Rice

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  • amira foods good for health.

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Rice

  1. 1. Rice<br /> <br />Section - 1:History of Development of Rice Variety in India  Development of Hybrid RiceVariety Release ProcedureSeed Production ProcedureSection - 2:Details of Rice VarietiesAnnexureSection - 3:State-wise Notified Rice VarietiesSection - 4:List of Denotified Rice Varieties<br /> <br />  Click here for latest update on Rice Varieties in India                      <br />History of Development of Rice Variety in India   <br />Rice breeding programme in India was started by Dr. G. P. Hector, the then Economic Botanist during 1911 in undivided Bengal with headquarters at Dacca (now in Bangladesh). Subsequently, in 1912, a crop specialist was appointed exclusively for rice in Madras Province. Prior to the establishment of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 1929, Bengal and Madras were the only provinces which had specialist exclusively for rice crop. After the establishment of ICAR, it initiated rice research projects in various states of the country and by 1950, 82 research stations in 14 states of the country were established, fully devoted for rice research projects. These research stations, mainly by the pure line method of selection, released 445 improved varieties. These varieties were of various kind such as -<br />Earliness<br />Deep water and flood resistant<br />Lodging resistant<br />Drought resistant<br />Non-shredding of grains<br />Dormancy of seed<br />Control of wild rice<br />Disease resistant<br />Higher response to heavy mannuring.<br />Thus, during the pure line period of selection from 1911-1949, the advantage of natural selection have been fully exploited and there have been varieties available for every rice ecology. During the early period of breeding research programme, varieties were developed suitable for specific stress situation or for resistant to particular disease. When, after World War II, synthetic fertilizers became popular, efforts were made to identify varieties which respond to heavy fertilization.<br />After the establishment of the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) at Cuttak in 1946 by the Govt. of India, rice research and training received an added impetus. There had been a systematic screening of exotic types from the genetic stocks. Besides, for the purpose of direct introduction in the country, many Chinese, Japanese, Taiwanese and Russian types were also tested. The Chinese types, which were first, prior to 1947, tested in Kashmir Valley, found fairly successful and the Japanese and Russian types were found unsuitable under Indian conditions due to poor yield, unacceptable grain qualities and susceptibility to blast.<br />Inter-racial hybridization programme between japonicas and indicas was initiated during 1950-54. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations with a view of improving production of cereal on an international basis after the end of World-War II, launched a collaborative project japonica Xindica hybridization in South-East Asian countries. The object of these project was to transfer the high yielding capacity and response to use higher dose of fertilizers into local indica varieties from japonica varieties. Indica varieties were already well adapted to the local conditions and had tolerance to diseases and pests of the region. A parallel project of japonica X indica hybridization was also started by ICAR with the same objectives. These projects could achieve very limited success. Only four varieties, viz. - Malinja and Mashuri in Malaysia, ADT-27 in Tamil Nadu, India and Circna in Australia were released from more than 700 hybrid combinations.<br />The Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack also started another project in 1960 with a view to evolve high yielding fertilizer responsive varieties with japonica in 11 states. In this project remarkable success was achieved in the development of japonica X indica hybrids.<br />The International Rice Research Institute was established in the Philippines in 1960 and this institute helped in evolving dwarf high yielding varieties with the concept of improving the plant type in indica rices based on the use of a gene from semi-dwarf Chinese varieties. These high yielding varieties were highlighted during the International Rice Year in 1966 by ICAR through national demonstration trials. This was the beginning of moving towards self-sufficiency in rice production. Further, the ICAR launched the All-India Co-ordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) in 1965 that helped in co-ordination of interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research results on the country basis for improving the production, productivity and profitability of rice in India.<br />Inter-racial hybridization programme between semi-dwarf Taiwanese types/derivatives and indica was started during 1965 onwards. India operated its most intensive rice breeding programmes under the AICRIP with the development of Taichung (Native) - I from the semi-dwarf mutant and achieved remarkable success. Padma and Jaya were the first varieties that emerged from the programme. Subsequently, many semi-dwarf varieties were released by the Central Variety Release Committee and also by the different state agencies. Most of these varieties have got high yield potential.<br />During the period of inter-racial hybridization between semi-dwarf Taiwanese types/derivatives and indica which was started during 1965, the most significant achievement is the prolific release of high yielding varieties. Infact 123 varieties were released during this period in 12 years as compared to 51 high yielding varieties released during the four decades prior to 1965. The semi-dwarf varieties have been found superior in efficiency of grain production as compared to the tall traditional varieties.<br /> <br />Development of Hybrid Rice   <br />Research programme was initiated during 1970 to develop hybrid rice variety in the country. There was no success in this programme during the subsequent two decades. However, the research programme was accelerated and intensified from 1989 with a mission mode project. With this concerted research efforts, a remarkable success was achieved within a short span of 5 years and half a dozen rice hybrid rice varieties were developed from public and private sectors. The first four hybrid rice varieties were released in the country during 1994. Subsequently, two more hybrid rice varieties were also released. By the end of 2001, a total of 19 hybrid rice varieties were released.<br /> <br />Variety Release Procedure   <br />Any variety of agricultural or horticultural crops in being recommended by the Central Seed Committee constituted under the Seeds Act, 1966 for its release and notification for commercial cultivation. This committee is headed by the Secretary (A&C), Dept. of Agriculture & Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture.<br />The Central Seed Committee consists of two sub-committees -<br />Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of varieties for agricultural crops, chaired by DDG (FC), ICAR.<br />Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of varieties for horticultural crops, chaired by DDG (Hort.), ICAR.<br />The proposal for release and notification of a particular variety is submitted by the concerned breeder through his respective Institute of ICAR or a breeder of the University through his respective State Govt. This proposal is scrutinized and considered by the sub-committee and if the proposal for release of variety is for more than one state, such a variety is released by the Central Seed Committee. In case proposal for release of variety is for one state or specially for a particular zone of the state, such variety is released by the State Seed Committee.<br /> <br />Seed Production Procedure   <br />Under the seed production programme, the following classification of seed is in vogue -<br />1.Nucleus SeedThe seed or the research material produced by the breeder by various selection procedure in a pure line variety or clone is known as nucleus seed.2.Breeder SeedIt is the seed or vegetative propagating material produced by the breeder who develops or evolves the particular variety. The breeder seed is also produced by other Agricultural Universities under the direct supervision of the breeder of the concerned crop. Breeder seed is the source for the production of foundation seed.3.Foundation SeedFoundation seed is a progeny of breeder seed. It is produced from the genetically pure breeder seed. Foundation seed is produced by the National Seeds Corporation (NSC), State Farm Corporation of India (SFCI) and all States Seeds Development Corporations.4.Certified SeedCertified seed is produced from foundation seeds. This seed is certified by the State Seed Certification Agency established under the State Governments. Certified seed is produced by the National Seeds Corporation, State Farm Corporation of India and State Seeds Development Corporations under the supervision of State Seed Certification Agencies.