the same order from 1.39% during 1998-99 to 5.28% during 2000-01. However the export to other countries remains constant with slight fluctuation from year to year. India's major markets for basmati rice exports have been Saudi Arabia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bahrain, France, Germany, U.K., Denmark, U.S.A., Canada, Belgium , Kuwait, Italy, Oman, Yemen, Netherlands, Jordan, Indonesia etc. Infact, Saudi Arabia traditionally has been the largest market for Indian basmati rice.<br />The export of Basmati rice from India's during 1998-99 to 2000-01 to different continents is given in Table 1.<br /> <br />(B)  Non-Basmati Rice<br />Major destinations for India's non-basmati rice exports are Bangladesh, Australia, Bahrain, Ethiopia, Djibouti, France, Germany, U.K., Hong Kong, Korea, Sri-Lanka, Maldives, Mauritius, Malaysia, Nigeria, Ivory coast, Indonesia, Nepal, Oman, Qatar, Russia, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Singapore, U.A.E. Y.A.R., etc. Competing countries in the international markets for India for the exports of non-basmati rice are Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, China, U.S.A. and Pakistan. Major quantity of non-basmati rice is exported to Asia continent.<br />During 1996-97, 1997-98, 1998-99 and 1999-2000 a total quantity of 9.59 lakh mts., 9.28 lakh mts., 28.75 lakh mts. and 7.08 lakh mts. were exported to Asia continent which were 48.20%, 51.66%, 65.86% and 56.28% of total export of non-basmati rice from India to Asia, respectively. There was a fluctuation in the export of non-basmati rice from India to Asia during 1996-97 to 1999-2000.<br />After Asia, non-basmati rice is exported from India to Africa continent. During 1996-97,1997-98, 1998-99 and 1999-2000 a total quantity of non-basmati rice exports from India to Africa were 5.39 lakh mts, 5.59 lakh mts, 10.67 lakh mts and 3.24 lakh mts, in which the percentage share of Africa continent was 27.09%, 31.14%, 24.44% and 25.73% respectively of total export of non-basmati rice from India.<br />Next to Africa continent, Europe continent has been importing non-basmati rice from India during 1996-97, 1997-98, 1998-99 and 1999-2000. The exports of non-basmati rice from India to other continents are very meagre. The exports to Europe continent during the last few years were an average more than 1.5 lakh mts per year except 1996-97. During 1996-97 total export of non-basmati rice to Europe was 3.38 lakh mts.<br />Export of non-basmati rice from India during 1996-97 to 1999-2000 to different continents is given in Table 2.<br /> <br />(C)  Parboiled Rice<br />Indian is exporting parboiled rice to Middle East and African countries, as these countries prefer parboiled rice.<br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />RICE EXPORT EARNINGS<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />As already mentioned, India is exporting Basmati Rice to various countries in the world. A total quantity of 2.66 lakh mts basmati rice was exported to different countries from India during 1991-92. However, the export increased to 8.52 lakh mts during 2000-01, registering an increase of 220% during the last nine years period. The export declined during 2001-02 and a total quantity of 6.66 lakh mts basmati rice was exported registering a decrease of 21.8 per cent over the export of 2000-01. The export of basmati rice from 1996-97 to 1999-2000 was almost static with slight increase over the years.<br />During 1991-92 export earning from the export of basmati rice was 499.18 crores, which increased to 2165.96 crores during 2000-01 registering an increase of 333.90 per cent over 1991-92 export earnings. The export earnings from basmati rice decreased during 2001-02, over previous year. Thus, export earnings decreased by 15.09 per cent during 2001-02 as compared to 2000-01.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />India is also exporting substantial quantity of non-basmati rice to various countries in the world. However, the export of non-basmati rice has been fluctuating year to year due to weather conditions affecting the production of non-basmati rice in the importing countries. The export of non-basmati rice from India during 1991-92 was 4.12 lakh mts, the export rose to 45.41 lakh mts during 1995-96 and it come down to 15.32 lakh mts. during 2001-02. The increase in export of non-basmati rice from 1991-92 to 1995-96 was quite considerable and registering in 10 folds increase. The export again declined during subsequent years. Decrease in export during 2001-02 was 66.26 per cent. Over all increase in export of non-basmati rice during the last 10 years period i.e. from 1991-92 to 2001-02 was about 3 folds.<br />During 1991-92, export earning from the export of non-basmati rice was Rs. 256.41 crores, and it increased to Rs. 3,717.41 crores during 1995-96, which was more than 13 folds increase during the past four years period i.e., from 1991-92 to 1995-96. During 2001-02, the export earnings from non-basmati rice was recorded to Rs. 1,324.36 crores, it was 64.37 percent less as compared to 1995-96 export earnings. However, the export earnings from non-basmati rice increased more than 4 folds during 2001-02 as compared to 1991-92.<br /> <br />Total Rice <br />During 1991-92, a total quantity of 6.78 lakh mts of rice (Basmati + Non-Basmati ) was exported from India to different countries in the world. The export of total rice increased during subsequent years and the export during 1995-96 rose to 49.14 lakh mts., which was more than six fold increase in export as compared to 1991-92 export of total rice from India. There was fluctuation in the export of total rice after 1995-96 and a total quantity of 21.98 lakh mts. of rice was exported during 2001-02, which was less by 55.3 per cent as compared to 1995-96 export. Infact, there was 224.19 per cent over all increase in the export of rice from India during 2001-02 as compared to the export of 1991-92.<br />Export earnings from the export of total rice from India during 1991-92 was Rs. 755.59 crores and it increased to Rs. 4,568.08 crores during 1995-96, which was more than five folds increase. During subsequent years after 1995-96, the export earnings from total rice export from India registered fluctuating trends and it was Rs. 3,163.44 crores during 2001-02, which was less by 30.7 per cent as compared to 1995-96 export value. However, the export value increased more than three folds during 2001-02 over 1991-92 to 2001-02. Exports of Basmati and Non-Basmati rice from India over 1991-92 export value during 1991-92 to 2001-02 are given in Table-3.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />ROLE OF RICE IN THE EXPORT EARNINGS<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />Rice plays an important role in the export earnings of the country. Among the agricultural products, Basmati rice is one of the commodity, which is exported to many countries in the world and contributing considerable share in the export earnings of total agricultural products. Export earnings realized from the export of basmati rice during the last nine years i.e., from 1993-94 to 2001-02 are discussed hereunder.<br />Export value realized from the export of Basmati rice during 1993-94 was Rs. 1,061.26 crores and it declined during the subsequent two years. During 1996-97, export earnings from Basmati rice was Rs. 1,247.64 crores, which increased during subsequent years and it was recorded Rs. 1,876.91 crores during 1998-99 and again declined during 1999-2000 and reached maximum to Rs. 2,165.96 crores during 2000-01, but again decreased to Rs. 1,839.08 crores during 2001-02. Thus, there was a considerable fluctuation in the export earnings of basmati rice during the last nine years, i.e., 1993-94 to 2001-02.<br />The percentage share of export value of Basmati rice in the National Export earnings was 1.52 per cent during 1993-94 and it witnessed decreasing trends during subsequent years continuously. During 2001-02, the percentage share of basmati rice in the National Export earnings was recorded 0.89 per cent.<br />The percentage share of export value of Basmati rice in Agricultural Export earnings was 8.43 per cent during 1993-94 and it decreased to 4.17 per cent during 1995-96. During 1996-97, it was recorded to 5.16 per cent and subsequent years the share of export value of basmati rice showed increasing trends and it was maximum of 7.56 per cent during 2000-01 but again decreased to 6.24 per cent during 2001-02.<br />The percentage share of export value of basmati rice in the Food Grains export earnings was 76.10 per cent during 1993-94 and it decreased to 16.73 per cent during 1995-96. The percentage share of basmati rice again increased to 30.80 per cent and 45.01 per cent during subsequent years of 1996-97 and 1997-98 respectively. However, it again decreased to 28.81 per cent during 1998-99 but from 1999-2000 to 2000-01 it witnessed again increasing trends i.e., 50.07 per cent and 55.21 per cent respectively. The percentage share of export value of basmati rice decreased to 36.96 per cent during 2001-02. It is evident from the above analysis that the export value of basmati rice fluctuated from year to year during 1993-94 to 2001-02, which has affected its percentage share in total food grains export earnings.<br />The export of basmati rice during 1993-94 to 2001-02 constituted major share in the total rice export from India. The percentage share of export value of basmati rice in the total rice export earnings was 82.47 per cent during 1993-94. However, the percentage share of export value of basmati rice in the total rice export earnings declined during the subsequent years up to 2001-02 as compared to 1993-94. During 1995-96, the percentage share of export value of basmati rice was recorded 18.62 per cent, which was the lowest during the past nine years period. The percentage share of export value of basmati rice showed increasing trend during 1996-97 and 1997-98 as compared to previous year but during 1998-99, its percentage share declined to 29.88 per cent as compared to 50.00 per cent during previous year.<br />The percentage share of export value of basmati rice of total rice export earnings registered increasing trend during the subsequent three years as compared to 1998-99 and it was recorded 56.95 per cent, 73.59 per cent and 58.14 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. It is evident from the above discussion that the export of basmati rice from India fluctuated during the past nine years, which has affected its percentage share in total rice export earnings during the same period.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />Non-Basmati rice is next to Basmati rice, which is exported from India to many countries in the world. The export value of non-basmati rice also contributes considerable share in the export earnings of total agricultural products. Export earnings realized from the non-basmati rice during 1993-94 to 2001-02 are discussed below.<br />Export value realized from the export of non-basmati rice during 1993-94 was Rs. 225.46 crores and it increased during the subsequent years up to 2001-02. During 1994-95 the export value of non-basmati rice was Rs. 340.47 crores and it increased to Rs. 3,717.41 crores during 1995-96 but it decreased to Rs. 1,924.72 crores and Rs. 1,685.38 crores during 1996-97 and 1997-98. However, the export earnings from the export of non-basmati rice during 1998-99 again increased to Rs. 4,403.85 crores, which was an all time high and again declined to Rs. 1,345.58 crores, Rs. 777.26 crores and Rs. 1,324.36 crores during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively.<br />The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the National Export earnings was 0.32 per cent during 1993-94, which slightly increased to 0.41 per cent during following year and further increased to 3.50 per cent during 1995-96. During the subsequent years, the percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the National Export earnings again declined to 1.62 per cent and 1.30 per cent in the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 and during the year 1998-99, it again increased to 3.15 per cent. During the subsequent three years, it again decreased to 0.85 per cent, 0.39 per cent and 0.64 per cent in the year 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively.<br />The percentage share of the export value of non-basmati rice in the Agricultural Export earnings was 1.79 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 2.57 per cent during 1994-95. During 1995-96, the percentage share of the export value of non-basmati rice in the Agricultural Export earnings increased to 18.22 per cent and decreased to 7.97 per cent and 6.78 per cent during the subsequent two years of 1996-97 and 1997-98. However, the percentage share again increased to 17.26 per cent during 1998-99 and decreased to 5.32 per cent, 2.71 per cent and 4.49 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively as compared to 1998-99.<br />The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the Food Grains Export earnings was 16.18 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 24.91 per cent and 73.12 per cent in the following years of 1994-95 and 1995-96. The percentage share of export value of non- basmati rice in the Food Grains Export earnings decreased to 47.51 per cent and 45.00 per cent during the next two years of 1996-97 and 1997-98 and it again increased to 67.61 per cent in the year 1998-99. The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the Food Grains Export earnings decreased to 37.85 per cent, 19.81 per cent and 26.62 per cent during the year 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 as compared to 1998-99.<br />The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the total rice export earnings was 17.52 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 28.24 per cent and 81.37 per cent during the following two years of 1994-95 and 1995-96. This percentage share decreased to 60.67 per cent and 50.00 per cent during the subsequent two years of 1996-97 and 1997-98. The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the total rice export earnings increased to 70.12 per cent in the year 1998-99 over two previous years and it again decreased to 43.05 per cent, 26.41 per cent and 41.86 per cent during the subsequent three years of 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. It can be seen from the fore going analysis that the export of non- basmati has also fluctuated during 1993-94 to 2001-02 like basmati rice. The fluctuation was mainly due to rise and fall in demand of the importing countries.<br /> <br />Total Rice <br />As already mentioned that rice is an important commodity under agricultural products exported from India to various countries in the world and it earns annually considerable amount of foreign exchange for the nation. During 1993-94 an amount of Rs. 1,286.72 crores was realized from the export of rice. The same amount increased to Rs. 4,568.08 crores during 1995-96 and it was recorded Rs. 6,280.76 crores during 1998-99, an all time high export earnings from rice. During subsequent years the export earnings declined and it was recorded Rs. 3,163.44 crores during 2001-02.<br />The percentage share of export value of rice (including basmati & non- basmati) in the National Export earnings was 1.84 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 4.30 per cent during 1995-96 but declined during the two subsequent years and again went up to 4.49 per cent during 1998-99. During the subsequent years its percentage share declined to 1.96 per cent, 1.46 per cent and 1.52 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively.<br />The percentage share of export value of rice in Agricultural Export earnings was 10.22 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 22.40 per cent during 1995-96 but it declined during the two subsequent years and again went up to 24.62 per cent during 1998-99. During the subsequent years its percentage share declined to 12.35 per cent, 10.27 per cent and 10.73 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively.<br />The percentage share of export value of rice in the Food Grain Export earnings was 92.27 per cent during 1993-94 and it declined to 90.02 per cent during 1997-98 and again went up to 96.42 per cent during 1998-99. However, during the subsequent years its percentage share continuously declined to 87.92 per cent, 75.02 per cent and 63.58 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. Percentage share of basmati and non-basmati rice exports in Total National Export, Total Agricultural Exports and Food Grains Export during 1993-94 to 2001-02 are given in Table-4.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />COUNTRY-WISE EXPORT OF RICE FROM INDIA<br />Rice is exported from India to many countries in the world. Infact, India is facing stiff competition in the international markets for the export of rice. Thailand is the world's largest rice exporting country. Vietnam is another large exporter of rice, but currently the demand for Vietnamese rice has steeply declined in the international market due to which India is likely to become world's second largest exporter of rice.<br />Thailand, India and U.S.A. are the only countries making parboiled rice and exporting it. Thailand, Vietnam and India are also exporting 100% broken rice. Data in respect of parboiled and broken rice exports separately from India are not available. Hence, export of rice from India has been divided in to two category i.e., basmati rice and non-basmati rice and the same are discussed in this chapter.<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />The leading aromatic fine quality rices in world trade popularly known as Basmati rice is fetching good export price in the international markets for its three district quality features viz.-pleasant aroma, superfine grains and extreme grain elongation. About two third of basmati rice produced in India is exported. Basmati rice is exported to various countries in the world from India. The exports of basmati rice during 1998-99 to 2000-2001 are discussed below :-<br />During 1998-99 Saudi Arabia was the major importer of basmati rice from India followed by U.K., Kuwait and U.A.E. and percentage shares of these countries of total exports from India were 74.11%, 7.66%, 5.25% and 3.34% respectively. Thus, more than 90 per cent quantity of basmati rice was exported to Saudi Arabia, U.K., Kuwait and UAE during 1998-99 and remaining quantity was exported to other countries in the world. A total quantity of 5,97,756 mts of basmati rice was exported from India during 1998-99.<br />During 1999-2000, these four countries remained as major basmati rice importers from India and their percentage shares of total quantity of basmati rice exported from India was 62.14 per cent, 8.32 per cent, 7.42 per cent and 5.06 per cent respectively. The export to Saudi Arabia declined during 1999-2000 as compared to previous year. Infact, the export to U.K., Kuwait, UAE and U.S.A. increased as compared to 1998-99. The percentage share of four countries comprising of Saudi Arab, U.K., Kuwait and U.A.E. were 82.94 per cent of total quantity of basmati rice exported from India during 1999-2000 as against 90.36 per cent during 1998-99. The export of basmati rice almost remained the same as it was during 1998-99 with slight fluctuation. A total quantity of 6,38,380 mts of basmati rice was exported from India during 1999-2000, which was 6.80 per cent higher than the export of previous year.<br />The export of basmati rice to Saudi Arabia increased to 4,78,124 mts during 2000-01 as against 3,96,676 mts in the previous year. The percentage share of Saudi Arabia of total quantity of basmati rice exported from India during 2000-01 was 56.14 per cent as against 62.14 per cent in the previous year. Infact, total quantity exported to Saudi Arabia increased during 2000-01, but the percentage share of Saudi Arab of total quantity exported from India decreased due to increase in the percentage share of other importing countries. Other major importing countries of basmati rice from India were U.K., U.A.E., Kuwait and U.S.A. during 2000-01.<br />The export to U.K. during 2000-01 was 1,11,984 mts, which was 110.96 per cent higher than previous year and the percentage share of U.K. of total quantity of basmati rice exported from India during 2000-01 was 13.15 per cent as against 8.32 per cent in the previous year. Similarly the export to Kuwait and U.S.A. also increased from 47,338 mts and 16,036 mts during 1999-2000 to 82,800 mts and 35,840 mts during 2000-01 respectively. However, the export to U.A.E. declined to 30,151 mts during 2000-01 as against 32,297 mts during previous year. A total quantity of 8,51,722 mts of basmati rice was exported from India during 2000-01, which was 33.42 per cent higher than the export of previous year. Country-wise export of basmati rice from India during 1998-99 to 2000-01 is given in Table.5.