<br />Details of Rice Varieties: <br />s<br />Rice varieties in india:<br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />The latest edition of Problems and Prospects of Rice Export from India was brought out by the Directorate of Rice Development, Patna in February'2003. Rice is contributing significantly in the economy of the country, and from its export considerable amount of foreign exchange is realized. Infact, Basmati Rice and Non-Basmati Rice, both are exported from India to various countries around the world. The variety Basmati is unique in its quality characteristics and it has good demand in the international markets, but presently India is facing stiff competition with other competing countries in the world. This publication illustrates the attempt made by the Directorate to compile various problems, prospects and other related aspects of Rice Export from India.<br />The exercise is expected to be of use to agricultural scientists, policy makers, extension workers, traders, farming community, exporters, govt. organizations and other related agencies.<br /> <br />Exports at a Glance   <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Introduction   <br />Rice is one of the important cereal food crop of India. Rice contributes about 43% of total food grain production and 46% of total cereal production in the country. It continues to play vital role in the national exports. The percentage share of rice in total national export was 4.5% during 1998-99. The percentage share of agriculture export in total national export was 18.25, whereas the percentage share of rice export in total agriculture export was 24.62 during 1998-99. Thus, rice export contributes nearly 25% of total agriculture export from the country.<br />Rice is also an important cereal food crops in South East Asia. Thailand, Vietnam, Mynammar, China and Japan are the important countries besides India growing rice. Among the exporting countries Thailand, Vietnam, India and Pakistan are the important countries exporting rice in sizeable quantity. Thailand ranks first in the export of rice in the world followed by Vietnam and India. However, India is likely set to be second largest rice exporter in the world during the current financial year. China and Indonesia are likely to boost their import of rice, which will facilitate to India to increase its rice export. Besides, the Govt. of India has also fixed high target of export of rice from India including broken rice. The Govt. of India has also fixed the export price of rice quite competitive in the international market. These measures are expected to contribute in boosting the export of rice from India.<br />The Govt. has also created four zones in addition to earlier 28 zones to boost the export of agriculture products from the country, these new zones are -<br />Apple zone in Himachal Pradesh<br />Mango zones in Andhra Pradesh<br />Flower zone in Tamil Nadu<br />Basmati rice export zone in Punjab.<br />With the creation of these four new zones the export of agriculture products from the country have risen to 32 zones, which will cover the export of various agriculture products in the country. Therefore, the special emphasis is being laid down to strengthen these zones for increasing agricultural products including export of basmati rice from India. The basmati export zone has been set up in Punjab to tap the potential of basmati rice to increase its export in the international market. In fact Indian basmati rice is well recognized in the international markets because of its quality. Keeping in view the export potential of basmati rice, the Govt. of India has launched aggressive export promotion policy to further develop the basmati rice by adoption of improved production technology including improved high yielding new seeds. The scheme for export of basmati zone will cover Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Kapurthala, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Nawanshahar districts of Punjab.<br />The estimated outlay of the scheme is Rs.23.3 crore, in which the centre's share would be Rs.11.85 crore, the share of State Govt. of Punjab would be Rs.1.85 crore. Balance amount Rs.9.6 crore will be met from private entrepreneurs. The aim of this programme is to increase export of basmati rice in particular and overall export of rice in general.<br />It is, therefore, attempt has been made by the Directorate of Rice Development, Patna to analyse the problems and prospects of rice export from India and to bring out in a compiled form. By using the navigational links under Compiled Contents title, you can browse through information on various problems/constraints of rice export including basmati from India to various countries in the world, prospects of rice export including basmati rice, various strategies and suggestions  to increase export of rice from India to earn more foreign exchange needed for the development of the country, and even find the list of rice exporters.<br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />RICE EXPORT SCENARIO<br />India is one of the important countries in the world in export of rice. India's exports are expected to go up further during current financial year. Hence, Indian rice exports are set to reach second place in the world markets after Thailand edging out Vietnam in the process as per the report of the Food and Agricultural Organisation.<br /> <br />Basmati Rice Background <br />Rice export from India constitutes the major share of Basmati rice. Nearly two-third of Basmati rice produced in India is exported. Basmati rice is the leading aromatic fine quality rice of the world trade and it fetches good export price in the international markets. Infact, Basmati rice is a gift from "Mother Nature" to the Indian sub-continent and grows in the Indo-Gangatic plains only.<br />The meaning of Basmati can be derived from "bas" which means aroma and "mati" meaning sense. Thus the word Basmati implies 'ingrained aroma'. So it is the aroma that gives basmati its novel characteristics unmatched by any other rice grain anywhere else in the world. Many scented varieties of rice have been cultivated in the Indian sub- continent from time immemorial but basmati distinguishes itself from all other aromatic rice due to its unique aromatic characteristics coupled with silky texture of its long grain. The great Punjabi poet Varis Shah has described basmati-scented rice in his poem of Heer and Ranjha in 1766. The other poets such as Mushkin and Sukhdas have also traced back to Abul-4 Fazl Allami's Ain-e-Akbari about scented grain.<br />Thus, it is quite evident that basmati rice perhaps from its very accurence has been recipe entertainer of the Royal Society. Now, it is still considered "dream of the masses" and "charm of the classes".<br />The supremacy of basmati rice can not superceded by any other scented variety because of its unique characteristics viz superfine kernels, exquisite aroma, sweet taste, silky texture, delicate curvature and linear kernel elongation with least breadth and swelling on cooking. Because of its quality characteristics, basmati rice is fetching higher price in the international market. Hence, basmati rice can be equated with "champagne" among wines and 'scotch' among whiskies.During pre-partition times, basmati rice was grown in India only but after partition, its heritage is shared between India and Pakistan. Presently, major growing states of basmati rice in India are Haryana, Punjab, Western U. P. and Uttranchal.<br />Basmati rice being novel product is characterized by its unique grain size, aroma and cooking qualities. Being high value product, it has got good export demand. Hence, the export has been very high and exports have been steadily growing. The export of basmati rice during 1991-92 was 2.66 lakh mts, a quantum jump of 96.6% at 5.23 lakh mts in 1996-97. During the year 2000-01, basmati rice export touched an all time high record figure of 8.52 lakh mts (provisional) showing on increase of 62.9% over 1996-97. During 2001-02 basmati rice export was 6.66 lakh mts. (Provisional) showing downwards trend compared to previous year's export of 8.52 lakh mts (provisional), but the export of non-basmati rice registered an increase of 124.6% during 2001-02 over 2000-01.<br />Global Scenario <br />(A)  Basmati Rice<br />Gulf region remains the major markets for Indian basmati rice and inside Gulf, Saudi Arabia accounts for the major chunk of basmati imports from India. Pakistan is the sole competitor for India in the international market for basmati rice. During 1998-99, 1999-2000 and 2000-01, total quantities of basmati rice exports from India were 5.98 lakh mts., 6.38 lakh mts. and 8.52 lakh mts. in which the percentage share of Asia was 85.69%, 82.12% and 73.38% respectively. The percentage share of Asia has decreased for basmati rice, during 1998-99, 1999-2000 and 2000-01 but the export to Europe has increased in linear order from 11.41% in 1998-99 to 14.37% in 1999-2000 and 20.46% during 2000-01 respectively.<br />The export to North America has also increased in the same order from 1.39% during 1998-99 to 5.28% during 2000-01. However the export to other countries remains constant with slight fluctuation from year to year. India's major markets for basmati rice exports have been Saudi Arabia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bahrain, France, Germany, U.K., Denmark, U.S.A., Canada, Belgium , Kuwait, Italy, Oman, Yemen, Netherlands, Jordan, Indonesia etc. Infact, Saudi Arabia traditionally has been the largest market for Indian basmati rice.<br />The export of Basmati rice from India's during 1998-99 to 2000-01 to different continents is given in Table 1.<br /> <br />(B)  Non-Basmati Rice<br />Major destinations for India's non-basmati rice exports are Bangladesh, Australia, Bahrain, Ethiopia, Djibouti, France, Germany, U.K., Hong Kong, Korea, Sri-Lanka, Maldives, Mauritius, Malaysia, Nigeria, Ivory coast, Indonesia, Nepal, Oman, Qatar, Russia, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Singapore, U.A.E. Y.A.R., etc. Competing countries in the international markets for India for the exports of non-basmati rice are Thailand, Vietnam, Burma, China, U.S.A. and Pakistan. Major quantity of non-basmati rice is exported to Asia continent.<br />During 1996-97, 1997-98, 1998-99 and 1999-2000 a total quantity of 9.59 lakh mts., 9.28 lakh mts., 28.75 lakh mts. and 7.08 lakh mts. were exported to Asia continent which were 48.20%, 51.66%, 65.86% and 56.28% of total export of non-basmati rice from India to Asia, respectively. There was a fluctuation in the export of non-basmati rice from India to Asia during 1996-97 to 1999-2000.<br />After Asia, non-basmati rice is exported from India to Africa continent. During 1996-97,1997-98, 1998-99 and 1999-2000 a total quantity of non-basmati rice exports from India to Africa were 5.39 lakh mts, 5.59 lakh mts, 10.67 lakh mts and 3.24 lakh mts, in which the percentage share of Africa continent was 27.09%, 31.14%, 24.44% and 25.73% respectively of total export of non-basmati rice from India.<br />Next to Africa continent, Europe continent has been importing non-basmati rice from India during 1996-97, 1997-98, 1998-99 and 1999-2000. The exports of non-basmati rice from India to other continents are very meagre. The exports to Europe continent during the last few years were an average more than 1.5 lakh mts per year except 1996-97. During 1996-97 total export of non-basmati rice to Europe was 3.38 lakh mts.<br />Export of non-basmati rice from India during 1996-97 to 1999-2000 to different continents is given in Table 2.<br /> <br />(C)  Parboiled Rice<br />Indian is exporting parboiled rice to Middle East and African countries, as these countries prefer parboiled rice.<br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />RICE EXPORT EARNINGS<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />As already mentioned, India is exporting Basmati Rice to various countries in the world. A total quantity of 2.66 lakh mts basmati rice was exported to different countries from India during 1991-92. However, the export increased to 8.52 lakh mts during 2000-01, registering an increase of 220% during the last nine years period. The export declined during 2001-02 and a total quantity of 6.66 lakh mts basmati rice was exported registering a decrease of 21.8 per cent over the export of 2000-01. The export of basmati rice from 1996-97 to 1999-2000 was almost static with slight increase over the years.<br />During 1991-92 export earning from the export of basmati rice was 499.18 crores, which increased to 2165.96 crores during 2000-01 registering an increase of 333.90 per cent over 1991-92 export earnings. The export earnings from basmati rice decreased during 2001-02, over previous year. Thus, export earnings decreased by 15.09 per cent during 2001-02 as compared to 2000-01.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />India is also exporting substantial quantity of non-basmati rice to various countries in the world. However, the export of non-basmati rice has been fluctuating year to year due to weather conditions affecting the production of non-basmati rice in the importing countries. The export of non-basmati rice from India during 1991-92 was 4.12 lakh mts, the export rose to 45.41 lakh mts during 1995-96 and it come down to 15.32 lakh mts. during 2001-02. The increase in export of non-basmati rice from 1991-92 to 1995-96 was quite considerable and registering in 10 folds increase. The export again declined during subsequent years. Decrease in export during 2001-02 was 66.26 per cent. Over all increase in export of non-basmati rice during the last 10 years period i.e. from 1991-92 to 2001-02 was about 3 folds.<br />During 1991-92, export earning from the export of non-basmati rice was Rs. 256.41 crores, and it increased to Rs. 3,717.41 crores during 1995-96, which was more than 13 folds increase during the past four years period i.e., from 1991-92 to 1995-96. During 2001-02, the export earnings from non-basmati rice was recorded to Rs. 1,324.36 crores, it was 64.37 percent less as compared to 1995-96 export earnings. However, the export earnings from non-basmati rice increased more than 4 folds during 2001-02 as compared to 1991-92.<br /> <br />Total Rice <br />During 1991-92, a total quantity of 6.78 lakh mts of rice (Basmati + Non-Basmati ) was exported from India to different countries in the world. The export of total rice increased during subsequent years and the export during 1995-96 rose to 49.14 lakh mts., which was more than six fold increase in export as compared to 1991-92 export of total rice from India. There was fluctuation in the export of total rice after 1995-96 and a total quantity of 21.98 lakh mts. of rice was exported during 2001-02, which was less by 55.3 per cent as compared to 1995-96 export. Infact, there was 224.19 per cent over all increase in the export of rice from India during 2001-02 as compared to the export of 1991-92.<br />Export earnings from the export of total rice from India during 1991-92 was Rs. 755.59 crores and it increased to Rs. 4,568.08 crores during 1995-96, which was more than five folds increase. During subsequent years after 1995-96, the export earnings from total rice export from India registered fluctuating trends and it was Rs. 3,163.44 crores during 2001-02, which was less by 30.7 per cent as compared to 1995-96 export value. However, the export value increased more than three folds during 2001-02 over 1991-92 to 2001-02. Exports of Basmati and Non-Basmati rice from India over 1991-92 export value during 1991-92 to 2001-02 are given in Table-3.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />ROLE OF RICE IN THE EXPORT EARNINGS<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />Rice plays an important role in the export earnings of the country. Among the agricultural products, Basmati rice is one of the commodity, which is exported to many countries in the world and contributing considerable share in the export earnings of total agricultural products. Export earnings realized from the export of basmati rice during the last nine years i.e., from 1993-94 to 2001-02 are discussed hereunder.<br />Export value realized from the export of Basmati rice during 1993-94 was Rs. 1,061.26 crores and it declined during the subsequent two years. During 1996-97, export earnings from Basmati rice was Rs. 1,247.64 crores, which increased during subsequent years and it was recorded Rs. 1,876.91 crores during 1998-99 and again declined during 1999-2000 and reached maximum to Rs. 2,165.96 crores during 2000-01, but again decreased to Rs. 1,839.08 crores during 2001-02. Thus, there was a considerable fluctuation in the export earnings of basmati rice during the last nine years, i.e., 1993-94 to 2001-02.<br />The percentage share of export value of Basmati rice in the National Export earnings was 1.52 per cent during 1993-94 and it witnessed decreasing trends during subsequent years continuously. During 2001-02, the percentage share of basmati rice in the National Export earnings was recorded 0.89 per cent.<br />The percentage share of export value of Basmati rice in Agricultural Export earnings was 8.43 per cent during 1993-94 and it decreased to 4.17 per cent during 1995-96. During 1996-97, it was recorded to 5.16 per cent and subsequent years the share of export value of basmati rice showed increasing trends and it was maximum of 7.56 per cent during 2000-01 but again decreased to 6.24 per cent during 2001-02.<br />The percentage share of export value of basmati rice in the Food Grains export earnings was 76.10 per cent during 1993-94 and it decreased to 16.73 per cent during 1995-96. The percentage share of basmati rice again increased to 30.80 per cent and 45.01 per cent during subsequent years of 1996-97 and 1997-98 respectively. However, it again decreased to 28.81 per cent during 1998-99 but from 1999-2000 to 2000-01 it witnessed again increasing trends i.e., 50.07 per cent and 55.21 per cent respectively. The percentage share of export value of basmati rice decreased to 36.96 per cent during 2001-02. It is evident from the above analysis that the export value of basmati rice fluctuated from year to year during 1993-94 to 2001-02, which has affected its percentage share in total food grains export earnings.