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />The export of non-basmati rice from India was on its peak during 1995-96 and a total quantity of 45.41 lakh mts was exported to different countries in the world. Again the export crossed to 43.66 lakh mts during 1998-99, but during subsequent years, the export of non-basmati rice again came down significantly due to various reasons. The export of non-basmati rice during 1998-99 to 2000-01 are discussed below -<br />During 1998-99, Bangladesh, Ivory cost, Nigeria, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and South Africa were the major importers of non-basmati rice from India. Infact, more than fifty per cent of total export of non-basmati rice from India was exported to Bangladesh alone during 1998-99. A total quantity of 23,31,689 mts of non-basmati rice was exported to Bangladesh during 1998-99, which was 53.41 per cent of total quantity exported from India during the same year. Next major country was South Africa for import of non-basmati rice from India. A total quantity of 5,25,013 mts of non-basmati rice was exported to South Africa during 1998-99, which was 12.03 per cent of total quantity exported from India during the same year. The export to Ivory cost was 1,61,817 mts of non-basmati rice, which was 3.71 per cent of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 1998-99.<br />Similarly, the export of non-basmati rice to Somalia was 1,40,064 mts., which was 3.21 per cent of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 1998-99. The export to Russia and Saudi Arabia were 1,21,828 mts and 1,26,036 mts of non-basmati rice during 1998-99, which were 2.79 per cent and 2.89 per cent of total quantity exported from India during the same year respectively. The export to other countries was considerably less as compared to quantity exported to the countries discussed above. A total quantity of 43,65,888 mts of non-basmati rice was exported from India to various countries in the world during 1998-99.<br />Bangladesh remained major importer of non-basmati rice from India during 1999-2000 also but total export of non-basmati rice to Bangladesh declined to 84.98 per cent during 1999-2000 as compared to previous year. A total quantity of 3,50,088 mts. of non-basmati rice was exported to Bangladesh during 1999-2000 as against 2331689 mts. exported during 1998-99. The percentage share of Bangladesh of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 1999-2000 was 27.83 percent as against 53.41 percent in the previous year.<br />Next to Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia was the major country, which imported non-basmati rice from India during 1999-2000. A quantity of 1,64,288 mts. of non-basmati rice was exported from India to Saudi Arabia during 1999-2000 as against 1,26,036 mts during previous year, which was 30.35 per cent higher. The percentage share of Saudi Arabia of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 1999-2000 was 13.06 per cent as against 2.89 percent during the previous year.<br />The exports to Nigeria, Russia, Sri Lanka and South Africa were 1,09,046 mts, 1,50,590 mts, 62,401 mts and 1,40,334 mts of non-basmati rice during 1999-2000, which ware 8.67 per cent, 11.97 per cent, 4.96 per cent and 11.16 per cent of total quantity exported from India during the same year, considerably less as compared to the countries discuss above. A total quantity of 12,57,790 mts of non-basmati rice was exported from India to various countries in the world during 1999-2000, which was 71.19 per cent less as compared to 43,65,888 mts exported during the previous year.<br />The major quantity of non-basmati rice was exported to Bangladesh during 2000-01 as it was during the previous year. A total quantity of non-basmati rice exported to Bangladesh during 2000-01 was 9.26 per cent less as compared to previous year but the percentage share of Bangladesh of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 2000-01 was 46.56 per cent, which was more as against 27.83 per cent during the previous year. A total quantity of 3,17,663 mts of non-basmati rice was exported from India to Bangladesh during 2000-01 as against 3,50,088 mts exported during the previous year.<br />Other major countries that imported non-basmati rice from India during 2000-01 were Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, U.A.E. and Yemen Republic. Total quantity exported to these countries during 2000-01 where 20,183 mts, 1,53,841 mts, 17,410 mts, 57,768 mts, 26,647 mts and 14,913 mts respectively and their percentage share in total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during the same year were 2.96 per cent, 22.55 per cent 2.55 per cent, 8.47 per cent, 3.91 per cent and 2.19 per cent respectively. A total quantity of 6,82,270 mts. of non-basmati rice was exported from India to various countries in the world during 2000-01, which was 45.76 per cent less as compared to 12,57,790 mts. exported during previous year. Country wise exports of non-basmati rice during 1998-99 to 2000-01 are given in Table- 6.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />AVERAGE EXPORT PRICE<br />Data on exact export price of rice is not readily available in this Directorate. However, the average export price per quintal of rice has been worked out year wise for the basmati and non- basmati rice separately. For the purpose of calculation, total quantity of rice exported and its value realized in rupees have been taken separately for basmati and non-basmati rice and then the value of export divided by the quantity of rice exported to arrive at the average export price of rice per quintal year wise for basmati & non-basmati. Average export price thus worked out has been discussed in this chapter. Average export price of basmati and non-basmati rice during 1992-93 to 2001-02 are given in Table-7.<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />It is seen from the average export price data given in Table-7 that the export price of Basmati Rice has fluctuated significantly year after year. During 1992-93, average export price of basmati rice was Rs. 2,465 per quintal, which declined continuously year after year up to 1996-97 as compared to 1992-93. Average export price for basmati rice has been worked out to Rs. 2,013 per quintal during 1993-94 and the same has decreased to Rs. 1,957 per quintal during 1994-95. Average export price again increased to Rs. 2,297 per quintal during 1995-96 over previous year price and increasing trend in average export price continued up to 1998-99.<br />During 1996-97, average export price has been worked out to Rs. 2,385 per quintal, which increased to Rs. 2,841 and Rs. 3,140 per quintal during 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively. However, average export price of Basmati rice declined during the following three years as compared to 1998-99 average export price. During 1999-2000, average export price was worked to Rs. 2,789 per quintal, which came down to Rs. 2,543 per quintal during 2000-01 and it again went up to Rs. 2,762 per quintal during 2001-02.<br />The reason for fluctuation in average export price of Basmati rice is attributed to different quality and quantity of rice exported to different countries during different years. A particular country may import one year a particular quality/grade of rice and the same country may import another quality/grade of rice during next or subsequent years. Thus, different quality and quantity of rice exported to different countries at different export price rate may probably be the reason for fluctuation of average export price of Basmati rice.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />Average export price data given in Table-7 reveals that in case of Non-Basmati Rice, almost same trend of fluctuation in average export price is seen as in case of Basmati Rice. During 1992-93, average export price was worked out to Rs. 684 per quintal for Non-Basmati Rice, which declined to Rs. 399 per quintal during 1993-94. However, average export price increased to Rs. 759 per quintal during 1994-95 over previous year and increasing trend in average export price continued up to 2000-01 as compared to 1994-95.<br />Average export price was worked to Rs. 819 per quintal during 1995-96, which increased to Rs. 968 per quintal during 1996-97 and slightly decreased to Rs. 939 per quintal during 1997-98 over previous year. During 1998-99, average export price increased to Rs. 1,009 per quintal over previous year and continued to increase in linear order to Rs. 1,070 per quintal and Rs. 1,139 per quintal during subsequent two years of 1999-2000 and 2000-01. There was a sharp declined in average export price to Rs. 864 per quintal during 2001-02 over previous five years.<br />The reason for fluctuation in average export price of non- basmati rice could be the same as discussed above in the case of Basmati Rice.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />PROBLEMS OF RICE EXPORT FROM INDIA<br />India is facing stiff competition in the world markets for export of rice. Besides, there are many domestic problems for rice exporters. If these internal problems are relaxed to the extent possible, the exporters may find easy way to boost rice export and such measures will go a long way to sustain the exports. Some of the major problems are discussed in this chapter below: -<br />As per the state Govt. policy, various taxes are imposed on rice exports, such as the states are imposing Purchase Tax (on indirect export), Market Fees, Rural Development Fund, Administrative Charges etc. These taxes are rendering the pricing of rice internationally in competitive. Thus, Indian rice becomes costlier in the international market as compared to other competing countries in the world and Indian rice exports get setback many times. Infact, in Pakistan rice meant for exports specially the branded ones, duties are extremely low or duty free.<br />There is lack of proper infrastructural facilities. Many times exporters, when they carry their stock to sea port and if the stock is not loaded due to some reason or the other, exporters do not find godown or proper place to store their stocks properly and safely at sea port, exporters have to face lot of difficulties, besides, it adds additional expenditure to the exporters.<br />Due to increase in the cost of inputs used for paddy cultivation the production cost goes up and the Minimum Support Price (MSP) for paddy is enhanced every year by the govt. of India to safeguard the interest of the growers. When paddy is converted to rice, it becomes costlier and thus makes it internationally uncompetitive.<br />Rice production meant for export purpose is having subsidy in other countries, which reduces the cost of production and thereby reducing the cost of rice. Therefore, the export price of rice of such countries is more competitive in the international markets compared to Indian rice.<br />The major rice producing nations have decreased the price to capture the international markets but Indian rice prices are inelastic due to relatively high cost of production and becomes uncompetitive in the international markets. Much of basmati rice export prospects have been lost in the recent part to other competing countries like Pakistan etc because of high prices.<br />Rice mills have not been fully modernized to ensure high milling recovery and reduce the percentage of broken rice. The conventional rice mills are having Rubber Roll Sheller in which percentage of broken rice is more than the modern rice mills that are having under Runner Sheller. Hence, head rice obtained from milling of conventional mills becomes costly due to recovery of higher percentage of broken rice. Therefore, conventional mills are required to be modernized to get recovery of higher percentage of head rice suitable for export.<br />Lack of proper arrangements for production of sufficient quantity of quality seeds needed for cultivation of rice for export purposes.<br />The export is also suffering much due to the competition from other exporting countries like Thailand, Vietnam and Pakistan because the cost of production in these competing countries is low as compared to the cost of production in India. Infact, trade segment believes that Indian rice can face the global competition if subsidy is provided.<br />In these days basmati rice is facing aroma problem, because intensity of aroma in traditional basmati varieties is not so high as it used to be. Infact, basmati varieties are highly prone to lodging and lodging affects the natural grain development. In such situation both aroma and linear kernel elongation are affected.<br />Post harvest handling of produce is another important aspect. Generally, farmers are harvesting the crop at different moisture levels and keeping the produce at higher moisture level for a longer period will impair the intensity of aroma.<br />In absence of genetically pure seed of basmati varieties, in majority of basmati rice fields, a variation in plant height, grain size and maturity of the crop is found. This is one of the major reasons for poor quality of basmati rice. Infact, at the time of rice processing the grain size can be taken care of, but it is a waste. However, using good quality seed the loss can be converted into profit.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />PROSPECTS OF RICE EXPORT FROM INDIA<br />As mentioned in the previous chapter that rice is exported from India to many countries in the world. India is facing stiff competition in the International markets from Thailand, Vietnam, U.S.A. and Pakistan. There was a considerable growth in the export of rice from India during the recent past, particularly in the case of non-basmati rice. There are several factors responsible for this growth. Infact exports depend not only on our ability to sell, but also on the willingness of importers to buy. Some times major markets/importers used to cut down their import due to their internal economic problems or good crop harvest and trade also cut down inventories and people reduce spending. All these measures reduce imports during that particular year. The prospects of export of basmati and non-basmati rice from India are discussed herewith :<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />Awareness about basmati rice is spreading among different strata of the society in the country and abroad. Basmati rice is possessing unique grain, cooking, eating and digestive qualities. Hence, majority of people in the country and abroad have developed liking for basmati rice. Because of its superfine quality, basmati rice is most preferred and also meant for high premium value in the national and international markets. Thus, basmati rice is also stated to be 'Pearl' of rice.<br />There are other sources of aromatic short grain varieties with similar starch content characteristics, grown different states of the country. Katarni rice is grown in Bihar,Randhunipagal and Bhadshahbhog are grown in West Bengal, each one of these varieties is fetching higher price in the local markets. These varieties are having localized preference and their demand preference could not spread widely elsewhere. Even some of these are possessing more aroma than the typical basmati varieties. Infact, the harmonious combination of various factors deciding the appearance, taste, keeping quality texture of cooked rice etc and makes the particular varieties unique/popular in the domestic and international markets.<br />As mentioned above basmati rice is the most sought after rice in the domestic and international markets and it also fetches high premium. Commercially Taraori Basmati, Basmati-370 and Basmati Type-3 are very popular. All these three varieties are similar in starch characteristics but based on grain dimensions Taraori Basmati is preferred much over Basamati-370. Similarly Basamati-370 is preferred more over Basmati Type-3. Pusa Basmati-1 has been well accepted by the trade and there is good prospects for export. Infact, Pusa Basmati-1 is at present most profitable variety in rice, in spite of being highly susceptible to major insects, pests and diseases. Under proper crop management condition farmers can get 4-6 tonnes paddy yield per hectare. This variety is much favoured by the farmers, traders and consumers. During cooking it has got linear expansion. It is also easily digestible. Hence, this variety is much preferred by the consumers in India and abroad.<br />With the every coming year, domestic as well as international demand for basmati rice is increasing. If desired aroma in basmati rice along with other quality characteristics are maintained, these measures may help to boost the export of basmati rice from India.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />Non-basmati rice exports have also suffered much due to the competition from exporting countries like Thailand, Vietnam and Pakistan because of their low cost of production. In the recent past export of non-basmati rice was fluctuating year after year due to various reasons. The export of non-basmati rice was on its peak during 1995-96 it came down during 1998-99 due to many reasons. Sometime, export is also affected if good harvest is there in the importing countries, they reduce their import accordingly. If rice exporters made their sincere efforts with Govt. supporting export policy, non-basmati rice export is expected to increase in future.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />EXPORT PROMOTION POLICY<br />India is facing stiff competition in the world markets for the export of rice. Thailand, Vietnam and Pakistan are the competitors for India in the export of rice. Thailand is occupying first position in the international markets due to its better quality and low price. Vietnam was the world's second largest exporter of rice but currently the demand for Vietnamese rice has steeply declined in the international markets. Therefore, Indian rice exports are set to reach second place after Thailand, edging out Vietnam as per report of Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAO).<br />There is also good scope for India to take advantage of the new trade policy for sustaining the export of rice. This can be achieved if production is made keeping in view the demand of international markets by increased investment in Research and Development coupled with realistic export policy. The following export policies may be taken in to account to sustain the export of rice in future:<br />Production of quality seeds and ensuring its availability to farmers at subsidized rates.<br />Low cost production technology may be developed to reduce the cost of production and making Indian rice more competitive in the international markets.<br />Survey may be conducted to identify contiguous zones for cultivation of export quality rice.<br />Quality of rice may be maintained keeping in view the requirements of the international markets.<br />Breeding programme may be initiated to develop high yielding export quality rice both for basmati and non-basmati rice to enable the exporters to compete in the world's markets.<br />Production, procurement and processing of basmati rice may be organized in a systematic manner for maintaining its quality for export purposes.<br />Conventional rice mills may be modernized to ensure high milling recovery of head rice and effective availability of by- products for better and profitable utilization both for industrial and feed purposes.<br />Intelligence wing may be set up to keep watch over the requirement of various rice importing countries so that Research & Development may be strengthened accordingly to produce quality rice for export purposes.<br />Export friendly trade policies may be adopted with improvement of infrastructure facilities for promoting export.<br />Sufficient export facilities may be made available to the exporters at Sea Port.<br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />SUGGESTIONS FOR SUSTAINING RICE EXPORT<br />Rice export constitutes a considerable share in the national exports. India is likely to be major exporters next to Thailand during 2003 and its influence on the global rice trade will be significant. Keeping in view the importance of rice in the national export items, concerted efforts are required to be made to further promote the export of rice. There is a good scope for India to take advantage of the new trade opportunities for promoting the export of rice. This can be achieved if production is made as per the requirements of international markets by increased investment in Research and Development coupled with export friendly trade policies.<br />The following are few of the measures suggested to sustain the export of rice in future:<br />Breeding programme may be initiated to develop high yielding export quality rice (Basmati, Non-Basmati, Long Grain Rice, etc.) to enable the exporters to sustain their export in future.<br />Survey may be conducted to identify export quality belts/zones for production of rice to meet the requirement of exports.<br />Extension activities may be strengthened to educate the cultivators for production of quality rice to match the standards of international markets.<br />Low cost production technology may be developed to bring down the cost of production to enable the exporters to compete with competing countries in the international markets.<br />Proper arrangements may be made for procurement and processing of rice export purpose as per the requirement of international markets.<br />Proper arrangements may be made for production of pure quality seeds and making them available to the farmers at subsidized rates.<br />In case of basmati varieties, crop should not be allowed to lodge and there should be proper water management in the field. If these are not attended properly, such situation may affect both aroma and linear kernel elongation.<br />Post harvest operation is also very important. After harvesting, if produce is allowed to remain at higher moisture level for a longer period, it will impair the intensity of aroma.<br />  <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 1 : Export of Basmati Rice from India to different continents<br />SLContinents1998-19991999-20002000-20011.Asia512,19485.691583.9984.39524,24182.121403.7078.84625,02473.381511.0669.762.Europe68,21611.41238.8812.7391,73214.37285.1716.02174,21620.46469.1621.663.North Central Ameria8,3381.3931.771.6918,9692.9779.404.4644,9535.28161.847.474.South America15-0.08-4-0.02-420.010.110.015.Oceana6470.112.250.121,1260.183.990.222,8350.339.560.446.Africa8,3461.4019.941.062,2690.358.010.454,6310.5414.230.667.Others----390.010.05-21-0.03-Total597,756100.01876.91100.0638,380100.01780.34100.0851,722100.02165.99100.0<br />Source:Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.   :Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 2 : Export of Non-Basmati Rice from India to different continents<br />SLContinents1996-19971997-19981998-19991999-2000Metric Tonnes%Metric Tonnes%Metric Tonnes%Metric Tonnes%1.Asia9,58,78748.209,27,75751.6628,75,39565.867,07,92456.282.Europe3,38,44917.021,87,92710.471,61,7073.701,54,02812.253.Africa5,38,87427.095,59,24531.1410,67,07924.443,23,66325.734.Australia5080.022830.026420.011470.015.America81,8644.1239,5122.202,2360.051,1730.096.Others70,5583.5581,0194.512,58,8295.9370,8555.63Total19,89,040100.0017,95,743100.0043,65,888100.0012,57,790100.00<br />%:Percentage share of total export.Source:Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 3 : Export of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice from India during 1991-92 to 2001-02<br />SLYearBasmati RiceNon-Basmati RiceTotalQuantity'000 TonnesValue inRs. CroreQuantity'000 TonnesValue inRs. CroreQuantity'000 TonnesValue inRs. Crore1.1991-92266.53499.18411.94256.41678.47755.592.1992-93324.79800.64255.62174.96580.41975.603.1993-94527.231,061.26565.19225.461,092.421,286.724.1994-95442.13865.32448.50340.47890.631,205.795.1995-96373.31850.674,540.703,717.414,914.014,568.086.1996-97523.161,247.641,989.041,924.722,512.203,172.367.1997-98593.321,685.621,795.741,685.382,389.063,371.008.1998-99597.791,876.914,365.894,403.854,963.686,280.769.1999-00638.381,780.341,257.791,345.581,896.173,125.9210.2000-01851.722,165.99682.27777.261,533.992,943.2511.2001-02665.841,839.081,532.351,324.362,198.193,163.44<br />Note:Figures of 2000-01 and 2001-02 are Provisional Statistics.Source:Agricultural Statistics at a Glance - 2002, Directorate of Economics & Statistics,Ministry of Agriculture, Dept. of Agriculture & Co-operation, New Delhi. :Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 4 :Percentage shares of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice Exports in Total National Exports,Total Agricultural Exports and Food Grains exports during 1993-94 to 2001-02<br />SLYearBasmati RiceNon-Basmati RiceTotal1.1993-941,061.261.528.4376.1082.47225.460.321.7916.1817.521,286.721.8410.2292.272.1994-95865.321.056.5463.3271.76340.470.412.5724.9128.241,205.791.469.1288.233.1995-96850.670.804.1716.7318.623,717.413.5018.2273.1281.374,568.084.3022.4089.864.1996-971,247.641.055.1630.8039.331,924.721.627.9747.5160.673,172.362.6713.1378.315.1997-981,685.621.306.7845.0150.001,685.381.306.7845.0050.003,371.002.5913.5790.026.1998-991,876.911.347.3628.8129.884,403.853.1517.2667.6170.126,280.764.4924.6296.427.1999-001,780.341.127.0350.0756.951,345.580.855.3237.8543.053,125.921.9612.3587.928.2000-012,165.961.087.5655.2173.59777.260.392.7119.8126.412,943.221.4610.2775.029.2001-021,839.080.896.2436.9658.141,324.360.644.4926.6241.863,163.441.5210.7363.58<br />Note:Figures of 2000-01 and 2001-02 are Provisional Statistics.Source:Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 5 : Country-wise Export of Basmati Rice during 1998-99 to 2000-01<br />SLContinents1998-19991.Australia5110.092.Baharain8380.143.Bangladesh1,6490.284.Belgium6,5521.105.Canada3,3200.566.Denmark950.017.Egypt1040.028.France8,4631.419.Germany2,4220.4010.Italy3010.0511.Israel2010.0312.Japan2730.0513.Jordan1670.0314.Kuwait31,3605.2515.Mauritius530.0116.Nepal19017.Netherlands3,5720.6018.New Zeland1350.0219.Norway2390.0420.Oman6,3411.0621.Qatar8360.1422.Saudi Arabia4,42,99474.1123.Sri Lanka990.0124.Singapore1,1710.2025.Seychelle1,4870.2526.Spain0027.Sweden2210.0428.Switzerland4200.0729.South Africa5640.0930.U.A.E.19,9833.3431.UK45,7817.6632.USA4,9820.8333.Yemen Rep.2,1340.3634.Others10,4691.75 Total5,97,756100.001999-20009250.142,9440.461,5610.247,5121.182,2100.354030.063650.0612,0281.883,6770.584,1000.643,3750.531,1040.173060.0547,3387.427,9361.245,9800.944,2500.67770.013080.056,4621.013,3070.523,96,67662.141090.021,5000.232,6570.427310.117050.111,2940.201,2910.2032,2975.0653,0828.3216,0362.519,7741.536,0600.956,38,380100.002000-20012,4580.293,1770.375180.068,8541.048,3690.983670.045240.0622,1402.608,6591.028,4390.998890.10940.014230.0582,8009.723,5360.421,4690.174,7460.563560.046110.077,1870.842,4170.284,78,12456.141150.011,3090.154,6770.551,1220.133,9400.462,2890.271,8640.2230,1513.541,11,98413.1535,8404.216,1640.726,1100.728,51,722100.00<br />Source:Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.  :All India Rice Exporters' Association. :Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.<br /> <br />Table 6 : Country-wise Export of Non-Basmati Rice during 1998-99 to 2000-01<br />SLContinents1998-19991.Angola14,0210.322.Australia6420.013.Bahrain3,8580.094.Bangladesh23,31,68953.415.Belgium3,9940.096.Bhutan9,6540.227.Canada1,2720.038.Egypt5,0000.119.France4730.0110.Germany2,2420.0511.Ghana9,5740.2212.Indonesia18,7010.4313.Iran55,8471.2814.Ivory Cost1,61,8173.7115.Japan17,3890.4016.Jordan3,3920.0817.Kenya37,0740.8518.Korea13,9460.3219.Kuwait8,3690.1920.Malaysia25,3450.5821.Mauritius18,3190.4222.Mozambique10,1040.2323.Nepal2680.0124.Nigeria2,01,1064.6125.Oman6,6230.1526.Qatar2,2540.0527.Russia1,21,8282.7928.Saudi Arabia1,26,0362.8929.Sri Lanka20,4730.4730.Singapore14,9940.3431.Seychelles18,5100.4232.Senegal74,5031.7133.Somalia1,40,0643.2134.South Africa5,25,01312.0335.Sudan9,7470.2236.U.A.E.73,5131.6837.UK256-38.USA9640.0239.Ukraine14,2440.3340.Yemen Rep.34,0440.7841.Others2,28,7265.24 Total43,65,888100.001999-2000--1470.014,3710.353,50,08827.831040.015,2250.422080.022,0250.162030.022,1650.177,9890.641,1520.091990.02--5220.043630.0313,1051.0420-10,5840.8460-5000.046,4900.5221,9411.741,09,0468.678,2720.662,5580.201,50,59011.971,64,28813.0662,4014.9610,0880.801,2370.1014,1261.1223,1431.841,40,33411.1644-37,6392.995170.049650.083430.0326,7372.1378,0016.2012,57,790100.002000-2001--1,1710.174,7380.703,17,66346.5642---6970.100-2310.031,0520.165000.07------970.01--22-1400.027,5351.119,4341.3930---20,1832.96--7,5321.102,2230.331,6450.241,53,84122.555220.0717,4102.551,2000.18--2,7450.4057,7688.472,3340.3426,6473.911,7920.262,8170.416,0000.8814,9132.1919,3462.846,82,270100.00<br />Source:All India Rice Exporters' Association.   :Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 7 : Average Export Price of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice during 1992-93 to 2001-02<br />SLYearBasmati RiceRs. Per Quintal1.1992-19932,465.002.1993-19942,103.003.1994-19951,957.004.1995-19962,279.005.1996-19972,385.006.1997-19982,841.007.1998-19993,140.008.1999-20002,789.009.2000-20012,543.0010.2001-20022,762.00Non-Basmati RiceRs. Per Quintal684.00399.00759.00819.00968.00939.001,009.001,070.001,139.00864.00<br />Source:Directorate of Rice Development, Patna. <br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />References <br />SLPublicationPublisher1.Rice India-Published by All India Rice Exporters Association, New Delhi.2.Commodity India-Published by K.S.International Export House, Near State Warehouse, Taraori, Haryana.3.Basmati Rice in India :Its Export Potential - 2001-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.4.Rice in India :A Hand Book of Statistics - 2001-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.5.Rice in India :A Status Paper - 2002-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.6.Rice Productivity Analysisin India - 2002-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.7.Economic Times-Issue dated 22nd June 2002, 14th August 2002 and 2nd September 2002.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />References <br />SLPublicationPublisher1.Rice India-Published by All India Rice Exporters Association, New Delhi.2.Commodity India-Published by K.S.International Export House, Near State Warehouse, Taraori, Haryana.3.Basmati Rice in India :Its Export Potential - 2001-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.4.Rice in India :A Hand Book of Statistics - 2001-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.5.Rice in India :A Status Paper - 2002-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.6.Rice Productivity Analysisin India - 2002-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.7.Economic Times-Issue dated 22nd June 2002, 14th August 2002 and 2nd September 2002.<br /> <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />Rice in India - A Status Paper was first published by the Directorate of Rice Development, Patna during May'2002. The objective of this publication is to organize the scattered pieces of information and also to deal with the recent development of hybrid rice cultivation and utilization of by-products of rice mills. Emphasis has also been placed on extraction of rice bran oil for edible purposes. Rice bran oil can contribute significantly to the national production of edible oil. In fact, considerable quantity of rice bran is available at present in the country that can be used for extraction of oil.<br />Rice production in India has increased during the last 51 years by nearly 441% or 4.4 times from 20.58 million tonnes in 1950 to nearly 91.05 million tonnes during 2001-02. The status paper is expected to serve as a reference document for agricultural scientists and workers, planners, traders, govt. organizations and other related departments.<br />Rice Production during 5 Year Plans   <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />Introduction      <br />The rice plant belongs to the genus Oryza of Gramineae family. The genus Oryza has 24 species, of which 22 are wild and two species viz. Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima are cultivated. All the varieties found in Asia, America and Europe, belong to Oryza sativa and varieties found in West Africa belong to species Oryza glaberrima. Further, sativa rice varieties of the world are commonly grouped into three sub-species -viz. indica, japonica and javanica. Rice grown in India belongs to the indica. The varieties developed in Japan belong to japonica and javanica are cultivated mainly in Indonesia.<br />Rice is the most important crop of India and it occupies 23.3 per cent of gross cropped area of the country. Rice contributes 43 per cent of total food grain production and46 per cent of total cereal production. It continues to play vital role in the national food grain supply. It is the staple food of nearly half of the world population. It ranks third after wheat and maize in terms of worldwide production. Asia accounts for 90 per cent and 92 per cent of world's rice area and production respectively. Thus, rice production, consumption and trade are concentrated in Asia. One third of Asia's rice production is consumed in China and one fifth in India. Among the rice growing countries in the world, India has the largest area under rice crop (about 45 million ha.) and ranks second in production next to China. India and China together accounts for 56 per cent of the total production and about 50 per cent of world's area under rice during 1997-98. From production point of view, China ranks first in the world and accounts for 34.6 per cent of total production of world during 1997-98. India accounts for 21.5 per cent of total rice production of world during 1997-98. Other important rice producing countries and their respective share in the world production of rice during 1997-98 were : Indonesia 8.8 per cent, Bangla Desh 4.9%, Vietnam 4.6%, Mynammar 3.3%, Thailand 3.7%, Japan 2.2%, Brazil 1.6%, United States of America 1.4% and Russian federation 0.1%.<br />The productivity of rice in India is higher than Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Brazil but much below than the productivity in Japan, China, Korea, U.S.A. and Indonesia. The rice productivity in India during 1999 - 2000 was 1986 Kg./ha., which is below the world average productivity of 2551 Kg./ha. during the same year.<br />Global paddy output in 1999-2000 reached 598 million tonnes, registering 2.6 per cent rise on the previous season. Rice is primarily a high-energy or high caloric food. The protein content is less than wheat. The protein content of milled rice is usually 6-17 per cent. The biological value of its protein is high. Rice contains low fat about 2.0 to 2.5 per cent. In milling process much of fat is lost. The calcium content in rice is generally low. B-group vitamins are found in rice grains as in wheat. Valuable protein, vitamins and minerals are lost in the milling process of rice. The embryo and aleurone layer of rice are removed during course of milling. However, much of the loss of nutrients can be avoided through parboiling process.<br />The by-products of rice milling are used for a variety of purposes. Rice bran is the most valuable by-product of rice milling industry. It is obtained from the outer layers of the brown rice. Generally, rice bran consists of pericarp, aleurone layer , germ and a part of endosperm. Bran removal amounts to 4 to 9 per cent of the weight of paddy milled and is abundant in oil. Raw rice bran contains about 18 to 20 per cent oil whereas parboiled rice bran contains about 22 to 25 per cent oil. The de-oiled bran, which is a rich source of protein (about 17%) and vitamins (Vitamins A and E ), is used as cattle feed and poultry feed. It is a good source of foreign exchange earnings. Rice hulls can be used in manufacture of insulation materials, cement and cardboard . It is also used as litter in poultry keeping. Rice straw is used as cattle feed and it is also used as litter during winter season.<br />Origin And History   <br />The origin and history of rice probably dates back to the antiquity. As per archaeological evidences and by the many references, India and Burma should be regarded as the centre of origin of cultivated rice. It has probably been the staple food and the first cultivated crop in Asia. Rice has been cultivated in India since ancient times. In fact, rice was known in India before the present era as per the reports of the many investigators based on the study of Sanskrit and various other languages in South-Eastern Asia.<br />China is another ancient region of rice cultivation. In this connection, the investigators have reported that pottery from excavated has been found to carry imprints as well as rice husk. The period of that culture is estimated at 2000 B.C., but a greater antiquity has also been claimed. The region covering Burma, Thailand and Cambodia is well suited to rice cultivation. This region has also a large population of wild rices.<br />Climatic Conditions   <br />India lies between 8° and 35° N latitude, with a tropical and sub-tropical climate. Among the various weather elements, rainfall is the most single important factor, which determines the extent, growth and production of rice crop.<br />Rice is indigenous to the humid area of tropics, sub-tropics and temperate regions. It has a wide physiological adaptability and is grown successfully from below the sea level to 2000 meters above the sea level. There are many varieties of rice which are cultivated with differential response to climatic factors, such as temperature, rainfall and day length. The soil types and different physiographic factors are also quite relevant in the cultivation of rice crop. The indica varieties of rice (Oryza sativa ) are grown mainly in the tropical countries. These varieties are photosensitive and maturity period is affected with the date of planting.<br />Rainfall is the most important weather element for successful cultivation of rice. The distribution of rainfall in different regions of the country is greatly influenced by the physical features of the terrain, the situation of the mountains and plateau. The regions experiencing very heavy rainfall in the country are given :-<br />Western Ghats (the western slopes and the coastal region.)<br />In the Assam region.<br />The sub-montane Himalayan region, Deccan plateau, Eastern Ghats with coastal plains and the vast Gangetic plains.<br />Generally south west monsoon from Arabian sea becomes active on the Malabar coast in the end of May or in the first week of June. At the same time, the south-west monsoon from the Bay of Bengal also strikes the hills of north-eastern India in the Assam region and in the Sub-Himalayan West Bengal. Gradually, south-west monsoon extends northwards and reaches western Rajasthan.<br />Rainfall is the most important weather factor to determine the paddy production because rainfall during the active phase of the initiation of panicle primordia is significantly beneficial. Thus, rainfall always gives beneficial effect even when this factor is taken jointly with other climatic elements, such as the mean temperature and sunshine. Therefore, rainfall is one of the most important climatic elements to determine the growth and yield of rice crop.<br />Temperature is an other climatic elements which has a favourable and in some cases unfavourable influence on the development, growth and yield of rice. Rice being a tropical and sub-tropical plant, requires a fairly high temperature, ranging from 20° to 40°C. The optimum temperature of 30°C during day time and 20°C during night time seems to be more favourable for the development and growth of rice crop. The low temperature affects the tillering rate. The period of tillering is prolonged due to low temperature but low temperature gives more tillers and more panicles than higher temperature. Low temperature depresses the internodal elongation and thereby induces the partial emergence of panicles. This phenomena further affects the rate of photosynthesis and also induces partial sterility. However, low temperature during the period of ripening, prolongs the ripening period and enables the plant to maintain green leaves. Such condition contributes to the accumulation of carbohydrates in the grains.<br />Sunlight is very essential for the development and growth of the plants. In fact, sunlight is the source of energy for plant life. The response to solar radiation is a varietal character. The yield of rice is influenced by the solar radiation particularly during the last 35 to 45 days of its ripening period. The effect of solar radiation is more profound where water, temperature and nitrogenous nutrients are not limiting factors.<br />Bright sunshine with low temperature during ripening period of the crop helps in the development of carbohydrates in the grains. Solar radiation is a limiting factor for upland rice, because upland rice is grown during rainy season. Therefore, low productivity in the case of upland rice is a problem in the tropics.<br />Rice Soils of India   <br />Rice is grown in India in different types of soils. These soils in which rice is grown are so extraordinarily varied that there is hardly any type of soil on which rice can not be cultivated with some degree of success. The classification of soils has been done depending upon the soil texture, colour of the soil etc. The rice soils of India has been classified into 17 types as mentioned below and these are depicted in the Map No.1.<br />1.Sub-montane soils2.Hill soils3.Tarai soils4.Calcareous soils5.Riverine Alluvium6.Laterite soils7.Saline and Alkaline soils8.Red yellow loams9.Red sand or Gravelly soils10.Mixed Red and Black soils11.Deltatic Alluvium12.Medium Black soils13.Seleletal soils14.Deep Black soils15.Red Loamy soils16.Coastal Alluvium17.Shallow Black Soils.<br /> <br />Distribution of Different Rice Soils    <br />The state-wise area under rice during 1999-2000 is given in Table 1. The area occupied under rice in West Bengal is the highest followed by Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Assam , Punjab , Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Karnataka. These states put together accounts for about 92 per cent of the total area under rice in the country. These states except Punjab also constitute the traditionally rice growing areas in the country. Punjab has emerged as rice growing state in the country during early seventies. The other states in the country have, however, limited area under rice crop.<br />The distribution of various kinds of rice soils in the country is discussed region-wise below :-<br />The Humid Western Himalayan Region<br />This region comprises of sub-montane soils, hills soils and tarai soils. The distribution of this region is in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Kumaon and Garhwal division of Uttranchal. The rice soils which are found in Jammu and Kashmir have been formed from the alluvium brought by the major rivers Chenab, Ravi, Tawi and their tributaries. Such soil is found mostly in Jammu and Kathua districts.