<br />The export of basmati rice during 1993-94 to 2001-02 constituted major share in the total rice export from India. The percentage share of export value of basmati rice in the total rice export earnings was 82.47 per cent during 1993-94. However, the percentage share of export value of basmati rice in the total rice export earnings declined during the subsequent years up to 2001-02 as compared to 1993-94. During 1995-96, the percentage share of export value of basmati rice was recorded 18.62 per cent, which was the lowest during the past nine years period. The percentage share of export value of basmati rice showed increasing trend during 1996-97 and 1997-98 as compared to previous year but during 1998-99, its percentage share declined to 29.88 per cent as compared to 50.00 per cent during previous year.<br />The percentage share of export value of basmati rice of total rice export earnings registered increasing trend during the subsequent three years as compared to 1998-99 and it was recorded 56.95 per cent, 73.59 per cent and 58.14 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. It is evident from the above discussion that the export of basmati rice from India fluctuated during the past nine years, which has affected its percentage share in total rice export earnings during the same period.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />Non-Basmati rice is next to Basmati rice, which is exported from India to many countries in the world. The export value of non-basmati rice also contributes considerable share in the export earnings of total agricultural products. Export earnings realized from the non-basmati rice during 1993-94 to 2001-02 are discussed below.<br />Export value realized from the export of non-basmati rice during 1993-94 was Rs. 225.46 crores and it increased during the subsequent years up to 2001-02. During 1994-95 the export value of non-basmati rice was Rs. 340.47 crores and it increased to Rs. 3,717.41 crores during 1995-96 but it decreased to Rs. 1,924.72 crores and Rs. 1,685.38 crores during 1996-97 and 1997-98. However, the export earnings from the export of non-basmati rice during 1998-99 again increased to Rs. 4,403.85 crores, which was an all time high and again declined to Rs. 1,345.58 crores, Rs. 777.26 crores and Rs. 1,324.36 crores during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively.<br />The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the National Export earnings was 0.32 per cent during 1993-94, which slightly increased to 0.41 per cent during following year and further increased to 3.50 per cent during 1995-96. During the subsequent years, the percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the National Export earnings again declined to 1.62 per cent and 1.30 per cent in the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 and during the year 1998-99, it again increased to 3.15 per cent. During the subsequent three years, it again decreased to 0.85 per cent, 0.39 per cent and 0.64 per cent in the year 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively.<br />The percentage share of the export value of non-basmati rice in the Agricultural Export earnings was 1.79 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 2.57 per cent during 1994-95. During 1995-96, the percentage share of the export value of non-basmati rice in the Agricultural Export earnings increased to 18.22 per cent and decreased to 7.97 per cent and 6.78 per cent during the subsequent two years of 1996-97 and 1997-98. However, the percentage share again increased to 17.26 per cent during 1998-99 and decreased to 5.32 per cent, 2.71 per cent and 4.49 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively as compared to 1998-99.<br />The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the Food Grains Export earnings was 16.18 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 24.91 per cent and 73.12 per cent in the following years of 1994-95 and 1995-96. The percentage share of export value of non- basmati rice in the Food Grains Export earnings decreased to 47.51 per cent and 45.00 per cent during the next two years of 1996-97 and 1997-98 and it again increased to 67.61 per cent in the year 1998-99. The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the Food Grains Export earnings decreased to 37.85 per cent, 19.81 per cent and 26.62 per cent during the year 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 as compared to 1998-99.<br />The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the total rice export earnings was 17.52 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 28.24 per cent and 81.37 per cent during the following two years of 1994-95 and 1995-96. This percentage share decreased to 60.67 per cent and 50.00 per cent during the subsequent two years of 1996-97 and 1997-98. The percentage share of export value of non-basmati rice in the total rice export earnings increased to 70.12 per cent in the year 1998-99 over two previous years and it again decreased to 43.05 per cent, 26.41 per cent and 41.86 per cent during the subsequent three years of 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. It can be seen from the fore going analysis that the export of non- basmati has also fluctuated during 1993-94 to 2001-02 like basmati rice. The fluctuation was mainly due to rise and fall in demand of the importing countries.<br /> <br />Total Rice <br />As already mentioned that rice is an important commodity under agricultural products exported from India to various countries in the world and it earns annually considerable amount of foreign exchange for the nation. During 1993-94 an amount of Rs. 1,286.72 crores was realized from the export of rice. The same amount increased to Rs. 4,568.08 crores during 1995-96 and it was recorded Rs. 6,280.76 crores during 1998-99, an all time high export earnings from rice. During subsequent years the export earnings declined and it was recorded Rs. 3,163.44 crores during 2001-02.<br />The percentage share of export value of rice (including basmati & non- basmati) in the National Export earnings was 1.84 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 4.30 per cent during 1995-96 but declined during the two subsequent years and again went up to 4.49 per cent during 1998-99. During the subsequent years its percentage share declined to 1.96 per cent, 1.46 per cent and 1.52 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively.<br />The percentage share of export value of rice in Agricultural Export earnings was 10.22 per cent during 1993-94 and it increased to 22.40 per cent during 1995-96 but it declined during the two subsequent years and again went up to 24.62 per cent during 1998-99. During the subsequent years its percentage share declined to 12.35 per cent, 10.27 per cent and 10.73 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively.<br />The percentage share of export value of rice in the Food Grain Export earnings was 92.27 per cent during 1993-94 and it declined to 90.02 per cent during 1997-98 and again went up to 96.42 per cent during 1998-99. However, during the subsequent years its percentage share continuously declined to 87.92 per cent, 75.02 per cent and 63.58 per cent during 1999-2000, 2000-01 and 2001-02 respectively. Percentage share of basmati and non-basmati rice exports in Total National Export, Total Agricultural Exports and Food Grains Export during 1993-94 to 2001-02 are given in Table-4.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />COUNTRY-WISE EXPORT OF RICE FROM INDIA<br />Rice is exported from India to many countries in the world. Infact, India is facing stiff competition in the international markets for the export of rice. Thailand is the world's largest rice exporting country. Vietnam is another large exporter of rice, but currently the demand for Vietnamese rice has steeply declined in the international market due to which India is likely to become world's second largest exporter of rice.<br />Thailand, India and U.S.A. are the only countries making parboiled rice and exporting it. Thailand, Vietnam and India are also exporting 100% broken rice. Data in respect of parboiled and broken rice exports separately from India are not available. Hence, export of rice from India has been divided in to two category i.e., basmati rice and non-basmati rice and the same are discussed in this chapter.<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />The leading aromatic fine quality rices in world trade popularly known as Basmati rice is fetching good export price in the international markets for its three district quality features viz.-pleasant aroma, superfine grains and extreme grain elongation. About two third of basmati rice produced in India is exported. Basmati rice is exported to various countries in the world from India. The exports of basmati rice during 1998-99 to 2000-2001 are discussed below :-<br />During 1998-99 Saudi Arabia was the major importer of basmati rice from India followed by U.K., Kuwait and U.A.E. and percentage shares of these countries of total exports from India were 74.11%, 7.66%, 5.25% and 3.34% respectively. Thus, more than 90 per cent quantity of basmati rice was exported to Saudi Arabia, U.K., Kuwait and UAE during 1998-99 and remaining quantity was exported to other countries in the world. A total quantity of 5,97,756 mts of basmati rice was exported from India during 1998-99.