<br />The sub-montane soils are found in Anantnag , Baramulla and Srinagar districts. These soils are formed from the alluvium deposited in the valley floor by the Jhelum and the Indus rivers. They are silty loam to clay loam and are neutral to alkaline.<br />The hill soils are found in the districts of Almora, Chamoli, Pithoragarh, Uttar Kashi and Dehradun of Uttranchal. These soils are shallow with fragments of rock occurring according to the elevations and have been categorized as red loam, brown forest soil, meadow soil and podzolic soil.<br />The tarai soils are found from north-west to the extreme north-east as a narrow strip. These soils are always saturated because of sufficient rainfall and high ground water table. These soils have been formed from transported materials by different rivers originating from the Himalayas. The tarai soils are very productive and responding well to fertilizer application.<br />The soils occurring in Himachal Pradesh are formed from parent rocks such as sandstones, gray micaceous sandstones and shales of Sub-Himalayan region. These soils are loam to silty loam and medium to high in organic matter. Generally, these soils are poor in available nutrients.<br />The Humid Bengal-Assam Basin and Humid Eastern Himalayan Region<br />The altitude of rice growing areas in this region ranges from few metres in Sundarbans in West Bengal to about 1600 metres in Mizoram state and more than 2000 metres in Arunachal Pradesh. Generally, the crop is grown in this region on flat lands to facilitate the supply of water requirement. One of the most limiting factor in this region is the availability of water. The alluvial soils deposited by the rivers mostly occupy the major part of the wetland rice soils in this region. These soils are formed from the silt deposition by the numerous tributaries of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers. The water-table is high and drainage is poor in the wetland rice soils.Soils in the Assam valley are acidic and high in available phosphorus and potassium and moderate in organic matter and nitrogen. In the north-eastern mountainous upland areas of Assam, the soil is lateritic. In the upland areas drainage is good. The rice crop is better grown in acidic soils in the pH range of 5.5 to 6.5 . In the Gangetic delta, rice is successfully grown in saline soils of Sundarbans.The Sub-Humid Sutlej-Ganga Alluvial Plains<br />In this region a single crop of rice is grown during May-June to September-October. The temperature during winter remains low. The major group of soils in this region are calcareous alluvial, riverine alluvial, saline-alkaline, red yellow loam, red sandy and mixed red and black. The alluvial soils of this region are formed from the materials brought and deposited by the great rivers originating from the Himalaya mountain. The alluvial soils are rich in potash and calcium but are deficient in organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. The alluvial soil can broadly be classified as -<br />(a) light-textured alluvial soils of the west and north-west<br />(b) intermediate-textured alluvial soils in the central region<br />(c) calcareous alluvial soils in the north-east.Saline soils are found all along on the left side of the Ganga river in the districts of Meerut, Aligarh, Bulandshahar, Mainpuri, Etah, Kanpur, Fatehpur, Allahabad, Lucknow, Pratapgarh and Sultanpur. The soils are highly alkaline, indurated and have below hard pan which obstruct the downward movement of water. The soils of Allahabad, Varanasi, Ghazipur and Balia are black and fine-textured. The soils are formed from the alluvial deposits transported by the Yamuna river from central parts of the country.Bihar state is divided by the Ganga river into two halves i.e. north and south. The texture of alluvium of north Bihar region is sandy loam to clay loam and pH is neutral to alkaline. Generally, lime content is high in alkaline soils. The texture of south Bihar in the districts of Patna, Gaya and Shahabad is gray to black and light loam to heavy clay. The lime content in this soil is generally less and pH of the soil is alkaline. The soils of Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Santhal Parganas, Singhbhum and Manbhum are red. These soil are acidic. These soils are rich in potassium and poor in phosphorus.<br />The Sub-Humid to Humid Eastern and South-Eastern Uplands<br />In eastern Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh the rice soils are laterite, red-yellow loam, red sandy, mixed red and black, deltaic alluvium, deep and medium-deep black, red loam and coastal alluvial. In Chhattisgarh plains, Mahanadi basin and in the eastern region soils are red and yellow. These soils are mainly sandy but sometimes silty loam to silt-clay loam are also found. Black soils are found in the Narmada valley. The laterite soils of Orissa are found in the eastern Ghat region. The soils of Khurda are mainly laterites. The soils of Balasore are gravelly.In Andhra Pradesh, particularly in the districts of Nellore, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Ongole, the soils are red and black. The alluvial soils of the deltas are very deep and well drained. These soils are very fertile. The alluvium soils of Godavari is different from the alluvium soils of Krishna. The soils of coastal districts of Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, East and West Godavari, Guntur, Krishna and Nellore are purely sandy. In some parts of Medak, Nellore and Visakhapatnam districts laterite soils are found. These soils are red but they differ from red soils. Such soils are found in heavy rainfall and high temperature areas. These soils are acidic, pH ranging from 4.0 to 5.0.Generally, black soils are found in long stretches. Sometimes black soils are also found in isolated pockets along with the red soils. Drainage in black soils is poor and the content of soluble salt is high. These soils contain sufficient lime and pH ranges from 7.0 to 8.5 . These soils are also deficient in phosphorus and low in organic matter and nitrogen.<br />The Arid Western Plains<br />The soils of this region are alluvial, red-yellow and medium-deep black. These soils are found in Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.The districts of Karnal, Ambala, Jind and Sirsa in Haryana state are having mainly alluvial and saline-alkali soils in low-lying areas. The rice is grown mainly in these districts of Haryana and in such soils.Red-yellow soils are mainly found in Banaswara district and alluvial soils are found in Ganganagar, Alwar, Bharatpur, Jaipur and Udaipur districts of Rajasthan. Generally, these districts are growing rice in Rajasthan.The soils of Sabarkanta and Ahmedabad districts of Gujarat are riverine alluvium. Rice is mainly grown in these two districts. Medium black soils are found in the district of Rajkot, Junagadh and Jhalwar. Rice is also cultivated in deep-black and coastal alluvium soils of Broach, Varodara and Kheda districts of Gujarat state.<br />The Semi-Arid Lava Plateau and Central Highlands<br />This region comprising of Maharashtra, Western and Central Madhya Pradesh and Goa, Daman and Diu Union Territories, having alluvium coastal alluvium, mixed red and black soils. The Ratnagiri district, parts of Kolhapur and south of Kolaba are having laterite soils. This is a high-rainfall zone and rice is cultivated in laterite soils. Non-laterite soils are found in high rainfall zone of Thana district, part of Kolaba and some areas of Nasik district in Maharashtra.In Western Madhya Pradesh, alluvial soils are found which are formed due to the alluvium deposited by the Chambal river. These soils are neutral to slightly alkaline, nitrogen and phosphorus are low in these soils. However, potassium is medium to high.<br />The Humid to Semi-Arid Western Ghats and Karnataka Plateau<br />Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Union Territory of Pondicherry and Lakshadweep Islands are coming in this region. The soils of this region are laterite, red sandy or gravelly, red loamy, deltaic and coastal alluvium.Karnataka state is having varied type of climate, ranging from humid to sub-humid. Laterite and lateritic soils are found in the coastal districts of north and south Kanara, parts of Belgaum, Shimoga, Chickmagalore, Hassan and Coorg. The black soils are found in the districts of Belgaum, Dharwar, Bidar, Raichur and parts of Bellary. These soils are calcareous, enriched with bases and alkaline. The districts of Mysore and parts of Hassan are having red soils where as some parts of shimoga and Chickmagalore districts are having red loam soils. These soils are well-drained and light-textured. Black and red soils are found in the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwar, Raichur, Bellary and Chitradurga. Generally, upland areas are having red soils and lowland areas are having black soils. The districts of Tiruchirapalli and Thanjavur are the main rice growing areas in Tamil Nadu besides Kanyakumari, Changulput, South Arcot, eastern parts of Ramnathapuram and Tirunelveli. The Cauveri delta is called 'rice-bowl'. Black soils are found in all the districts except the Nilgiris district. The major portion of the Cauveri alluvium is in the Thanjavur district. This soil is poor in nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter but is rich in potassium and calcium.The major portion of the soils in Kerala is acidic. In the acidic soils of Alleppy, Quilon, Kottayam and Ernakulam districts of Kerala, rice is mainly grown, of which "Kuttanad" the rice-bowl of Kerala covers major rice areas. Alleppey and Kottayam districts are having a large isolated patches of peat soils (Kari soils). These are deep, black and heavy clayey soils, with poor aeration and bad drainage. These soils are having low content of available plant nutrients. They are generally inundated with saline water resulting in highly acidic.The south of Kerala and the Malabar coast zones are having red and lateritic soils. These soils are also acidic in reaction. The soils which are found in the plains are deeper and possessing sufficient amount of nitrogen and organic matter, but they are deficient in phosphorus, potassium and lime.<br />Table-1 : State-wise Rice Area During 1999-2000   <br /> <br />SLName of the State/UTs   Area ('000 Hectares)  1.Andhra Pradesh4,014.20 2.Arunachal Pradesh122.70 3.Assam2,646.00 4.Bihar5,001.80 5.Jharkhand- 6.Goa56.7 7.Gujrat664.40 8.Haryana1,083.00 9.Himachal Pradesh80.20 10.Jammu & Kashmir250.60 11.Karnataka1,449.80 12.Kerala349.70 13.Madhya Pradesh5,354.20 14.Chhatisgarh- 15.Maharashtra1,519.80 16.Manipur157.10 17.Meghalaya106.40 18.Mizoram49.70 19.Nagaland148.50 20.Orissa4,601.80 21.Punjab2,604.00 22.Rajasthan200.20    <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />RICE GROWING SEASONS      <br />In India rice is grown under widely varying conditions of altitude and climate . Therefore, the rice growing seasons vary in different parts of the country, depending upon temperature, rainfall, soil types, water availability and other climatic conditions. In eastern and southern regions of the country, the mean temperature is found favourable for rice cultivation through out the year. Hence, two or three crops of rice are grown in a year in eastern and southern states. In northern and western parts of the country, where rainfall is high and winter temperature is fairly low, only one crop of rice is grown during the month from May to November. There are three seasons for growing rice in India viz.- autumn, winter and summer. These three seasons are named according to the season of harvest of the crop. Autumn rice is known as pre-kharif rice. The sowing of pre-kharif rice is taken up during May to August. However, the time of sowing slightly differs from state to state according to weather condition and rainfall pattern. It is harvested in September-October. Autumn rice crop is know as 'Aus' in West Bengal, 'Ahu' in Assam, 'Beali' in Orissa, 'Bhadai' in Bihar, 'Virippu' in Kerala and 'Kuruvai/kar/ Sornavari' in Tamil Nadu. About 7% crop is grown in this season. The varieties grown during this season are mostly varieties of short duration ranging from 90 to 110 days.<br />The main rice growing season in the country is the 'Kharif'. It is known as winter rice as per the harvesting time. The sowing time of winter (kharif) rice is June-July and it is harvested in November-December. Winter rice is know as 'Aman' in West Bengal, 'Sali' in Assam, 'Sarrad' in Orissa, 'Agahani' in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, 'Sarava' in Andhra Pradesh, 'Mundakan' in Kerala and 'Samba/Thaladi' in Tamil Nadu. About 84% of the country's rice crop is grown in this season and generally, medium to long duration varieties are grown in this season.<br />Summer rice is called as Rabi rice. It is known as 'Boro' in Assam and West Bengal, 'Dalua'in Orissa, 'Dalwa' in Andhra Pradesh, 'Punja' in Kerala and 'Navarai' in Tamil Nadu and 'Garma' in Bihar. The sowing time of summer rice is November to February and harvesting time is March to June. The area under summer rice is only 9% and early maturing varieties are mostly grown in this season.<br />The sowing/harvesting period of autumn, winter and summer rice, region/state-wise are shown below -<br />Table-2 : Sowing and Harvesting Periods    <br />SLRegion/StateAutumnWinterSummerSowingHarvestingSowingHarvestingSowingHarvesting1.Northern RegionHaryana      PunjabMay-AugSep-Nov----West U.P.      Himachal PradeshJune-JulySep-Nov----Jammu & Kashmir--Apr-JulySep-Dec--2.Western regionGujrat--Jun-AugOct-Dec--Maharashtra--Jun-JulyOct-Dec--Rajasthan--July-AugOct-Dec--3.North-East RegionAssamMid Feb-AprJune-JulyJune-AugNov-DecDec-FebMay-June4.Eastern RegionBiharMay-JulySep-OctJuly-SepNov-DecJan-FebMay-JuneEast M.P.June-AugMid Sep - Mid Dec----OrissaMay-JuneSep-OctJune-AugDec-JanDec-JanMay-JuneEast U.P.May-JulySep-NovJuly-AugNov-DecJan-FebApr-JuneWest BengalMar-June(Broadcasting)May-June(Transplanting)July-NovApr-June(Broadcasting)July-Aug(Transplanting)Nov-DecOct-FebApr-May5.Southern RegionAndhra PradeshMar-AprilJuly-AugMay-JuneNov-DecDec-JanApril-MayKarnatakaMay-AugSep-DecJune-OctNov-MarchDec-FebApril-JulyKeralaApril-JuneAug-OctSep-OctJan-FebDec-JanMarch-AprTamil NaduEarly SambaLate Samba SonavariApril-MayJuly-AugJune-JulyNov-DecOct-NovMarch-Apr    SambaNavarai   KarMay-JuneAug-SepJuly-AugDec-JanDec-JanApril-May    Thaladi/Pishanam   KuruvaiJune-JulySep-OctSep-OctDec-Jan--<br />RICE GROWING REGIONS   <br />Rice is grown under so diverse soil and climatic conditions that it is said that there is hardly any type of soil in which it can not be grown including alkaline and acidic soils. Rice crop has also got wide physical adaptability. Therefore, it is grown from below sea-level (Kuttanad area of Kerala) upto an elevation of 2000 metres in Jammu & Kashmir, hills of Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and North-Eastern Hills (NEH) areas. The rice growing areas in the country can be broadly grouped into five regions as discussed below :<br />North-Eastern Region<br />This region comprises of Assam and North eastern states. In Assam rice is grown in the basin of Brahmnaputra river. This region receives very heavy rainfall and rice is grown under rain fed condition.<br />Eastern Region<br />This region comprises of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. In this region rice is grown in the basins of Ganga and Mahanadi rivers and has the highest intensity of rice cultivation in the country. This region receives heavy rainfall and rice is grown mainly under rain fed conditions.<br />Northern Region<br />This region comprises of Haryana, Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Uttranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. The region experiences low winter temperature and single crop of rice from May-July to September-December is grown.<br />Western Region<br />This region comprises of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Rice is largely grown under rain fed condition during June-August to October - December.<br />Southern Region<br />This region comprises of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Rice is mainly grown in deltaic tracts of Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery rivers and the non-deltaic rain fed area of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Rice is grown under irrigated condition in deltaic tracts.<br /> <br />RICE ECO-SYSTEMS   <br />Rice is grown under varying Eco-systems on a variety of soils under varying climatic and hydrological conditions ranging from waterlogged and poorly drained to well drained situations. Rice is also grown under rain fed as well as irrigated conditions. These different Eco-systems are discussed below :<br /> <br /> <br />Irrigated Rice<br />The total area under irrigated rice is about 22.00 million hectares, which accounts about 49.5 per cent of the total area under rice crop in the country. Rice is grown under irrigated conditions in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat. In these states rice is grown under irrigated conditions more than 50-90%.<br />Rainfed Rice<br />The rainfed eco-system may be broadly classified into two categories :<br />1. Upland<br />upland rice areas lies in eastern zone comprising of Assam, Bihar, Eastern M.P., Orissa, Eastern U.P., West Bengal and North-Eastern Hill region. In the rain fed upland rice, there is no standing water in the field after few hours of cessation of rain. The total areas under upland rain fed rice in the country is about 6.00 million ha., which accounts13.5 per cent of the total area under rice crop in the country. The productivity of upland rice is very poor. As against the present national average productivity of about 1.9 tonnes per ha., the average yield of rice in upland areas in the country is only 0.90 tonnes per ha.<br />2. Low land<br />Low land rice area is mostly located in the eastern region comprising of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa , Eastern Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Low land rice area is about 14.4 million ha., which accounts 32.4 per cent of the total area under rice crop in the country. The average productivity of rice in low land areas ranges from 1.0 to 1.2 tonnes per ha. as against the national average productivity of 1.9 tonnes per ha.<br />The low land rice may be further classified into three categories depending upon the standing depth of water in the field as discussed below :-Shallow waterThe standing depth of water in the field is generally below 50 cm. The shallow rice area is located in the eastern states viz.- Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.Semi-deep waterThe standing depth of water in the field varies between 50-100 cm. These areas are lying in the eastern states viz. Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.Deep waterThe standing depth of water is more than 100 cm in the field. Such deep water rice areas are mostly situated in the eastern states, viz.-Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. These areas are subjected to flood occurrence and duration of flooding varies from year to year.<br />Coastal SalineThe coastal area is always subjected with salinity problem and these areas are situated in West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The total area under coastal saline rice in the country is estimated about 1 million hectares which accounts for 2.3% each of total area under rice in the country. The yield in coastal saline soil is very poor. Average yield in costal saline area is about 1 tonnes per ha as against the average National yield of 1.9 tonnes per ha. The coastal Saline soils are often affected with deficiency of ferrous and zinc which causes chlorosis and reduced tillering.Cold/HillSuch rice areas lies in the hill regions comprising of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttranchal and North-Eastern hill states. The total area under rice in cold/ hill region is estimated about 1 million ha which accounts for 2.3% of total area under rice in the country. The productivity in cold/hill areas is very poor. The average yield is about 1.1 tonnes per ha as against the average National yield of 1.9 tonnes/hectare. The major problems of these areas are cold injuries, blast, drought spell and very short span of cropping seasons. Because of the rolling topography in these areas bench terracing is being followed which limits the use of fertilizers and improved agronomical practices. In these areas the crop is sometimes affected due to low temperature in the early stage and sometimes at the flowering times which leads to sterility problems.<br />CROPPING PATTERNS   <br />India has a wide range of soil and climatic conditions and cropping pattern vary widely from region to region and to a lesser extent from one year to another year. In fact for devising cropping patterns, it is necessary to divide the country into homogeneous regions based on physical, climatological or agronomic. While making division, the climatic index and the soil group may be taken into consideration. The soil and the climate are the important factors for adoption of cropping patterns, hence they constitute a better criterion for crop-zoning.<br />During the first decade of planning i.e., from 1950-51 to 1960-61, there was not much change in the cropping patterns in spite of significant increase of about 22 million ha. in cropped area. The proportion of area under rice and wheat together remained around 30% of the total cropped area in the country during 1950-51 to 1960-61. Adoption of high yielding varieties on a large scale, increased use of fertilizers, plant protection chemicals and expansion in irrigated areas led to shifting in areas towards crops in which the impact of improved production technology on yield was apparent. Area under rice as proportion of total cropped area remained unchanged at around 23% during 1950-51 to 2000-01. Percentage of area under each crop to total cropped area are given in Table-3.<br />The cropping pattern in different Agro-climatic zones has been adopted by the farmers after long experience based on suitability of soil, profitability, availability of market and industrial infrastructure and quantum of water available. Techniques such as relay cropping, inter cropping, mixed cropping, minimum tillage, weed control and use of fertilizers and pesticides have helped not only in reducing the cost of cultivation but also in sustaining high level of production over a period of time. Scientific cropping patterns can actually result in increased soil productivity by improving the physical, chemical and micro-biological properties of soils and increasing the fertility status.<br />Some of the rice based cropping patterns being followed in the country are discussed below :-<br />Rice-Rice-Rice<br />This crop rotation is most suitable for areas having high rainfall and assured irrigation facilities in summer months, particularly, in soils which have high water holding capacity and low rate of infiltration. In some canal irrigated areas of Tamil Nadu, a cropping pattern of 300% intensity is followed. In such areas three crops of rice are grown in a year.<br />Rice-Rice-Cereals (other than rice)<br />This cropping pattern is being followed in the areas where the water is not adequate for taking rice crop in summer. The alternate cereal crops to rice being grown are Ragi, Maize and Jowar.<br />Rice-Rice-Pulses<br />In the areas where, there is a water scarcity to take up cereal crops other than rice in summer, the short duration pulse crops are being raised.<br />Rice-Groundnut<br />This cropping pattern is being followed by the farmers of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. After harvesting of rice crop, groundnut is grown in summer.<br />Rice-Wheat<br />This crop rotation has become dominant cropping pattern in the Northern parts of the country.<br />Rice-Wheat-Pulses<br />In this sequence of cropping pattern, after harvesting of wheat green gram and cowpea as fodder are grown in the alluvial soil belt of Northern states. Besides, cowpea is grown in red and yellow soils of Orissa and black gram is grown in the black soils.<br />Rice-Toria-Wheat<br />This crop sequence is commonly followed in Northern parts of the country.Among the above mentioned cropping patterns followed in the country, Rice-wheat cropping pattern is the largest one. The Rice-wheat cropping pattern is being practiced in the Indo-Gangetic plains of India since long time.Rice-Fish farming systemThe field with sufficient water retaining capacity for a long period and free from heavy flooding are suitable for rice-fish farming system. This system is being followed by the small and marginal poor farmers in rain fed lowland rice areas. These farmers are not able to invest much in agricultural development. They raise a modest crop of traditional low yielding rice varieties. In order to improve the economic condition of these farmers, the Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack has developed the production technology for rice and fish farming system. Steps have already been taken to popularize rice-fish farming system in low land areas to increase the production and productivity of crops and thereby improving the economic conditions of the resource poor farmers of these areas.<br /> <br />Table-3 : Percentage of Area under each Crop to Total Cropped Area   <br /> <br />SL CropYears 1950-51  1960-61  1970-71  1980-81  1990-91  2000-01 1. Rice23.6 22.30 22.60 23.30 23.00 23.30 2. Wheat7.60 8.50 11.00 12.80 13.00 13.10 3. Coarse Cereal29.90 29.40 27.80 24.60 19.60 15.90 4. Pulses15.60 15.50 14.00 13.20 13.40 10.50 5. Total Food-Grains76.70 75.70 75.40 73.90 69.00 62.80 6. Oil-Seeds8.30 8.30 8.90 9.20 13.50 13.20 7. Cotton4.30 5.00 4.70 4.50 4.00 4.50 8. Jute and Mesta0.50 0.60 0.60 0.70 0.50 0.50 9. Sugarcane1.30 1.60 1.60 1.60 2.00 2.10 10. Others8.90 8.80 8.80 10.10 13.00 16.90   Total100.00 100.00100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 <br /> <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />METHODS OF CULTIVATION OF RICE      <br />In India Rice is mainly grown in two types of soils i.e., (i) uplands and (ii) low lands. The method of cultivation of rice in a particular region depends largely on factors such as situation of land, type of soils, irrigation facilities, availability of labourers intensity and distribution of rainfalls. The crop of rice is grown with the following methods :-<br />Dry or Semi-dry upland cultivation<br />(a) Broadcasting the seed<br />(b) Sowing the seed behind the plough or drilling.<br />Wet or lowland cultivation<br />(a) Transplanting in puddled fields.<br />(b) Broadcasting sprouted seeds in puddled fields.<br />Selection of Seeds    <br />The use of quality seeds in cultivation of rice is an important factor to get better crop yield. Therefore, proper care has to be taken in selecting seeds of the best quality. Much of the success in raising the healthy seedlings depends on the quality of seed. Seeds intended for sowing should satisfy the following requirements :-<br />The seed should belong to the proper variety, which is proposed to be grown.<br />The seed should be clean and free from obvious mixtures of other seeds.<br />The seed should be mature, well developed and plump in size.<br />The seed should be free from obvious signs of age or bad storage<br />The seed should have a high germinating capacity.<br />Before sowing the seed should be treated with fungicides which protects the seed against soil-born fungi and also give a boost to the seedlings.<br />Methods of Nursery Raising    <br />There are three major methods of raising nursery - viz.<br />The dry nursery where the dry seed is sown in dry soil. This method is practiced in areas where water is not sufficient to grow seedlings in wet nursery<br />Wet nursery where sprouted seed is sown on the moist puddled soil. Wet nurseries are preferred under irrigated condition<br />And the "dapog" method. This method of raising nursery has been introduced in India from Philippines.<br />"Dapog" method is commonly prevalent in Philippines. The essential feature of this method is to have a very thick stand of the nursery seedlings without any contact with the soil. Generally, seedlings become ready for transplanting in 12 to 14 days.<br />Seed Rate    <br />The seed rate naturally influences the growth of the seedlings. Thin sowing gives strong and tillered seedlings, whereas thick sowing provides thin and tall seedlings without tillers. Thin sowing in nurseries is always better and it will produce strong and sturdy seedlings, which can withstand adverse climatic conditions better and produce better yields. Therefore, 40 to 60 grams of seed per square metre should be sown in the nursery beds. About 500 square metre area of nursery is sufficient to transplant one hectare area. In case of late sowing of nursery, the nursery area should be increased to 750-1000 square metre.<br />Transplanting    <br />Before transplanting, field should be puddled properly with bullock or tractor drawn puddlers. Puddling is a very important operation in transplanted rice. Puddling helps to kill the weeds and buries them in puddled soils. It also suppresses the germination of weeds in subsequent growing period of crop. Puddling keeps the soil surface in a more even condition, besides creating beneficial physical, biological and chemical conditions for rice plant growth.<br />Transplanting should be done with proper age of seedlings. In case of short duration varieties, the seedlings should be uprooted from the nursery beds for transplanting , when it is three to four weeks old. In case of medium and long duration varieties, four to five weeks old seedlings should be transplanted. Always healthy seedlings should be used for transplanting at the four to five leaf stage or when they are about 15-20 cms. high. As far as possible, delayed transplanting should be avoided because it leads to poor tillerings, early flowering of the main tillers and resulting in reduction in yield. In alkaline soils aged seedlings of 45 days old should be transplanted because old seedlings establish better than young seedlings of 25 days age or so.<br />Spacing    <br />Under good management and adequate nitrogen levels, the optimum spacing for varieties like IR-8 should be around 20x10 cms both for kharif and rabi crops. With excellent cultural practices, the spacing may be slightly wider, say 20x15 cms but under sub-normal conditions, the spacing should be slightly narrower, say 15x10 cms.<br />Number of Seedlings per Hill    <br />Transplanting two to three seedlings per hill under normal conditions is enough. The use of more seedlings per hill, besides not being any additional advantage, involves an extra expense on seedlings. In case of transplanting with old seedlings, the number of seedlings per hill can be increased.<br />Depth of Planting and Directions of Rows    <br />Depth of planting has assumed considerable importance after the introduction of high yielding varieties. The high yielding varieties are characterized with high tillering capacity. The high tillering potential of these varieties is, however, best expressed with shallow planting. The tiller buds formed at the basal node are not suppressed in case of shallow plantings . Therefore, the seedlings should be transplanted at 2 to 3 cm depth. Shallow planting gives better yields. The deeper planting results in an increased height of the plants besides delays and inhibits tillering.<br />The crop planted with rows running in the north-south direction generally gives better yield particularly in rabi season. The adoption of this practice is worthwhile, since it does not involve any extra expenditure.<br />Practices in the Direct-Seeded Crops    <br />The success of the direct seeded rice depends entirely on the monsoon rains, besides proper stand of crop. If sowing is done in a properly prepared land, proper stand of crop can be achieved. A field with fine tilth facilitates the seed to come in contact with the soil moisture after drilling and enables the seed to germinate quickly and uniformly. Thus, an ideal preparation of the land will help to achieve a uniform stand, facilitate weeding and fertilizer practices. Therefore, with number of ploughings of the field and timely sowing, the direct seeded crop generally gives better yield.<br />Different Methods of Seeding    <br />Seeding is done in three different ways - viz. (i) drilling i.e. sowing in the furrow behind a plough, (ii) dibbling and (iii) broadcasting. The light soils which generally come into conditions quickly, any method can be adopted. Seeding with drilling method has got a greater advantage over other methods, because of the uniformity of the stand and the control of the population of the plants per unit area. Heavy soils which do not come in conditions quickly, other methods except broadcasting are not feasible. It has been found that drilling or dibbling always gives considerably better yields than broadcasting system.<br />Broadcasting Sprouted Seeds in Puddled Land    <br />This method is adopted in an area where agricultural labourers are not easily available for transplanting or some time labourers are very expensive. In this method field is prepared and puddled just like in the case of transplanting. About 100 kg seed is required for one hectare area. In the puddled field sprouted seeds with radical length of one to two millimeter are uniformly broadcast by hand.<br />Manure and Fertilizer Application    <br />Organic manures are as much as important for rice cultivation as inorganic fertilizers. In case of upland rice cultivation, the use of bulky organic manure is very much desirable in order to maintain the physical condition of the soil and also to increase the water holding capacity of the soil for maximum utilization of rain water. In upland fields 10-15 tonnes of well rotted Farm Yard Manure or compost should be applied in one hectare area preferably 4 to 6 weeks before sowing. Organic manures should be spread evenly on the upper surface of the soil and ploughed in to get it well mixed in the soil.<br />Application of chemical fertilizers depends basically upon (i) fertility states of the field and (ii) previous crop grown and amount of organic manure applied. Before deciding the fertilizer dose, soil is required to be got tested to know the status of the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil. After testing the soil, fertilizer dose should be calculated accordingly.<br />Soil fertility status varies in different agroclimatic zones to a considerable extent. Therefore, common fertilizer dose can not be recommended for all regions. The Department of Agriculture of various states and State Agriculture University have formulated fertilizer recommendations for rice crop in their states keeping in view the variability in soil fertility and local conditions. The fertilizer dose recommendation by the Agriculture Department in different states are given in Table-4.<br />Application of fertilizer in transplanted rice field is quite different from upland rice. A series of reactions-physical, chemical and biological take place in transplanted rice fields due to presence of excess water in the field. In the root zone anaerobic environment is formed from aerobic condition due to depletion of oxygen in the soil profile, which is responsible for gaseous loss of nitrogen fertilizer due to de-nitrification process. This anaerobic environment also affects the behavior of phosphorus and micro-nutrients specially iron and manganese.<br />The soil in the transplanted rice fields after puddling develops two zones in water logged conditions. The upper layer of soils ( 1 to 10 millimetre thick) generally receives Oxygen periodically from fresh supplies of irrigation water and turns in to brown colour called "Oxidised zone" and reacts like an unflooded upland soil. The remaining lower portion of puddled soil without oxygen is called "reduced zone". When ammonical nitrogen fertilizer is applied in such soils, it gets oxidised to nitrate (NO3 ) form in the oxidised zone (upper surface layer of the soil). Afterwards nitrate nitrogen is leached down to the reduced zone and further gets denitrified to gaseous nitrogen. This gaseous nitrogen is lost. If ammonical nitrogen is incorporated in to the reduced zone of the soil, where it is held, the loss can be prevented. Fertilizers containing nitrogen in the nitrate form are more susceptible to loss of nitrogen through leaching and de-nitrification process. Therefore, ammonical form of nitrogen is found more beneficial for rice crop.<br />Due to variation in soil fertility, rainfall and climatic condition , a common dose of fertilizer can not be recommended for all regions. However, in general a level of 30 to 40 kg of nitrogen per hectare in kharif and 60 to 80 kg of nitrogen per hectare in rabi appears to be the optimum dose for the tall indicas and double that level for the high yielding varieties on soils of average fertility in the southern and eastern regions. In the northern region, where sunshine is available for longer hours, higher dose of nitrogen is beneficial in the kharif season.<br />The maximum efficiency can be obtained in the direct seeded upland rice by applying 50% nitrogen dose, three weeks after seeding, 30% at 45 days age and the rest at the boot-leaf stage.<br />In order to obtain better results, full dose of phosphorus, potash and half dose of nitrogen should be applied before last puddling. Remaining half dose of nitrogen should be applied in two equal doses, first at tillering stage and second dose at panicle initiation stage.<br />Water Management    <br />The water requirement of rice crop is comparatively higher than any other crop of the similar duration. Assured and timely supply of irrigation water has a considerable influence on the yield of the crop. During the crop growth period, the water requirement is generally high at the initial seedling establishment stage. After the transplanting , water should be allowed to stand in the field at a depth of two to five centimeters till the seedlings are well established. The second, the most important critical stage is tillering to flowering and in this period the crop should not be subjected to soil moisture stress. The water supply should be ensured in required amount during panicle initiation to flowering stage. About five centimeters depth of water should be maintained in the field up to the dough stage of the crop. Before harvesting, water should be drained out from the field to allow quick and uniform maturity of grain.<br />Harvesting and Threshing    <br />The maximum quantity and better quality paddy and rice depend on the harvesting of the crop at the correct maturity stage. Therefore, it is of the paramount importance to harvest the crop at suitable time. Harvesting of the crop when it is not fully matured might result in loss of yield with poor quality grains. If harvesting is delayed, grain may be lost due to damage by rats, birds, insects, shattering and lodging. Thus, timely harvesting ensures better yield, good quality of grains, consumer acceptance and less breakage when milled. The right stage for harvesting as commonly understood by laymen is when panicles turn into golden yellow and the grains contain about 20 percent moisture. When the moisture in the paddy grains reaches 16-17% in the standing crop in the fields, the crop sustains a heavy loss owing to shattering and damage by birds and rodents.<br />Extensive studies have been carried out on specifying the optimum time of harvesting. Based on the results of the various studies, in general, three criteria are taken into consideration to specify the right time of harvesting viz. (i) the moisture content of the grains, (ii) the number of days after planting or flowering and (iii) the dry matter of the plant or seed.<br />The most common and old methods of threshing of paddy is trampling by bullocks or lifting the bundles and striking them on the raised wooden platform. Now pedal threshers are being used. Power driven stationary threshers are also used for quick threshing.<br />Table-4 : Recommended Fertilizer Dose in Major Rice Growing States   <br />SLName of State/UT    Season   Variety        Recommended Dose (Kg/Ha)   NPK1.Andhra PradeshKharifHYV1006040RabiHYV12060402.AssamKharif HYV402020Local201010Rabi HYV603030Local2010103.BiharKharif Irrigated804020Rainfed6030204.JharkhandKharif 804020Rabi 7040205.Gujrat Kharif HYV10027-Local7525-RabiHYV12025-6.Haryana Kharif HYV1506060Basmati6030307.Himachal PradeshKharifHYV904040Local5025258.Jammu & KashmirKharifHYV804520Local5025259.KarnatakaKharif 1005050Rabi 120626210.KeralaKharif 904545Rabi 70353511.Madhya PradeshKharif 1206060 12.ChhatisgrahKharifHYV805030Local40302013.MaharashtraKharif 100505014.ManipurKharifHYV615138Local322315RabiHYV665138Local32231515.MizoramKharifHYV604040Local402020RabiHYV604040Local20101016.OrissaKharifHYV603030Local402020RabiHYV80404017.PunjabKharifHYV125303018.RajasthanKharifHYV80-12040-6030-4519.Tamil NaduKharif 1505050Rabi 120383820.TripuraKharifHYV703535Local452222RabiHYV100505021.Uttar PradeshKharifHYV   Early1306050Medium1507560Dwarf1206050Local754040RabiHYV150757522.UttranchalKharifHYV120604023.West BengalKharif 603030Rabi 100505024.PondicherryKharifHYV1203838Rabi 1505050       <br /> <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />RICE PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS      <br />Rice productivity analysis at the districts level during trinnium ending 2000-01 has been done. A wide variation in productivity at the district level is due to varied agro-climatic conditions in which rice is grown and also the level of inputs used. Among various inputs seed, water and fertilizers including organic manures are critical ones and have direct influence on the productivity.<br />The highest productivity level of 4,912 kg/ha was in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu and the lowest of 283 Kg/ha in Dungarpur district of Rajasthan.<br /> <br />Classification of Productivity    <br />According to the productivity levels, productivity status has been classified in to following groups :<br />High productivity - Yield more than 2,500 Ka/Hectare<br />Medium productivity - Yield more than 2,000-2,500 Kg/Hectare<br />Medium-Low productivity - Yield more than 1,500-2,000 Kg/Hectare<br />Low productivity - Yield in between 1,000-1,500 Kg/Hectare<br />Very Low productivity - Yield less than 1,000 Kg/Hectare<br /> <br />High Productivity Group    <br />Based on the above criterion, out of 534 rice producing districts, in the Country 110 districts were under high productivity category covering about 12.06 million hectares, which was 26.9% of the total rice area, and produced about 37.42 million tonnes, which was about 42.8% of total rice production in the country during triennium ending 2000-2001. The average productivity was 3,103 kg per hectare (Table-5). All the districts of Punjab, Goa and Pondicherry, 27 districts of Tamil Nadu, 14 districts each of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, 7 districts each of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana, 4 districts each of Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur and West Bengal, 3 districts of Kerala and 1 district each of Bihar, Guajarat, Uttranchal & A&N Islands were falling under the category of high productivity group (Table-6).