<br />During 1999-2000, these four countries remained as major basmati rice importers from India and their percentage shares of total quantity of basmati rice exported from India was 62.14 per cent, 8.32 per cent, 7.42 per cent and 5.06 per cent respectively. The export to Saudi Arabia declined during 1999-2000 as compared to previous year. Infact, the export to U.K., Kuwait, UAE and U.S.A. increased as compared to 1998-99. The percentage share of four countries comprising of Saudi Arab, U.K., Kuwait and U.A.E. were 82.94 per cent of total quantity of basmati rice exported from India during 1999-2000 as against 90.36 per cent during 1998-99. The export of basmati rice almost remained the same as it was during 1998-99 with slight fluctuation. A total quantity of 6,38,380 mts of basmati rice was exported from India during 1999-2000, which was 6.80 per cent higher than the export of previous year.<br />The export of basmati rice to Saudi Arabia increased to 4,78,124 mts during 2000-01 as against 3,96,676 mts in the previous year. The percentage share of Saudi Arabia of total quantity of basmati rice exported from India during 2000-01 was 56.14 per cent as against 62.14 per cent in the previous year. Infact, total quantity exported to Saudi Arabia increased during 2000-01, but the percentage share of Saudi Arab of total quantity exported from India decreased due to increase in the percentage share of other importing countries. Other major importing countries of basmati rice from India were U.K., U.A.E., Kuwait and U.S.A. during 2000-01.<br />The export to U.K. during 2000-01 was 1,11,984 mts, which was 110.96 per cent higher than previous year and the percentage share of U.K. of total quantity of basmati rice exported from India during 2000-01 was 13.15 per cent as against 8.32 per cent in the previous year. Similarly the export to Kuwait and U.S.A. also increased from 47,338 mts and 16,036 mts during 1999-2000 to 82,800 mts and 35,840 mts during 2000-01 respectively. However, the export to U.A.E. declined to 30,151 mts during 2000-01 as against 32,297 mts during previous year. A total quantity of 8,51,722 mts of basmati rice was exported from India during 2000-01, which was 33.42 per cent higher than the export of previous year. Country-wise export of basmati rice from India during 1998-99 to 2000-01 is given in Table.5.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />The export of non-basmati rice from India was on its peak during 1995-96 and a total quantity of 45.41 lakh mts was exported to different countries in the world. Again the export crossed to 43.66 lakh mts during 1998-99, but during subsequent years, the export of non-basmati rice again came down significantly due to various reasons. The export of non-basmati rice during 1998-99 to 2000-01 are discussed below -<br />During 1998-99, Bangladesh, Ivory cost, Nigeria, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and South Africa were the major importers of non-basmati rice from India. Infact, more than fifty per cent of total export of non-basmati rice from India was exported to Bangladesh alone during 1998-99. A total quantity of 23,31,689 mts of non-basmati rice was exported to Bangladesh during 1998-99, which was 53.41 per cent of total quantity exported from India during the same year. Next major country was South Africa for import of non-basmati rice from India. A total quantity of 5,25,013 mts of non-basmati rice was exported to South Africa during 1998-99, which was 12.03 per cent of total quantity exported from India during the same year. The export to Ivory cost was 1,61,817 mts of non-basmati rice, which was 3.71 per cent of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 1998-99.<br />Similarly, the export of non-basmati rice to Somalia was 1,40,064 mts., which was 3.21 per cent of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 1998-99. The export to Russia and Saudi Arabia were 1,21,828 mts and 1,26,036 mts of non-basmati rice during 1998-99, which were 2.79 per cent and 2.89 per cent of total quantity exported from India during the same year respectively. The export to other countries was considerably less as compared to quantity exported to the countries discussed above. A total quantity of 43,65,888 mts of non-basmati rice was exported from India to various countries in the world during 1998-99.<br />Bangladesh remained major importer of non-basmati rice from India during 1999-2000 also but total export of non-basmati rice to Bangladesh declined to 84.98 per cent during 1999-2000 as compared to previous year. A total quantity of 3,50,088 mts. of non-basmati rice was exported to Bangladesh during 1999-2000 as against 2331689 mts. exported during 1998-99. The percentage share of Bangladesh of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 1999-2000 was 27.83 percent as against 53.41 percent in the previous year.<br />Next to Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia was the major country, which imported non-basmati rice from India during 1999-2000. A quantity of 1,64,288 mts. of non-basmati rice was exported from India to Saudi Arabia during 1999-2000 as against 1,26,036 mts during previous year, which was 30.35 per cent higher. The percentage share of Saudi Arabia of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 1999-2000 was 13.06 per cent as against 2.89 percent during the previous year.<br />The exports to Nigeria, Russia, Sri Lanka and South Africa were 1,09,046 mts, 1,50,590 mts, 62,401 mts and 1,40,334 mts of non-basmati rice during 1999-2000, which ware 8.67 per cent, 11.97 per cent, 4.96 per cent and 11.16 per cent of total quantity exported from India during the same year, considerably less as compared to the countries discuss above. A total quantity of 12,57,790 mts of non-basmati rice was exported from India to various countries in the world during 1999-2000, which was 71.19 per cent less as compared to 43,65,888 mts exported during the previous year.<br />The major quantity of non-basmati rice was exported to Bangladesh during 2000-01 as it was during the previous year. A total quantity of non-basmati rice exported to Bangladesh during 2000-01 was 9.26 per cent less as compared to previous year but the percentage share of Bangladesh of total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during 2000-01 was 46.56 per cent, which was more as against 27.83 per cent during the previous year. A total quantity of 3,17,663 mts of non-basmati rice was exported from India to Bangladesh during 2000-01 as against 3,50,088 mts exported during the previous year.<br />Other major countries that imported non-basmati rice from India during 2000-01 were Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, U.A.E. and Yemen Republic. Total quantity exported to these countries during 2000-01 where 20,183 mts, 1,53,841 mts, 17,410 mts, 57,768 mts, 26,647 mts and 14,913 mts respectively and their percentage share in total quantity of non-basmati rice exported from India during the same year were 2.96 per cent, 22.55 per cent 2.55 per cent, 8.47 per cent, 3.91 per cent and 2.19 per cent respectively. A total quantity of 6,82,270 mts. of non-basmati rice was exported from India to various countries in the world during 2000-01, which was 45.76 per cent less as compared to 12,57,790 mts. exported during previous year. Country wise exports of non-basmati rice during 1998-99 to 2000-01 are given in Table- 6.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />AVERAGE EXPORT PRICE<br />Data on exact export price of rice is not readily available in this Directorate. However, the average export price per quintal of rice has been worked out year wise for the basmati and non- basmati rice separately. For the purpose of calculation, total quantity of rice exported and its value realized in rupees have been taken separately for basmati and non-basmati rice and then the value of export divided by the quantity of rice exported to arrive at the average export price of rice per quintal year wise for basmati & non-basmati. Average export price thus worked out has been discussed in this chapter. Average export price of basmati and non-basmati rice during 1992-93 to 2001-02 are given in Table-7.<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />It is seen from the average export price data given in Table-7 that the export price of Basmati Rice has fluctuated significantly year after year. During 1992-93, average export price of basmati rice was Rs. 2,465 per quintal, which declined continuously year after year up to 1996-97 as compared to 1992-93. Average export price for basmati rice has been worked out to Rs. 2,013 per quintal during 1993-94 and the same has decreased to Rs. 1,957 per quintal during 1994-95. Average export price again increased to Rs. 2,297 per quintal during 1995-96 over previous year price and increasing trend in average export price continued up to 1998-99.<br />During 1996-97, average export price has been worked out to Rs. 2,385 per quintal, which increased to Rs. 2,841 and Rs. 3,140 per quintal during 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively. However, average export price of Basmati rice declined during the following three years as compared to 1998-99 average export price. During 1999-2000, average export price was worked to Rs. 2,789 per quintal, which came down to Rs. 2,543 per quintal during 2000-01 and it again went up to Rs. 2,762 per quintal during 2001-02.