<br />Medium Productivity Group    <br />There were 81 districts falling under the category of medium productivity group. The rice area under this category was about 7.77 million hectares (17.3% of total rice area) and production was about 17.45 million tonnes (20% of total production) during triennium ending 2000-2001. The average productivity was 2,246 kg per hectare (Table-5). 29 districts of Uttar Pradesh, 9 districts of West Bengal, 7 districts of Haryana, 5 districts each of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka Maharashtra, Kerala, 4 districts of Bihar, 3 district of Uttranchal, 2 districts each of Madhya Pradesh and Tripura and 1 district each of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Rajasthan were falling under the medium productivity group. (Table-6)<br />Medium-Low Productivity Group    <br />A total number of 94 districts in the country were falling under the medium- low productivity category. These districts covered rice area of about 7.54 million hectares (about 16.8% of total rice area) and produced about 13.38 million tonnes (about 15.3% of total production) during triennium ending 2000-2001. The average productivity of this category of districts was 1,775 kg/ha (Table-5). 26 districts of Uttar Pradesh, 11 districts of Assam, 6 districts of Karnataka, 5 districts each of Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, 4 districts each of Bihar, Meghalaya, Orissa, 3 districts each of Gujarat, Mizoram, Orissa and West Bengal, 2 districts each of Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Uttranchal and Tripura and 1 district each of Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Sikkim and A&N Islands were falling under the group of medium-low productivity. (Table-6).<br />Low Productivity Group    <br />A total number of 155 districts in the country were falling in the low productivity cateogry. The area under these districts was about 11.58 million hectares, which account for about 25.8% of the total rice area in the country and their contribution in the total rice production was about 14.22 million tonnes, which was only about 16.3% of total rice production in the country during triennium ending 2000-2001. The average productivity of this group in these districts was 1,228 kg per hectare (Table-5). 25 districts of Bihar, 17 districts of Orissa, 10 districts of Jharkhand, 11 districts each of Assam, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, 9 districts of Chhatisgarh, 7 districts each of Himachal Pradesh & Uttranchal, 6 districts each of Arunachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, 5 districts each of Gujarat, Manipur, Nagaland and Uttar Pradesh, 3 districts of Sikkim, 2 districts each of Haryana, Meghalaya and West Bengal and 1 district each of Andhra Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Mizoram and Tamil Nadu were falling under the category of low productivity group (Table-6).<br />Very-Low Productivity Group    <br />A total number of 94 districts in the country were under very-low productivity group. Rice area under such category of districts was about 5.93 million hectares (constitute 13.2% of total rice area ) and the production was about 4.90 million tonnes (about 5.6% of total production) during triennium ending 2000-2001. The average productivity was only 826 kg per hectare (Table-5). 31 districts of Madhya Pradesh, 15 districts of Maharastra, 10 districts of Orissa, 7 districts of Jharkhand 6 districts each of Arunachal Pradesh & Chhatisgarh, 5 districts each of Gujarat and Rajasthan, 3 districts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, and 1 district each of Assam, Jammu & Kashmir and Karnataka were falling under the category of very-low productivity group (Table-6).<br /> <br />POTENTIAL AREAS FOR INCREASING PRODUCTION      <br />There is no further scope of horizontal expansion of area under rice cultivation during Kharif. The only way to sustain production to meet the requirement of increasing population of the country is either to increase the productivity per unit area or increasing area under hybrid rice cultivation. The productivity of Rabi/summer rice is much higher than that of Kharif. There is possibilities of expansion of area under Rabi/summer rice provided irrigation facilities are created particularly in the States of Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.<br />The rice crop was grown in an area of 44.78 million ha. in 534 districts during triennium ending 2000-2001 (Table-5). The area under high-medium productivity group was about 44% of the total area under rice and its share was 63% to the total production of rice. About 200 districts had higher productivity than the national productivity of 1,940 kg/ha. The largest no. of districts i.e., more than 300 districts had medium-low to very low productivity which was far below the national average during the triennium 2000-2001. About 56% of rice area falls under the medium-low, low and very low productivity groups and contributes about 37% of the total rice production in the country.<br />Therefore, additional production of rice in the coming years will be contributed by the districts having medium, low and very low productivity. There is greater scope for increasing the productivity level and thereby increasing the production of rice in the country.<br />Table-5 :Area, Production and Productivity of Rice of five productivity groups of districts during Triennium ending 2000-01  <br />SLProductivityGroupsNumberofDistrictsArea (Million Ha.)Percent of All India Rice AreaProduction in Million TonnesPercent of All India ProductionProductivity(Kg/Ha.)1.High Productivity(>2,500 Kg/Ha)11012.0626.9%37.4242.8%3,1032.Medium Productivity(> 2,000-2,500 Kg/Ha)817.7717.3%17.4520.0%2,2463.Medium-Low Productivity (> 1,500-2,000 Kg/Ha)947.5416.8%13.3815.3%1,7754.Low Productivity(1,000-1,500 Kg/Ha)15511.5825.8%14.2216.3%1,2285.Very-Low Productivity(< 1,000 Kg/Ha)945.9313.2%4.905.6%826 TOTAL53444.78100.0%86.88100.0%1,940<br /> <br />VARIETAL DEVELOPMENT      <br />Indian Council of Agricultural and State Agricultural Universities may suggest or develop suitable location specific high yielding varieties particularly for districts those are having medium, low and very low productivity and also evolved low cost technology for increasing rice production in these areas. These districts are having special problems like flood, cold, salinity, pest and diseases. Therefore, these areas require special attention of research priorities and varietal development for increasing productivity as well as rice production in the country.<br />Therefore, for increasing the production level, it is necessary to make in-depth study about the location specific problems or factors responsible for the low productivity in these districts and take necessary measures for tackling these constraints or the bottlenecks so that the productivity can be increased.<br /> <br />Table-6 :State-wise no. of Districts based on Productivity Level during Triennium ending 2000-01  <br />SLState/Union TerritoriesTotal RiceGrowingDistrictsHigh Productivity Districts (> 2,500 Kg/Ha.)Medium Productivity Districts (2,000-2,500 Kg/Ha.)Medium-Low productivity Districts (1,500-2,000 Kg/Ha.)Low Productivity Districts (1,000-1,500 Kg/ha.)Very Low Productivity Districts (< 1,000 Kg/Ha.)1.Andhra Pradesh2214521-2.Arunachal Pradesh13--1663.Assam23--111114.Bihar371442535.Jharkhand18--11076.Goa22----7.Gujrat141-3558.Haryana187722-9.Himachal Pradesh10-127-10.Jammu & Kashmir124151111.Karnataka2714561112.Kerala143551-13.Madhya Pradesh41-2263114.Chhatisgarh16--19615.Maharashtra32-51111516.Manipur94--5-17.Meghalaya7-142-18.Mizoram5-131-19.Nagaland7--25-20.Orissa30--3171021.Punjab1717----22.Rajasthan18-1111523.Sikkim4--13-24.Tamil Nadu2827--1-25.Tripura4-22--26.Uttar Pradesh70729265327.Uttranchal131327-28.West Bengal184932-29.A&N Islands21-1--30.Pondicherry33---- TOTAL534110819415594<br /> <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />POST-HARVESTING OPERATIONS      <br />The post-harvesting operations of paddy crop and the storage of grains are as much important as producing the crop, because post-harvesting technology affects the quantity and quality of paddy and the finished product of it i.e. rice . If proper attention is not paid to handle the produce after post - harvesting, it may lead to a considerable loss to the producers. Generally, losses in paddy and rice during the post-harvest operations amount to about ten per cent of field production. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt proper technology after harvesting the crop for the improvement of the quantity and quality of paddy and rice.<br />Drying Operation    <br />Generally, the term drying refers to the removal of relatively small amount of moisture and it involves both heat and mass transfer operations simultaneously. Thus, drying is the process that removes moisture from the grain mass for the safe storage and preservation of quality, nutritive value and viability. In the country three methods are used for drying the paddy grains viz.<br />Sun-drying<br />Mechanical drying<br />Chemical drying.Sun drying is a traditional method of drying the paddy grains. This practice is being followed by the farmers since very beginning of the farming history. In fact, the major quantity of produce is being dried in the country by this method.Mechanical drying process means drying the grains by ventilating natural or heated air through the grain mass to get it evaporated the moisture from it.Chemical drying method involves the spraying of common salt solution with specific gravity of 1.1 to 1.2 on the ears of the mature paddy crop. This treatment reduces the moisture content from 29% to 14.5% after four days.<br />Storage    <br />The grains are stored at three different level viz:<br />Producer's Level<br />Trader's Level<br />Urban Organizational Storage Level<br />The method followed for storing the grains are - (i) storage in bags, and (ii) loose storage. Generally, storage in bags method is adopted in tropical regions. Storage in bags is also convenient for short term storage, where grain is intended for very early onward movement. For short term storage, no control measures against insects is needed. In loose/bulk storage method, large quantity of grains can be stored in per unit volume of space, less difficulty in loading and unloading and no investment in purchasing gunny bags. Besides, in case of bulk storage method, the infestation of insects/pests is lower.<br />Rice-Milling    <br />Before the advent of mechanical milling, hand-pounding traditional method of rice milling was in practice. With the introduction of mechanized mills, hand-pounding method has steadily decreased because it could not compete with machine mills. In fact, hand-pounding rice has got more nutritive value as compared to machine milling rice. In hand-pounding, a variety of implements are used, the more common being -<br />Mortor and Pestle<br />Dhenki<br />Hand Stone (Chakki).<br />The conventional mills in use can be categorized into three main types -<br />Huller mills<br />Sheller-Huller mills<br />Sheller-Cone Polisher mills.<br />After harvesting and drying, the paddy is subjected to the primary milling operation which includes de-husking as well as the removal of bran layers (polishing) before it is consumed. In this process the rice which is obtained after milling is called raw rice. An other process through which rice is obtained is called "Parboiling Rice." Nearly 60% of the total rice produced in India is subjected to parboiling. Parboiling is a hydrothermal treatment of paddy followed by drying before milling for the production of milled parboiled rice. In general, three major steps in parboiling i.e., soaking, steaming and drying have a great influence on the final characteristics and quality of parboiled rice. Parboiling of paddy has been practiced in Indian households since time immemorial. The parboiling process is followed extensively in the Eastern and part of Sourthern India, Eastern Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It is also well known in Western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana in the form of Sela. Sela process of parboiling and the rice produced from this process is called Sela rice.<br />The rice grains are hardened sufficiently in the process of parboiling and results in improved milling properties, leading to a high head rice recovery. The parboiling process also results in the low breakage during milling. The cooking qualities of parboiled rice are somewhat different from those of raw rice. Parboiled rice takes a larger time to cook to the same degree of softness than the raw rice of the same variety. During cooking the loss of protein and starch are low. During parboiling process water soluble B-group vitamins and other water soluble nutrients get diffused into the endosperm, hence, the loss of nutrients is less in parboiled rice even after polishing than raw rice. The presence of Vitamin-'E' is also found in parboiled rice.<br />UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS OF RICE MILLING INDUSTRIES      <br />The economics of rice milling industries is largely dependent on the useful commercial utilization of its by-products. Husk, Bran and Broken Rice are the by-products of the rice milling industries. These by-products can be used in better and profitable manner both for industrial and feed purposes. The methods for the effective utilization of these-by-products are discussed below :-<br />Rice-Husk    <br />Rice husk constitutes the largest by-product of rice milling and one fifth of the paddy by weight consists of rice husk. Rice husk has a considerable fuel value for a variety of possible industrial uses. Hence, the major use of husk at the moment is as boiler fuel, wherever parboiling is practiced. Rice husk is tough because of its silica-cellulose content. The silica content in husk is the highest among plant offal. It contains 15 to 18 percent silica, therefore, it is a potent source of silica for the manufacture of silicates or in glass manufacture. Also pulverized husk is available wherever paddy is parboiled and it is mixed with other mill fractions as cattle feed. Pulverized husk has a low feed value and it has a low protein content. It contains more than 30% crude fibre. If nitrogen content in pulverized husk is increased by blending with other nitrogen rich feeds and fibre content is brought down to around 10 per cent, pulverized husk can be used as cattle feed on large scale.<br />Rice-Bran    <br />Rice bran is the most valuable by-product of the rice milling industry. It is obtained from the outer layers of the brown rice during milling. Rice bran consists of pericarp, aleurone layer, germ and a part of endosperm. Rice bran obtained during milling amounts to 4 to 9 per cent of the weight of paddy milled. True bran amounts to 4 to 5 per cent only and rest is polishing of inner bran layers and portion of the starchy endosperm.<br />Rice bran can be classified into three groups -<br />Full fatted raw bran (i.e. raw bran) obtained from milling of raw paddy<br />Full fatted parboiled bran (i.e., parboiled bran) obtained from milling of parboiled paddy<br />De-fatted/De-Oiled bran obtained after extraction of oil from either raw or parboiled bran.<br />Rice bran can be utilized in various ways. It is a potential source of vegetable oil. Refined oil can be a supplementary source of edible oil. Raw rice bran contains 12-18% oil, whereas parboiled bran contains 20-28% oil. The de-oiled bran contains about 1 to 3 percent oil only. Rice bran also contains high fat and protein. It also contains vitamins, minerals and many other useful chemicals. Because of its nutritional value, it is being used as feed for poultry and livestock. Defatted/de-oiled bran contains higher percentage of protein (17-20%) vitamins (A and E) and minerals than full fatted bran obtained from raw and parboiled paddy. In fact, full fatted bran is an excellent ingredient for both food and feed.<br />Crude bran oil contains high free fatty acids (FFA) and is used for manufacture of soap and fatty acids. Crude oil of high FFA is refined and produced of low FFA content (about 5%) for edible purpose. Tocoferol and waxes of high melting points are the by-products of the bran oil refining industry, which are suitable for various industrial uses.<br />Various uses of rice bran, bran oil and its different constituents are discussed below :-<br />Edible Oil Grade<br />Bran oil contains low linolenic acid and high tocoferol, hence, it has distinct advantage over other vegetable oils. Edible oil can be produced by refining and suitable hydrogenation of bran oil. There is immense potential to increase edible rice bran oil in India. In fact, there is a vast gap between the potential and actual production of rice bran oil in India. The paddy production in India and possible availability of rice bran production and extraction of bran oil production are given below :-<br />Paddy production during 2000-01 = 126.67 million tonnes<br />Estimated Bran production @ 7.5% of Paddy = 9.50 million tonnes<br />Estimated oil production @15% of bran produce =14.25 lakh tonnes<br />Present production of bran oil = 5.00 lakh tonnes<br />Scope to increase bran oil production(14.22-5.00)=9.25 Lakh tonnes<br />There is a gap of 9.22 lakh tonnes between actual production and production potential of rice bran oil in India. This gap is mainly due to the poor milling machinery being used by millers in the country. In fact, poor rice milling machinery produce poor quality rice bran which can not be used for oil extraction economically as its oil contents is very low. If financial & technical supports are provided to the rice bran oil producers in the country, the total production of rice bran oil can be increased as estimated above. Presently, Japan is the major producer of rice bran oil. If proper efforts are made with Japan authority for technology transfer, this will help in improving the production potential of rice bran oil in India. During the year 1991-2000 the rice bran oil production has shown increasing trends in the country. Edible rice bran oil in India has not become very popular among the consumers. Therefore, a consumer awareness campaigns is required to be initiated at various level. If rice bran oil is popularized as an alternative healthy edible oils, country can reduce the edible oil imports and it could become potential substitute for import oils. This will also help the country to save the foreign exchange.<br />Rice bran oil is more economical than the other traditional cooking oils because while cooking it absorbs 20-25% less oil as compared to other traditional cooking oils. Besides, at the time of frying there is no much degradation of oil. The rice bran oil possesses the same frying properties as ground nut oil. Rice bran oil fries the food faster and after frying it becomes more golden brown colour resulting in lighter testing food. Food cooked in rice bran oil increases it flavour and palatability.<br />Industrial Grade Crude-Oil<br />(a) Soap Manufacture<br />Rice bran oil contains high free fatty acid (FFA) hence, highly suitable for manufacture of soft soap and liquid soap. Other kinds of metallic soap such as aluminium, barium and calcium soaps are also manufactured from rice bran oil and they find market as components of lubricants.<br />(b) Free Fatty Acid Manufacture<br />By hydrolysis technique of the triglycerides of fatty acids into fatty acids and glycerol, fatty acids and glycerol are obtained . The use of hydrogenation in combination with fractional distillation pure stearic and oleic acids are obtained.<br />Protective Coatings<br />From rice bran oil resin based paints, enamels, varnishes etc. are prepared.<br />Plasticisers<br />Fatty acids and fatty oil based plasticisers are used in the plastic and rubber industries.<br />Tocoferol<br />Crude rice bran oil contains 2% - 4% tocoferol and it has nutritional and antacid effect. Edible oil contains about 1% - 2% tocoferol rest is lost during deodorizing process.<br />Rice Bran Wax<br />Rice bran wax is used for coatings of candy, fruits and vegetables as it prevents moisture loss and shrinkage. It is also used as component for manufacture of carbon paper base, stencils, candles etc.<br />Use of De-Oiled Bran and Bran    <br />Feed<br />De-oiled/ defatted rice bran, which is a rich source of protein (17 to 20 per cent) and vitamins (vitamins A & E) is used as a cattle and poultry feed. De-oiled bran is more suitable for feed than raw bran due to higher nutritional value, higher digestibility and better keeping quality.<br />Food<br />In preparation of bakery products such as bread, cake, biscuits etc. de-oiled/defatted bran can be used as an ingredient. In baking flour, fine powder of de-oiled bran can be added up to 20%.<br />Fertilizer<br />De-oiled/ defatted bran contains plant nutrition i.e., N.P.K., and it can be used as fertilizer. Raw bran is not suitable for use of fertilizer because it contains high fat and wax, which are harmful for plants and roots.<br />Medicinal Use<br />Rice bran contains valuable Vitamin-B complexes, amino acids, phosphoric acid compound etc. and can be used in pharmaceutical industry. Protein can also be easily extracted from rice bran.<br />Broken Rice    <br />Broken rice is another by-product of rice milling industry. From the nutritional point of view, broken rice is as good as whole rice itself. Broken rice has low economic value as compared to whole rice. Generally, broken rice is of poor quality due to admixture with grit, stones and clay particles. Therefore, broken rice is used either as a part of animal feed or partially in the diet of poor people. If the quality of broken rice is improved by cleaning the paddy properly before milling, it can be utilized and marketed straightway for preparation of Idli, Dosa and other such preparation in which rice flour or wet-ground rice paste is needed.<br /> <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />MINIMUM SUPPORT PRICE      <br />In recognition of the importance of assuring reasonable produce prices to the farmers, motivating them to adopt improved technology and to promote investment by them in farm enterprises, the Agricultural Prices Commission (Currently known as the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices) was established in 1965 for advising the Government on agricultural prices policy on a continuing basis. The thrust of the policy in 1965 was to evolve a balanced and integrated structure to meet the overall needs of the economy and with due regard to the interests of the producers and the consumers.<br />The minimum support prices are announced by the Govt. of India with a view to ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce on the basis of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) recommendations. The minimum support prices are perceived by the farmers as a guarantee price for their produce from the Government. These prices are announced by the Government at the commencement of the season to enable them to pursue their efforts with the assurance that the prices would not be allowed to fall below the level fixed by the Govt. Such minimum support prices are fixed at incentive level, so as to induce the farmers to make capital investment for the improvement of their farm and to motivate them to adopt improved crop production technologies to step up their production and thereby their net income.<br />The minimum support price for paddy for Fair Average Quality (Common) is fixed by the govt. each year on the basis of the recommendation of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices, Procurement/Minimum Support Prices fixed for the Paddy (Common) for the last five years are given below :-<br /> <br />Rs. Per Quintal  Commodity  Quality  Crop Year MarketingYear Prices Recommended  by CACP Prices Accepted  by the Govt. Paddy (Common)  Fair Average  Quality (FAQ)  1997-1998  1997-1998 415.00 415.00  1998-1999  1998-1999 440.00 440.00  1999-2000  1999-2000 465.00 465.00  2000-2001  2000-2001 510.00 510.00  2001-2002  2001-2002 530.00 530.00       <br /> <br /> <br />EXPORT OF RICE FROM INDIA     <br />India is facing stiff competition in the world market for export of rice. Thailand, the world’s largest rice exporter has steadily increased its share of the African market. Thailand is exporting rice to three large African buyers viz.- Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa. Vietnam is the world's second largest supplier of rice. Currently the demand for Vietnamese rice has steeply declined in the International market. The fall in demand is due to good crop in Vietnam's main Asian markets like Indonesia etc.<br />Thailand, India and U.S.A. are the only countries making parboiled rice and exporting. Thailand, Vietnam and India are also exporting 100% broken rice.<br />A decade ago, India used to export only Basmati rice. Non-Basmati rice has also become a major item for export, registering a steady upwards trend in recent years. During 1998-99, total quantity of rice exported was 49.40 lakh tonnes, out of which 43.40 lakh tonnes was non-basmati and 6.00 lakh tonnes was basmati respectively. The total exports of rice during 1999-2000 was estimated at 18.23 lakh tonnes, decline of around 65% from 49.40 lakh tonnes, exported during 1998-99, the export of non-basmati varieties of rice constitute close to three-fourth of the total rice exported. However, in monetary terms, the basmati varieties bring in more foreign exchange than non-basmati varieties of rice. Basmati rices are fetching good export prices in the International Markets for its three distinct quality features viz.-pleasant aroma, superfine grains and extreme grain elongation. Therefore, nearly two third of basmati rice produced in India is exported. The middle East Africa, CIS, America, France, Australia and Britain are the countries importing basmati rice from India.<br />In the 80's much of Indian basmati rice had gone to the then USSR and less quantities exported to among other countries. The export to the then USSR by the end of 80's decreased slightly, while the share of other countries particularly to Saudi Arabia had increased significantly. The Indian basmati rice was exported to Saudi Arabia in considerable quantities by the end of 1997-98 and the share of CIS (USSR) had gone down significantly. Thus, the share of Gulf countries as a whole has increased significantly over the years.<br /> <br />Export Earnings    <br />The export earnings from the export of total rice (Basmati and Non-Basmati) during 1998-99 was worth Rs. 6,200.80 crores, which accounts for 4.38% of total national export earnings of Rs. 1,41,603.53 crores. The total earning from Basmati rice during 1998-99 was Rs. 1,886.25 crores, which accounts 1.33% of total national export earnings. Similarly, export earnings from agricultural exports during 1998-99 was Rs. 25,224.63 crores, which accounts for 17.81% of total national export earnings. The percentage share of rice exports to the total agricultural exports during 1998-99 was 24.58% in which the share of basmati rice was 7.5% during the same year. The percentage share of Basmati rice to the total rice exports during 1998-99 was 32.42%. Percentage share of export of rice from India during 1998-99 is given in Table-7.<br /> <br />Table-7 : Percentage Share of Export of Rice   <br /> SL  Items Year 1998-99 (Rs. in Crores) 1. Total National Exports1,41,603.53  2. Total Agricultural Exports25,224.63  3. Total Exports of Rice6,200.80  4. Total Exports of Basmati Rice1,886.25  5. Percentage share of Rice Exports to Total Agricultural Exports 24.58%  6. Percentage share of Basmati Rice to Total Agricultural Exports 7.48%  7. Percentage share of Basmati to the Total Rice Exports 32.42%  8. Percentage share of Agricultural Exports to National Exports 17.81%  9. Percentage share of Rice in Total National Exports 4.38%  10. Percentage share of Basmati Rice in Total National Exports 1.33% <br /> <br />Measures for Sustaining Rice Export    <br />Rice export constitute a considerable share in the national exports in general and in agricultural exports in particular keeping in view the importance of rice in the export of the national items, efforts are required to be made to increase the export of rice for the development of the nation. There is a good scope for India to take advantage of the new trade opportunities for sustaining the export of rice. This can be achieved if production is made keeping in view the demand of International markets by increased investment in Research & Development coupled with realistic policy incentives adopted by the Government. The following are few of the measures suggested to sustain the export of rice in future.<br />The major rice producing nations have decreased the price to capture the International markets in order to export huge stocks to the maximum possible extent. Indian rice prices are inelastic due to relatively high cost of production. Much of basmati export prospects have been lost in the recent past to other competing countries like Pakistan etc. because of high domestic prices. Pakistan’s prices are very low compared to Indian basmati rice prices and that is why more than 70 per cent share of the world’s basmati market has been captured by Pakistan. In fact, Indian basmati rice is superior to Pakistan basmati rice but due to higher price, buyers are not ready to pay the big difference in prices. Therefore, low cost technology may be developed to reduce the cost of production thereby making the Indian rice compete in the International markets.<br />Breeding programme may be initiated to develop high-yielding export–quality rice (Basmati, Non-Basmati, Short Grain Scented Rice, etc.) to enable the exporters to sustain their exports in future.<br />Survey may be conducted to identify the suitable belts/zones for cultivation of export quality rice.<br />Cultivators may be apprised about the advanced production technology through extension activities for better production so that quality standards can be maintained to match those of International markets.<br />Proper arrangements may be made for procurement and processing of rice for export purposes keeping in view the requirement of International markets.<br />Developmental activities may be strengthened to back up the rice industries, production of quality seeds and making available to the farmers at subsidized rates.<br />Post-harvest care may be taken in a effective manner so that export–quality could be maintained. Rice mills may also be modernized to ensure high milling recovery and effective availability of by–products for economic utilization.<br /> <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />HISTORY AND CONCEPT OF HYBRID RICE      <br />The first artificial hybrid was produced by Thomas Fairchild during 1717 by crossing between sweet william (Dianthus barbatus and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). Thereafter, several scientists used hybridization for scientific studies as well as for crop improvement in the breeding programme. Joseph Koelreuter, one of the famous scientist who made several crosses in Tobacco during 1760-1766 and reported hybrid vigour in F1. At the end of nineteenth century, hybridization was widely used for different crop improvement programme. In the modern era hybridization is the most common method is applied in crop improvement and large number of varieties have been developed in various crops by hybridization.<br />For development of hybrid, intensive research was started in India during 1952 in the Maize Coordinated Project and first hybrid was released during 1960. Subsequently three more maize hybrids were also released during 1960. Later on, research work was initiated on Bajra and Pearl millet and Sorghum (Jowar) crops during 1961 and first hybrid in sorghum and in Pearl millet was released during 1964.<br />Success in hybrids of maize, pearl millet, sorghum, cotton, sunflower and pigeonpea breeding programme encouraged researchers to explore commercial exploitation of heterosis in rice. In mid seventies, rice hybrids were also developed and cultivated in China.<br />Efforts to develop and use of hybrid rice technology in India was initiated during 1970. But the research works were systematized and intensified since 1989 with a mission mode project. With the concerted research work, the country developed half a dozen rice hybrids each from public and private sectors within a short span of five years. The first four rice hybrids were released in the country viz. APHR-1, APHR-2, MGR-1 and KRH-1 during 1994. Subsequently, two more hybrids viz. CNRH-3 and DRRH-1 were also released. The total number of 18 rice hybrids have been released till December 2001. The details of salient features of these hybrids are given in Table-8.<br />In the mid seventies rice hybrids were also developed and cultivated in China. The China cultivated rice hybrids in an area of about 55% of its total area under rice during 1991. The result indicated that the hybrid rice have greater potential to increase productivity by 15-20% than the high yielding varieties.<br />Breeding Methodology : Hybridization    <br />The breeding method in which mating or crosses are made between two plants or lines of different genotype is known as hybridization. The seeds as well as the progeny obtained from hybridization is known as hybrid or F1.<br />There are two breeding approaches in hybrid rice technology :<br />Three-line breeding or Cytoplasm Genetic Male Sterility (CGMS).<br />Two-line breeding<br />Three-Line BreedingIn this system, three lines are used that’s why this system is called three line breeding. These line are:-<br />Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterile line (CGMS Line) or A-Line<br />Maintainer Line or B-Line, and<br />Restorer line or R-Line.<br />In this system of breeding, sterility/fertility is due to interaction of nuclear gene with the cytoplasm. In A-line, sterile cytoplasm has been derived from wild or weedy species and the nucleus has recessive fertility restorer genes. Therefore, the A line is sterile. However, maintainer line or B-line has normal cytoplasm and fertile pollen contains recessive fertility restorer genes.<br />A–Line and B–Line are exactly same genetically but they differ only in respect of cytoplasm content. A–Line has sterility inducing enzyme whereas, B–Line has normal cytoplasm. The R-Line possesses fertility restorer genes in dominant condition. The R-Line will be always fertile with respect to the cytoplasm either it is sterile or fertile. As regards multiplication of A-Line, it is crossed with B-Line. Since two lines have fertility genes in recessive condition and cytoplasm is controlled by sterility inducing gene in A–Line, therefore as a result of crossing F1 is sterile i.e., A–Line.<br />In hybrid seed production A–Line is crossed with R–Line. As R–Line possesses fertility restorer gene in dominant condition, though the cytoplasm contributed by A-Line is sterility inducing one. As a resultant, F1 which is used as commercial hybrid is fertile one. The three line breeding methodology is shown in the diagrammatic form below :<br /> <br />Two-Line BreedingThis approach is a potential alternative tool to overcome some of the limitations. They are :-<br />Use of environment sensitive genic male sterility (EGMS)<br />Use of chemically induced male sterility<br />EGMS System<br />In EGMS System, genotype that exhibit sterility/fertility with respect to temperature are called Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterility (TGMS) line and the lines showing sterility/fertility with respect to photoperiod are named Photoperiod Sensitive Genic Male Sterlity (PGMS) lines. These only two lines viz. female and male lines are required for developing hybrids and therefore this approach is called Two Line Breeding. The two line breeding methodology is shown in the diagrammatic form below -<br />Chemically Induced Male Sterility<br />Male sterility is artificially induced by spraying Gametocides to cause stamen sterility without harming the pistil. The chemical which makes sterile the stamen, plant can be used as female parent for producing hybrid seed. Two selected lines are planted in alternate strips and one is utilized as female (chemically sterilized) and is pollinated by the other line, for production of hybrid seed.<br /> <br />Constraints in Hybrid Rice    <br /> <br />Non- synchronization of flowering of male and female lines.<br />Poor grain quality characteristics of hybrid rice which is not preferred by the consumers, generally, after cooking the taste of cooked rice is not as much palatable as non-hybrid rice varieties , therefore, the farmers are not getting better price in the market.<br />High cost of hybrid seed production.<br />Higher percentage or chaffy grains in the ears of hybrid.<br />Lack of seed production technology to increase hybrid seed yield.<br />For full exertion of panicles, spray of Gibberellic Acid is essential resulting in high cost of seed production.<br />Susceptibility to some of the major pests and diseases.<br />Yield increase in hybrid rice is in the range of about 15-20 % but generally, farmer’s expectation are very high say 30-40 % as it is in the case of cross pollinated crops such as maize, bajra sorghum and cotton. Therefore, many farmers are not adopting hybrid rice cultivation.<br />Lack of extension activities to bring awareness among the farmers about the hybrid rice cultivation technology.<br /> <br />Economics of Hybrid Rice Cultivation    <br /> <br />Hybrid rice cultivation is a new technology and it has to be popularized among the farmers in the rice growing areas. The increase in yield in the case of hybrid rice is about 15-20% than the existing high yielding varieties of rice. Economics of hybrid rice cultivation as well as the cultivation of high yielding varieties of rice, if both are cultivated in similar conditions with good management package of practices, on an average an additional net profit of Rs. 3,500/- per hectare can be obtained from hybrid rice cultivation. The additional cost in cultivation of hybrid rice is only the cost of seed as the cost of hybrid seed is higher than high yielding varieties. However, other cultivation practices remain the same as those of high yielding varieties of rice.<br />Table-8 : Hybrid Rice Variety    <br />SLName of HybridVarietyYear of ReleaseParentageRecommendedfor the StateDurationYield(T/Ha)Characteristics 1.APHR-11994IR-58025A/VajramAndhra Pradesh130-1357.14Suitable for uplands of coastal Andhra Pradesh.2.APHR-21994IR-62829A/MTU-9992Andhra Pradesh120-1257.52Grains are long and slender.3.CORH-11994IR-62829A/IR-10198Tamil Nadu110-1156.08Grains are medium slender, resistant to the pest, WB and Gall Midge.4.KRH-11994IR-58025A/IR-9761Karnataka120-1256.02Suitable for irrigated areas.5.CNRH-31995IR-2829A/AjayaWest Bengal125-1307.49Grains are LB, suitable for Boro season.6.DRRH-11996IR-58025A/IR-40750Andhra Pradesh125-1307.30Grains are LS, mild aroma, resistant to blast disease.7.KRH-21996IR-58025A/KMR-3Karnataka130-1357.40Grains are LB, resistant to the pest, BPH and blast disease, suitable for irrigated areas.8.Pant SankarDhan-11997IR-58025A/UPRI-93-133Uttar Pradesh115-1206.80--9.CORH-21998IR-58025A/C-20RTamil Nadu120-1256.25Grains are MB.10.ADTRH-11998IR-58025A/IR-66Tamil Nadu115-1207.10Grains are LS.11.Sahyadri1998IR-8025A/BR-827-35Maharashtra125-1306.15Grains are LS.12.Narendra Shankar Dhan-21998IR-8025A/NDR-3026Uttar Pradesh125-1306.15--13.PHB-71*1997--Haryana, UP,Tamil Nadu130-1357.86Grains are LS, resistant to the pest, BPH.14.UPRH-271997IR-58025A/UPRI-92-133Plains of UttarPradesh115-1206.80--15.PA-6201*2000--Eastern and someparts of SouthernIndia125-1306.18Grains are LS, resistant to the pest, BPH and blast disease.16.Pusa RH-102001Pusa- 6A/PRR-78Delhi, Punjab,Uttranchal125-Aromatic Basmati Hybrid.17.Hybrid-644420016CO-2/6MO-5Andhra Pradesh,Maharashtra,Uttar Pradesh,Orissa, Tripura,and Uttranchal135-1406 - 8Plant height : 100-120 cms, Leaf : 24x1.5 cms,1000 grain weight-22gKernel : 6.21x2.06 mm,L/B ratio : 3.01,Non-Lodging, N responsive,Grains : MS, suitable for well drained, irrigated condition, resistant to neck and rice tungro virus.18.HRI-120*------------<br />* - Private bred hybrid released by C.V.R.C.<br /> <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />RICE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES      <br />A brief description of various Rice Development Schemes implemented in the past is given below :<br />Special Rice Production Programme (SRPP)    <br />On the basis of experience gained and constraints identified in different blocks during the implementation of the Pilot Project in 1984-85, a full fledged Centrally Sponsored “Special Rice Production Programme-SRPP” was started from 1985-86.The objective of the scheme was to bring the substantial increase in the productivity of low productivity areas. For implementation of the scheme, 1/5th of the total number of blocks in the States of Assam, Bihar, Eastern Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal were taken up. Before taking up the scheme, the block-wise plans were prepared and based on the needs of each block different programmes were taken up. As the constraints vary from block to block the programme of work across the block also vary. The programme was implemented in 420 selected blocks instead of 417 selected initially as the Govt. of West Bengal implemented the programme in 70 selected blocks. Under the scheme, programmes were taken up to improve the supply of inputs like quality seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, plant protection equipments, farm implements and technology, programme requiring short-term measures for taking up the other works for the improvement of the irrigation, drainage and development of infrastructure facilities were also included.<br />During 1986-87, the scheme was extended to 10 additional blocks of Assam State. State of Tripura was also included during 1988-89 and 9 blocks of the State were identified for the implementation of the scheme. In all, the SRPP was implemented in 439 blocks of the 7 Eastern States. The funding pattern under the scheme was 50:50 sharing basis between the Govt. of India and concerned State Government.