<br />The reason for fluctuation in average export price of Basmati rice is attributed to different quality and quantity of rice exported to different countries during different years. A particular country may import one year a particular quality/grade of rice and the same country may import another quality/grade of rice during next or subsequent years. Thus, different quality and quantity of rice exported to different countries at different export price rate may probably be the reason for fluctuation of average export price of Basmati rice.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />Average export price data given in Table-7 reveals that in case of Non-Basmati Rice, almost same trend of fluctuation in average export price is seen as in case of Basmati Rice. During 1992-93, average export price was worked out to Rs. 684 per quintal for Non-Basmati Rice, which declined to Rs. 399 per quintal during 1993-94. However, average export price increased to Rs. 759 per quintal during 1994-95 over previous year and increasing trend in average export price continued up to 2000-01 as compared to 1994-95.<br />Average export price was worked to Rs. 819 per quintal during 1995-96, which increased to Rs. 968 per quintal during 1996-97 and slightly decreased to Rs. 939 per quintal during 1997-98 over previous year. During 1998-99, average export price increased to Rs. 1,009 per quintal over previous year and continued to increase in linear order to Rs. 1,070 per quintal and Rs. 1,139 per quintal during subsequent two years of 1999-2000 and 2000-01. There was a sharp declined in average export price to Rs. 864 per quintal during 2001-02 over previous five years.<br />The reason for fluctuation in average export price of non- basmati rice could be the same as discussed above in the case of Basmati Rice.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />PROBLEMS OF RICE EXPORT FROM INDIA<br />India is facing stiff competition in the world markets for export of rice. Besides, there are many domestic problems for rice exporters. If these internal problems are relaxed to the extent possible, the exporters may find easy way to boost rice export and such measures will go a long way to sustain the exports. Some of the major problems are discussed in this chapter below: -<br />As per the state Govt. policy, various taxes are imposed on rice exports, such as the states are imposing Purchase Tax (on indirect export), Market Fees, Rural Development Fund, Administrative Charges etc. These taxes are rendering the pricing of rice internationally in competitive. Thus, Indian rice becomes costlier in the international market as compared to other competing countries in the world and Indian rice exports get setback many times. Infact, in Pakistan rice meant for exports specially the branded ones, duties are extremely low or duty free.<br />There is lack of proper infrastructural facilities. Many times exporters, when they carry their stock to sea port and if the stock is not loaded due to some reason or the other, exporters do not find godown or proper place to store their stocks properly and safely at sea port, exporters have to face lot of difficulties, besides, it adds additional expenditure to the exporters.<br />Due to increase in the cost of inputs used for paddy cultivation the production cost goes up and the Minimum Support Price (MSP) for paddy is enhanced every year by the govt. of India to safeguard the interest of the growers. When paddy is converted to rice, it becomes costlier and thus makes it internationally uncompetitive.<br />Rice production meant for export purpose is having subsidy in other countries, which reduces the cost of production and thereby reducing the cost of rice. Therefore, the export price of rice of such countries is more competitive in the international markets compared to Indian rice.<br />The major rice producing nations have decreased the price to capture the international markets but Indian rice prices are inelastic due to relatively high cost of production and becomes uncompetitive in the international markets. Much of basmati rice export prospects have been lost in the recent part to other competing countries like Pakistan etc because of high prices.<br />Rice mills have not been fully modernized to ensure high milling recovery and reduce the percentage of broken rice. The conventional rice mills are having Rubber Roll Sheller in which percentage of broken rice is more than the modern rice mills that are having under Runner Sheller. Hence, head rice obtained from milling of conventional mills becomes costly due to recovery of higher percentage of broken rice. Therefore, conventional mills are required to be modernized to get recovery of higher percentage of head rice suitable for export.<br />Lack of proper arrangements for production of sufficient quantity of quality seeds needed for cultivation of rice for export purposes.<br />The export is also suffering much due to the competition from other exporting countries like Thailand, Vietnam and Pakistan because the cost of production in these competing countries is low as compared to the cost of production in India. Infact, trade segment believes that Indian rice can face the global competition if subsidy is provided.<br />In these days basmati rice is facing aroma problem, because intensity of aroma in traditional basmati varieties is not so high as it used to be. Infact, basmati varieties are highly prone to lodging and lodging affects the natural grain development. In such situation both aroma and linear kernel elongation are affected.<br />Post harvest handling of produce is another important aspect. Generally, farmers are harvesting the crop at different moisture levels and keeping the produce at higher moisture level for a longer period will impair the intensity of aroma.<br />In absence of genetically pure seed of basmati varieties, in majority of basmati rice fields, a variation in plant height, grain size and maturity of the crop is found. This is one of the major reasons for poor quality of basmati rice. Infact, at the time of rice processing the grain size can be taken care of, but it is a waste. However, using good quality seed the loss can be converted into profit.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />PROSPECTS OF RICE EXPORT FROM INDIA<br />As mentioned in the previous chapter that rice is exported from India to many countries in the world. India is facing stiff competition in the International markets from Thailand, Vietnam, U.S.A. and Pakistan. There was a considerable growth in the export of rice from India during the recent past, particularly in the case of non-basmati rice. There are several factors responsible for this growth. Infact exports depend not only on our ability to sell, but also on the willingness of importers to buy. Some times major markets/importers used to cut down their import due to their internal economic problems or good crop harvest and trade also cut down inventories and people reduce spending. All these measures reduce imports during that particular year. The prospects of export of basmati and non-basmati rice from India are discussed herewith :<br /> <br />Basmati Rice <br />Awareness about basmati rice is spreading among different strata of the society in the country and abroad. Basmati rice is possessing unique grain, cooking, eating and digestive qualities. Hence, majority of people in the country and abroad have developed liking for basmati rice. Because of its superfine quality, basmati rice is most preferred and also meant for high premium value in the national and international markets. Thus, basmati rice is also stated to be 'Pearl' of rice.<br />There are other sources of aromatic short grain varieties with similar starch content characteristics, grown different states of the country. Katarni rice is grown in Bihar,Randhunipagal and Bhadshahbhog are grown in West Bengal, each one of these varieties is fetching higher price in the local markets. These varieties are having localized preference and their demand preference could not spread widely elsewhere. Even some of these are possessing more aroma than the typical basmati varieties. Infact, the harmonious combination of various factors deciding the appearance, taste, keeping quality texture of cooked rice etc and makes the particular varieties unique/popular in the domestic and international markets.<br />As mentioned above basmati rice is the most sought after rice in the domestic and international markets and it also fetches high premium. Commercially Taraori Basmati, Basmati-370 and Basmati Type-3 are very popular. All these three varieties are similar in starch characteristics but based on grain dimensions Taraori Basmati is preferred much over Basamati-370. Similarly Basamati-370 is preferred more over Basmati Type-3. Pusa Basmati-1 has been well accepted by the trade and there is good prospects for export. Infact, Pusa Basmati-1 is at present most profitable variety in rice, in spite of being highly susceptible to major insects, pests and diseases. Under proper crop management condition farmers can get 4-6 tonnes paddy yield per hectare. This variety is much favoured by the farmers, traders and consumers. During cooking it has got linear expansion. It is also easily digestible. Hence, this variety is much preferred by the consumers in India and abroad.