<br />Special Foodgrains Production Programme (SFPP)-Rice    <br />Consequent to the mid-term appraisal of the 7th Five Year Plan a Centrally Sponsored “Special Foodgrains Production Programme (SFPP)” was launched with a view to achieve the minimum food production of 166 million tonnes during 1988-89 and 175 million tonnes for the terminal year 1989-90 of the 7th Five Year Plan. For implementation of SFPP-Rice, 106 potential districts in 13 States i.e., 6 SRPP States – Assam (3), Bihar (13), Madhya Pradesh (11), Orissa (5), Uttar Pradesh (21), West Bengal (7) and other 7 States - Andhra Pradesh (8), Gujarat (4), Haryana (5), Karnataka (8), Maharashtra (7), Punjab (3) and Tamil Nadu (8) were identified. The implementation unit of the SFPP-Rice Programme was district and all the areas in the identified districts were covered for the implementation of the programme. SFPP was 100% funded by the Government of India.<br />Integrated Programme For Rice Development (IPRD)    <br />SRPP and SFPP-Rice were merged on the recommendations of the Planning Commission and unified scheme “Integrated Programme for Rice Development (IPRD)” was implemented from 1990-91. 4 additional States namely Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Kerala and 1 Union Territory of Pondicherry were covered under the Scheme. Whereas the SRPP was implemented in the identified blocks and SFPP-Rice in the identified districts, the IPRD was implemented in all the districts of the States covered under the programme. The funding pattern under the scheme was modified to 75:25 to be shared between the Govt.of India and the concerned State Government.<br />From the year 1991-92, the scheme was further extended to 5 more additional States namely Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland. Thus, the scheme was implemented in 23 States namely Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Union Territory of Pondicherry.<br />The State Governments were provided the flexibility to choose the most suitable components out of the approved components under IPRD namely distribution of certified seeds, micro-nutrients (zinc sulphate), herbicides, pesticides, PP equipments, seed treating chemicals, farm implements, supply to power tiller to small and marginal farmers and allocate funds to each components keeping in view of the specific constraints to rice production in the State and overall limited to Rs. 57.44 lakh per district. Besides, field demonstrations and training programmes for farmers and farm labourers were also included under the scheme for effective transfer of crop production technology.<br />Integrated Cereals Development Programme in Rice based Cropping System Areas (ICDP-RICE)    <br />The on-going Integrated Programme for Rice Development (IPRD), Special Foodgrains Production Programme-Wheat and Special Foodgrains Production Programme-Maize and Millets Schemes have been modified. Schemes are as Integrated Cereals Development Programme in Rice Based Cropping System Areas (ICDP-Rice), Integrated Cereals Development Programme in Coarse Cereals Based Cropping System Areas (ICDP-Coarse Cereals) and Integrated Cereals Development Programme in Wheat Based Cropping System Areas (ICDP-Wheat). In an area, only one scheme is being implemented and there is no overlapping in the implementation of the scheme of ICDP-Rice, ICDP-Coarse Cereals and ICDP-Wheat. The objective of the modified scheme is to increase the overall productivity of cereals under specific crop based systems as a whole as against the individual crop approach.<br />The ICDP-Rice was implemented in 1200 identified blocks of 16 States namely Andhra Pradesh (120), Arunachal Pradesh (20), Assam (75), Bihar (220), Goa (4), Kerala (55), Eastern Madhya Pradesh (90), Manipur (12), Meghalaya (12), Mizoram (8), Nagaland (12), Orissa (115), Tamil Nadu (140), Tripura (8), Eastern Uttar Pradesh (180), West Bengal (125) and one Union Territory of Pondicherry (4).<br />High Yielding Varieties    <br />The Central Sector Rice Seed Minikit Programme including propagation of improved production technology has played vital role in increasing area under high yielding varieties and also in demonstration of improved crop production technology to the farmers. This scheme has contributed in increasing rice production and productivity. The high yielding varieties Programme was initiated during 1966-67 and the Directorate of Rice Development, Govt. of India commenced monitoring the scheme of high yielding varieties in a systematic manner from 1970 onwards. The total area under rice during 1969-70 was 37.68 million hectares in which the area under high yielding varieties (H.Y.V.) was about 4.34 million hectares.<br />Thus the share of H.Y.V was 4.5%  of the total area under rice in the country during 1969-70. But due to the successful implementation of the scheme, the area under H.Y.V increased significantly from 4.34 million ha during 1969-70 to 33.10 million ha during 1999-2000. The increase in area under H.Y.V registered more than 8 folds during the past 30 years. During 1969-70 only 16 H.Y.V. were released or notified for cultivation and thereafter due to the concerted efforts of research, 639 varieties of rice have been released and notified so far. Those varieties have been popularized at the farmers field through Rice Mini-Kit programme which was initiated during 1971-72 and continued up to 9th plan period. Thus, the percentage of area under high yielding varieties has been increased from 11.5% in 1969-70 to 79% during 1999-2000.<br />The plan-wise area under High Yielding Varieties of Rice is given below :<br />SLPlanPeriodArea in '000 Hectares1.IV Plan 1969-70 to 1973-747,098.20 2.V Plan1974-75 to 1978-7913,986.40 3.VI Plan1980-81 to 1984-8520,255.40 4.VII Plan1985-86 to 1989-9024,263.70 5.VIII Plan1992-93 to 1996-9730,905.60 6.IX Plan1997-98 to 1999-0033,994.20 <br /> <br />The plan-wise area covered under high yielding varieties are depicted in the bar diagram :<br />With a view to increase the rice production and productivity in the country, the Govt. of India have been implementing from time to time various rice development programmes in all rice growing States through the Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.<br />The details of the schemes implemented up to 9th Five Year Plan are given below :<br />Rice Seed Mini-Kit Programme    <br />Seed is the basic input for increasing production and productivity. Therefore, maintenance of genetic purity through seed replacement is essential for stabilizing the yield levels. In addition to the supply of certified seeds of high yielding varieties of rice to the farmers, seed Minikits of recently released location specific high yielding varieties were being distributed to the farmers at nominal cost under Central Sector Rice Seed Minikit Programme since 1972 for popularization of varieties and seed multiplication at the farmer’s field level. This programme has helped in spread of recently released varieties and in coverage under high yielding varieties.<br />A number of recently released location specific high yielding varieties of rice spread through Central Sector Rice Seed Minikit Demonstration Programme during the IX Five Year Plan are given in Table-9.<br />During the 9th Five Year Plan more emphasis was given on popularization of location specific high yielding varieties of rice released/notified during the last 3 years for the favourable rainfed and irrigated areas and 5 years for the problematic areas like rainfed upland & lowland, coastal saline, saline-alkaline lands, high altitude cold stress areas. A total number of 33,00,000 Seed Mini-Kits of 419 location specific high yielding varieties of rice were distributed in different rice growing States during the 9th Five Year Plan.<br /> <br />State-Level Training Programme on Rice Production Technology    <br />With a view to disseminate the latest rice production technology to the Extension Officers of the State Governments, State Level Training Programme on Rice Production Technology was organized continuously since 1975-76. The training programmes was conducted at ICAR Research Centres and State Agriculture Universities for three days duration with 3o participants up to 9th Five Year Plan period. An assistance limited to Rs. 22,900/- was given to the organizing centres for conducting training programmes.<br /> <br />Special Orientation Training Programme on Rice Production Technology    <br />In addition to the State Level Training Programme, a Special Orientation Training Programme on Rice Production Technology was also organized at the State Agricultural Universities and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Institutes. The duration of training programme was for 5 days with 20 participants. The financial assistance of Rs. 35,000/- was given to the organizer for each training course. This training programme was initiated during the year 1997-98 with a view to disseminate the latest rice production technology. This training programme was conducted at the following Centres or the Universities for different type of rice :-<br /> <br />SLName of the Centre/University Type of Rice1.G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. Basmati Rice2.Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Kalyani.Boro Rice3.Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad.Hybrid Rice4.Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad.Irrigated Rice5.Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack.Rainfed Rice6.ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Shillong.Rice Production Technology<br /> <br />Macro Management Scheme of Agriculture    <br />The Govt. of India has initiated Macro Management Scheme of Agriculture. This is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. The objective of this scheme is to aim at all round development in agriculture through Work Plans prepared by the respective State keeping in view the following aspects :<br /> <br />Reflection of local needs/crops/regions specific/priorities etc.<br />Providing flexibility and autonomy to States.<br />Optimum utilization of scarce financial resource.<br />Maximization of returns and<br />Removal of regional imbalances.<br /> <br />The Govt. of India has merged 27 Centrally Sponsored Schemes into Macro Management Mode. The previous pattern of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) was lacking in various flexibility resulting in large amount of unutilized balances with the State Govts. The present Macro Management approach will provide more flexibility to State Govts. to develop and pursue programmes on the basis of regional priorities. The outlay of the Work Plan would be shared by the Centre and the States in the ratio of 90:10. In the case of North-Eastern States, the entire expenditure will be borne by the Govt. of India. Macro Management Scheme will be implemented in all States and Union Territories.<br />The following 27 CSS have been integrated into Macro Management mode :<br /> <br />Assistance to Weaker Section.<br />Assistance to women Co operatives.<br />Non- overdue Cover Scheme.<br />Agriculture Credit Stabilization Fund.<br />Special Scheme for SC/ST.<br />Integrated Cereal Development Programmes in Rice Based Cropping System Areas.<br />Integrated Cereal Development Programmes in wheat Based Cropping System Areas.<br />Integrated Cereal Development Programmes in Coarse Cereals Based Cropping System Areas.<br />Special Jute Development Programme.<br />Sustainable Development of Sugarcane Based Cropping System Areas.<br />Balanced and Integrated use of Fertilizer.<br />Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization among Small Farmers.<br />Integrated Development of Tropical ,Arid & Temperate Zone Fruits.<br />Production and Supply of Vegetable seeds.<br />Development of Commercial Floriculture.<br />Development of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.<br />Development of Roots and Tuber Crops.<br />Development of Cocoa and Cashew.<br />Integrated Programme for Development of Spices.<br />Development of Mushroom.<br />Use of Plastics in Agriculture.<br />Bee keeping.<br />National watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas.<br />Schemes for Foundation & Certified Seed Production of Vegetable Crops.<br />Soil Conservation in Catchments of River Valley Projects and Flood Prone Rivers.<br />Reclamation and Development of Alkali Soils.<br />State Land use Boards.<br /> <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />PROBLEMS/CONSTRAINTS IN RICE PRODUCTION      <br />The problems/constraints in rice production vary from state to state and area to area. The major rice growing areas are concentrated in Eastern region and this region is generally experiences high rainfall and severe flood almost every year. The loss to the rice crop is considerably very high. Besides, in upland areas the crop gets setback either from high rainfall or drought condition. It has also been observed that certain category of soils do not give the desired yield response to the balanced application of N.P.K. fertilizers. The main reasons for this lack of response to the application of balanced fertilizers are associated with certain inherent characters of the soil. All these problems/constraints are affecting the productivity of the rice crops in different growing zones. In certain area, the availability of suitable high yielding varieties and quality seeds are also a problem. These problems/constraints are discussed below :-<br /> <br />About 78% of the farmers are small and marginal in the country and they are poor in resource. Therefore, they are not in a position to use optimum quantity of inputs in their crops which are essential for increasing the productivity.<br />Often rice crop suffers with soil moisture stress due to erratic and inadequate rainfall. In upland soils rain water flows down quickly and farmers are not able to conserve the soil moisture. There is also no facility for life saving irrigation particularly in upland and drought prone rainfed lowland areas.<br />Intermittent soil moisture stress, due to low and erratic rainfall and poor soil problems are in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and some parts of Uttar Pradesh. The problems of flash floods, water logging/ submergence due to poor drainage, low-lying physiography and high rainfall in submergence prone lowlands are in Assam, West Bengal, North Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Accumulation of toxic decomposition products in ill drained soils and soil iron toxicity in Assam are problems of low production of rice.<br />Continuous use of traditional varieties due to the non-availability of seeds and farmers lack of awareness about high yielding varieties (Upland, rainfed lowland and deep water areas).<br />Low soil fertility due to soil erosion resulting in loss of plant nutrients and moisture.<br />Low and imbalanced use of fertilizers, low use efficiency of applied fertilizers particularly in the North-Eastern and Eastern States.<br />Heavy infestation of weeds and insects/pests such as blast and brown spot and poor attention for their timely control (upland and rainfed lowland).<br />Poor crop plant population in case of broadcast sowing method resulting in uneven germination (upland and direct seeded lowlands) . Delay in monsoon onset often results in delayed and prolong transplanting and sub-optimum plant population (Mostly in rainfed lowlands).<br />Poor adoption of improved crop production technology due to economic backwardness of the farmers (upland and lowlands).<br />Non-availability of bullock drawn or power drawn transplanter for timely transplanting of rice crop.<br />In upland rainfed rice crop is grown under rainfed conditions, the growth is mostly dependent on the vagaries of the monsoon. In the years of scanty or adverse distribution of rainfall, the crop fails owing to drought and in the years of heavy rainfall, particularly during blossoming, there is poor grain setting and also the matured grains germinate on the panicles.<br />In the high-rainfall region, the rain-water is lost rapidly through deep percolation, because of the upland location and loose texture of the soil. In these soils the plant nutrients applied through fertilizers are also lost rapidly and investment on fertilizers becomes risky. Further, low water retention capacity by the soil due to high permeability brings in moisture stress condition quickly after the cessation of rains.<br />In the low-rainfall regions, the crop suffers from iron and zinc deficiency in some soils, in the high-rainfall regions, diseases break out particularly Helminthosporium possibly due to unbalanced nutrient availability in the soils.<br />Generally, upland rice crop becomes ready for harvesting earlier in the season, there is much damage due to birds and rodents.<br />In acid, red laterite and lateritic soils, the following problems are encountered : -<br />Moderate to high acidity<br />Deficiency of nutrients, because of there soils are low in C, N and available nutrients.<br />Toxicity due to iron and in some soils due to aluminum and manganese.<br />P- deficiency and high P-fixing capacity which necessitate higher rates of application of P-fertilizers<br />Impeded drainage in certain areas.<br />The acid sulphate soils have been reported to occur on the west coast of Kerala. These soils are locally known as Kari, Karapadam, Kole, Pokkali and Swamp soils, depending upon their location. The presence of substantial amounts of organic matter in these soil results in the accumulation of large amounts of ammonical nitrogen, particularly in the ‘‘Pokkali” and ‘‘Swamp” soils, which might also prove toxic for the growth of rice plant. These soils contain low amount of phosphate and are likely to show up phosphate deficiency.<br />Saline and alkali soils mostly occur in the coastal districts of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat. The problems of saline and alkali soils are given below :<br />osmotic effect due to high concentration of salts in the saline and saline-alkali soils.<br />difficulty in removal of salts by flushing from these lands in the coastal region because of heavy texture of the soil, lack of freshwater source, particularly in the north-western India, recharge of the salt from sub-surface to the surface soil due to capillary rise and periodic inundation with sea water.<br />toxicity due to high pH and due to the presence of sodium either as carbonate or as bicarbonate in the alkali or saline-alkali soils.<br />highly dispersed soil under alkaline or saline-alkali situation, where drainage becomes a problem.<br />STRATEGIES TO STEP-UP RICE PRODUCTIVITY    <br />The scope for expansion of area under rice cultivation has almost been exhausted, the only way to sustain production for meeting the increasing demand, is to increase the productivity per unit of area including intensive use of land by increasing the cropping intensity. The following strategies may be adopted to increase the productivity of rice in various states.<br />Emphasis may be given on a cropping system approach rather than a single crop development approach.<br />Propagation of location specific crop production technologies in different agro-climatic zones through demonstrations on farmers fields and organizing of trainings for farmers including women in improved crop production technology.<br />Replacement of low potential/pest susceptible old varieties by new high yielding varieties with promising yield potential. Also encouraging cultivation of hybrid rice through demonstrations and making seed available to the farmers.<br />Adoption of run-off rain water management practices suited to the conditions of individual farm holding as well as watershed as a whole, motivating the farmers to provide life saving irrigation to the crop wherever possible during long dry spells.<br />Improving soil fertility by inclusion of leguminous crops in the crop rotations or as mixed crop.<br />Encouraging the use of soil ameliorants for improving saline, alkaline and acidic soils.<br />Emphasis on balanced use of plant nutrients along with the popularization of integrated plant management system, use of zinc sulphate in zinc deficient areas and method of applying required nutrients in standing water e.g. neem cake coated urea, fertilizer mud balls, deep placement of super granules urea by the applicator.<br />Use of bio-fertilizer such as Blue-Green Algae, Azosprillum, Azotobacter and Azolla may be encouraged for supply of nitrogen to the crop and also phospho-bacteria may be used for solubilizing non available phosphorus to available form easy uptake by the crop plants.<br />Popularization of line sowing in upland rice areas through suitable seeding devices establishment of desired level of plant population, easy in weed control and the application of other management techniques.<br />Encouraging the use of machines as well as bullock drawn and hand operated implements.<br />Promoting the Integrated Pest Management Approach for effective control of pests and diseases by emphasizing the need based application of pesticides.<br />More emphasis on the adoption of non-monetary inputs like timely sowing, maintaining optimum plant population, timely irrigation, efficient use of fertilizers, need based plant protection measures and timely harvesting of crop.<br /> <br />