<br />With the every coming year, domestic as well as international demand for basmati rice is increasing. If desired aroma in basmati rice along with other quality characteristics are maintained, these measures may help to boost the export of basmati rice from India.<br /> <br />Non-Basmati Rice <br />Non-basmati rice exports have also suffered much due to the competition from exporting countries like Thailand, Vietnam and Pakistan because of their low cost of production. In the recent past export of non-basmati rice was fluctuating year after year due to various reasons. The export of non-basmati rice was on its peak during 1995-96 it came down during 1998-99 due to many reasons. Sometime, export is also affected if good harvest is there in the importing countries, they reduce their import accordingly. If rice exporters made their sincere efforts with Govt. supporting export policy, non-basmati rice export is expected to increase in future.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />EXPORT PROMOTION POLICY<br />India is facing stiff competition in the world markets for the export of rice. Thailand, Vietnam and Pakistan are the competitors for India in the export of rice. Thailand is occupying first position in the international markets due to its better quality and low price. Vietnam was the world's second largest exporter of rice but currently the demand for Vietnamese rice has steeply declined in the international markets. Therefore, Indian rice exports are set to reach second place after Thailand, edging out Vietnam as per report of Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAO).<br />There is also good scope for India to take advantage of the new trade policy for sustaining the export of rice. This can be achieved if production is made keeping in view the demand of international markets by increased investment in Research and Development coupled with realistic export policy. The following export policies may be taken in to account to sustain the export of rice in future:<br />Production of quality seeds and ensuring its availability to farmers at subsidized rates.<br />Low cost production technology may be developed to reduce the cost of production and making Indian rice more competitive in the international markets.<br />Survey may be conducted to identify contiguous zones for cultivation of export quality rice.<br />Quality of rice may be maintained keeping in view the requirements of the international markets.<br />Breeding programme may be initiated to develop high yielding export quality rice both for basmati and non-basmati rice to enable the exporters to compete in the world's markets.<br />Production, procurement and processing of basmati rice may be organized in a systematic manner for maintaining its quality for export purposes.<br />Conventional rice mills may be modernized to ensure high milling recovery of head rice and effective availability of by- products for better and profitable utilization both for industrial and feed purposes.<br />Intelligence wing may be set up to keep watch over the requirement of various rice importing countries so that Research & Development may be strengthened accordingly to produce quality rice for export purposes.<br />Export friendly trade policies may be adopted with improvement of infrastructure facilities for promoting export.<br />Sufficient export facilities may be made available to the exporters at Sea Port.<br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />SUGGESTIONS FOR SUSTAINING RICE EXPORT<br />Rice export constitutes a considerable share in the national exports. India is likely to be major exporters next to Thailand during 2003 and its influence on the global rice trade will be significant. Keeping in view the importance of rice in the national export items, concerted efforts are required to be made to further promote the export of rice. There is a good scope for India to take advantage of the new trade opportunities for promoting the export of rice. This can be achieved if production is made as per the requirements of international markets by increased investment in Research and Development coupled with export friendly trade policies.<br />The following are few of the measures suggested to sustain the export of rice in future:<br />Breeding programme may be initiated to develop high yielding export quality rice (Basmati, Non-Basmati, Long Grain Rice, etc.) to enable the exporters to sustain their export in future.<br />Survey may be conducted to identify export quality belts/zones for production of rice to meet the requirement of exports.<br />Extension activities may be strengthened to educate the cultivators for production of quality rice to match the standards of international markets.<br />Low cost production technology may be developed to bring down the cost of production to enable the exporters to compete with competing countries in the international markets.<br />Proper arrangements may be made for procurement and processing of rice export purpose as per the requirement of international markets.<br />Proper arrangements may be made for production of pure quality seeds and making them available to the farmers at subsidized rates.<br />In case of basmati varieties, crop should not be allowed to lodge and there should be proper water management in the field. If these are not attended properly, such situation may affect both aroma and linear kernel elongation.<br />Post harvest operation is also very important. After harvesting, if produce is allowed to remain at higher moisture level for a longer period, it will impair the intensity of aroma.<br />  <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 1 : Export of Basmati Rice from India to different continents<br />SLContinents1998-19991999-20002000-20011.Asia512,19485.691583.9984.39524,24182.121403.7078.84625,02473.381511.0669.762.Europe68,21611.41238.8812.7391,73214.37285.1716.02174,21620.46469.1621.663.North Central Ameria8,3381.3931.771.6918,9692.9779.404.4644,9535.28161.847.474.South America15-0.08-4-0.02-420.010.110.015.Oceana6470.112.250.121,1260.183.990.222,8350.339.560.446.Africa8,3461.4019.941.062,2690.358.010.454,6310.5414.230.667.Others----390.010.05-21-0.03-Total597,756100.01876.91100.0638,380100.01780.34100.0851,722100.02165.99100.0<br />Source:Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.   :Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 2 : Export of Non-Basmati Rice from India to different continents<br />SLContinents1996-19971997-19981998-19991999-2000Metric Tonnes%Metric Tonnes%Metric Tonnes%Metric Tonnes%1.Asia9,58,78748.209,27,75751.6628,75,39565.867,07,92456.282.Europe3,38,44917.021,87,92710.471,61,7073.701,54,02812.253.Africa5,38,87427.095,59,24531.1410,67,07924.443,23,66325.734.Australia5080.022830.026420.011470.015.America81,8644.1239,5122.202,2360.051,1730.096.Others70,5583.5581,0194.512,58,8295.9370,8555.63Total19,89,040100.0017,95,743100.0043,65,888100.0012,57,790100.00<br />%:Percentage share of total export.Source:Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 3 : Export of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice from India during 1991-92 to 2001-02<br />SLYearBasmati RiceNon-Basmati RiceTotalQuantity'000 TonnesValue inRs. CroreQuantity'000 TonnesValue inRs. CroreQuantity'000 TonnesValue inRs. Crore1.1991-92266.53499.18411.94256.41678.47755.592.1992-93324.79800.64255.62174.96580.41975.603.1993-94527.231,061.26565.19225.461,092.421,286.724.1994-95442.13865.32448.50340.47890.631,205.795.1995-96373.31850.674,540.703,717.414,914.014,568.086.1996-97523.161,247.641,989.041,924.722,512.203,172.367.1997-98593.321,685.621,795.741,685.382,389.063,371.008.1998-99597.791,876.914,365.894,403.854,963.686,280.769.1999-00638.381,780.341,257.791,345.581,896.173,125.9210.2000-01851.722,165.99682.27777.261,533.992,943.2511.2001-02665.841,839.081,532.351,324.362,198.193,163.44<br />Note:Figures of 2000-01 and 2001-02 are Provisional Statistics.Source:Agricultural Statistics at a Glance - 2002, Directorate of Economics & Statistics,Ministry of Agriculture, Dept. of Agriculture & Co-operation, New Delhi. :Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 4 :Percentage shares of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice Exports in Total National Exports,Total Agricultural Exports and Food Grains exports during 1993-94 to 2001-02<br />SLYearBasmati RiceNon-Basmati RiceTotal1.1993-941,061.261.528.4376.1082.47225.460.321.7916.1817.521,286.721.8410.2292.272.1994-95865.321.056.5463.3271.76340.470.412.5724.9128.241,205.791.469.1288.233.1995-96850.670.804.1716.7318.623,717.413.5018.2273.1281.374,568.084.3022.4089.864.1996-971,247.641.055.1630.8039.331,924.721.627.9747.5160.673,172.362.6713.1378.315.1997-981,685.621.306.7845.0150.001,685.381.306.7845.0050.003,371.002.5913.5790.026.1998-991,876.911.347.3628.8129.884,403.853.1517.2667.6170.126,280.764.4924.6296.427.1999-001,780.341.127.0350.0756.951,345.580.855.3237.8543.053,125.921.9612.3587.928.2000-012,165.961.087.5655.2173.59777.260.392.7119.8126.412,943.221.4610.2775.029.2001-021,839.080.896.2436.9658.141,324.360.644.4926.6241.863,163.441.5210.7363.58<br />Note:Figures of 2000-01 and 2001-02 are Provisional Statistics.Source:Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 5 : Country-wise Export of Basmati Rice during 1998-99 to 2000-01<br />SLContinents1998-19991.Australia5110.092.Baharain8380.143.Bangladesh1,6490.284.Belgium6,5521.105.Canada3,3200.566.Denmark950.017.Egypt1040.028.France8,4631.419.Germany2,4220.4010.Italy3010.0511.Israel2010.0312.Japan2730.0513.Jordan1670.0314.Kuwait31,3605.2515.Mauritius530.0116.Nepal19017.Netherlands3,5720.6018.New Zeland1350.0219.Norway2390.0420.Oman6,3411.0621.Qatar8360.1422.Saudi Arabia4,42,99474.1123.Sri Lanka990.0124.Singapore1,1710.2025.Seychelle1,4870.2526.Spain0027.Sweden2210.0428.Switzerland4200.0729.South Africa5640.0930.U.A.E.19,9833.3431.UK45,7817.6632.USA4,9820.8333.Yemen Rep.2,1340.3634.Others10,4691.75 Total5,97,756100.001999-20009250.142,9440.461,5610.247,5121.182,2100.354030.063650.0612,0281.883,6770.584,1000.643,3750.531,1040.173060.0547,3387.427,9361.245,9800.944,2500.67770.013080.056,4621.013,3070.523,96,67662.141090.021,5000.232,6570.427310.117050.111,2940.201,2910.2032,2975.0653,0828.3216,0362.519,7741.536,0600.956,38,380100.002000-20012,4580.293,1770.375180.068,8541.048,3690.983670.045240.0622,1402.608,6591.028,4390.998890.10940.014230.0582,8009.723,5360.421,4690.174,7460.563560.046110.077,1870.842,4170.284,78,12456.141150.011,3090.154,6770.551,1220.133,9400.462,2890.271,8640.2230,1513.541,11,98413.1535,8404.216,1640.726,1100.728,51,722100.00<br />Source:Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.  :All India Rice Exporters' Association. :Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.<br /> <br />Table 6 : Country-wise Export of Non-Basmati Rice during 1998-99 to 2000-01<br />SLContinents1998-19991.Angola14,0210.322.Australia6420.013.Bahrain3,8580.094.Bangladesh23,31,68953.415.Belgium3,9940.096.Bhutan9,6540.227.Canada1,2720.038.Egypt5,0000.119.France4730.0110.Germany2,2420.0511.Ghana9,5740.2212.Indonesia18,7010.4313.Iran55,8471.2814.Ivory Cost1,61,8173.7115.Japan17,3890.4016.Jordan3,3920.0817.Kenya37,0740.8518.Korea13,9460.3219.Kuwait8,3690.1920.Malaysia25,3450.5821.Mauritius18,3190.4222.Mozambique10,1040.2323.Nepal2680.0124.Nigeria2,01,1064.6125.Oman6,6230.1526.Qatar2,2540.0527.Russia1,21,8282.7928.Saudi Arabia1,26,0362.8929.Sri Lanka20,4730.4730.Singapore14,9940.3431.Seychelles18,5100.4232.Senegal74,5031.7133.Somalia1,40,0643.2134.South Africa5,25,01312.0335.Sudan9,7470.2236.U.A.E.73,5131.6837.UK256-38.USA9640.0239.Ukraine14,2440.3340.Yemen Rep.34,0440.7841.Others2,28,7265.24 Total43,65,888100.001999-2000--1470.014,3710.353,50,08827.831040.015,2250.422080.022,0250.162030.022,1650.177,9890.641,1520.091990.02--5220.043630.0313,1051.0420-10,5840.8460-5000.046,4900.5221,9411.741,09,0468.678,2720.662,5580.201,50,59011.971,64,28813.0662,4014.9610,0880.801,2370.1014,1261.1223,1431.841,40,33411.1644-37,6392.995170.049650.083430.0326,7372.1378,0016.2012,57,790100.002000-2001--1,1710.174,7380.703,17,66346.5642---6970.100-2310.031,0520.165000.07------970.01--22-1400.027,5351.119,4341.3930---20,1832.96--7,5321.102,2230.331,6450.241,53,84122.555220.0717,4102.551,2000.18--2,7450.4057,7688.472,3340.3426,6473.911,7920.262,8170.416,0000.8814,9132.1919,3462.846,82,270100.00<br />Source:All India Rice Exporters' Association.   :Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />Table 7 : Average Export Price of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice during 1992-93 to 2001-02<br />SLYearBasmati RiceRs. Per Quintal1.1992-19932,465.002.1993-19942,103.003.1994-19951,957.004.1995-19962,279.005.1996-19972,385.006.1997-19982,841.007.1998-19993,140.008.1999-20002,789.009.2000-20012,543.0010.2001-20022,762.00Non-Basmati RiceRs. Per Quintal684.00399.00759.00819.00968.00939.001,009.001,070.001,139.00864.00<br />Source:Directorate of Rice Development, Patna. <br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />References <br />SLPublicationPublisher1.Rice India-Published by All India Rice Exporters Association, New Delhi.2.Commodity India-Published by K.S.International Export House, Near State Warehouse, Taraori, Haryana.3.Basmati Rice in India :Its Export Potential - 2001-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.4.Rice in India :A Hand Book of Statistics - 2001-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.5.Rice in India :A Status Paper - 2002-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.6.Rice Productivity Analysisin India - 2002-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.7.Economic Times-Issue dated 22nd June 2002, 14th August 2002 and 2nd September 2002.<br /> <br />Problems & Prospects of Rice Export from India<br />References <br />SLPublicationPublisher1.Rice India-Published by All India Rice Exporters Association, New Delhi.2.Commodity India-Published by K.S.International Export House, Near State Warehouse, Taraori, Haryana.3.Basmati Rice in India :Its Export Potential - 2001-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.4.Rice in India :A Hand Book of Statistics - 2001-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.5.Rice in India :A Status Paper - 2002-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.6.Rice Productivity Analysisin India - 2002-Directorate of Rice Development, Patna.7.Economic Times-Issue dated 22nd June 2002, 14th August 2002 and 2nd September 2002.<br /> <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />Rice in India - A Status Paper was first published by the Directorate of Rice Development, Patna during May'2002. The objective of this publication is to organize the scattered pieces of information and also to deal with the recent development of hybrid rice cultivation and utilization of by-products of rice mills. Emphasis has also been placed on extraction of rice bran oil for edible purposes. Rice bran oil can contribute significantly to the national production of edible oil. In fact, considerable quantity of rice bran is available at present in the country that can be used for extraction of oil.<br />Rice production in India has increased during the last 51 years by nearly 441% or 4.4 times from 20.58 million tonnes in 1950 to nearly 91.05 million tonnes during 2001-02. The status paper is expected to serve as a reference document for agricultural scientists and workers, planners, traders, govt. organizations and other related departments.<br />Rice Production during 5 Year Plans   <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />Introduction      <br />The rice plant belongs to the genus Oryza of Gramineae family. The genus Oryza has 24 species, of which 22 are wild and two species viz. Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima are cultivated. All the varieties found in Asia, America and Europe, belong to Oryza sativa and varieties found in West Africa belong to species Oryza glaberrima. Further, sativa rice varieties of the world are commonly grouped into three sub-species -viz. indica, japonica and javanica. Rice grown in India belongs to the indica. The varieties developed in Japan belong to japonica and javanica are cultivated mainly in Indonesia.<br />Rice is the most important crop of India and it occupies 23.3 per cent of gross cropped area of the country. Rice contributes 43 per cent of total food grain production and46 per cent of total cereal production. It continues to play vital role in the national food grain supply. It is the staple food of nearly half of the world population. It ranks third after wheat and maize in terms of worldwide production. Asia accounts for 90 per cent and 92 per cent of world's rice area and production respectively. Thus, rice production, consumption and trade are concentrated in Asia. One third of Asia's rice production is consumed in China and one fifth in India. Among the rice growing countries in the world, India has the largest area under rice crop (about 45 million ha.) and ranks second in production next to China. India and China together accounts for 56 per cent of the total production and about 50 per cent of world's area under rice during 1997-98. From production point of view, China ranks first in the world and accounts for 34.6 per cent of total production of world during 1997-98. India accounts for 21.5 per cent of total rice production of world during 1997-98. Other important rice producing countries and their respective share in the world production of rice during 1997-98 were : Indonesia 8.8 per cent, Bangla Desh 4.9%, Vietnam 4.6%, Mynammar 3.3%, Thailand 3.7%, Japan 2.2%, Brazil 1.6%, United States of America 1.4% and Russian federation 0.1%.<br />The productivity of rice in India is higher than Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Brazil but much below than the productivity in Japan, China, Korea, U.S.A. and Indonesia. The rice productivity in India during 1999 - 2000 was 1986 Kg./ha., which is below the world average productivity of 2551 Kg./ha. during the same year.<br />Global paddy output in 1999-2000 reached 598 million tonnes, registering 2.6 per cent rise on the previous season. Rice is primarily a high-energy or high caloric food. The protein content is less than wheat. The protein content of milled rice is usually 6-17 per cent. The biological value of its protein is high. Rice contains low fat about 2.0 to 2.5 per cent. In milling process much of fat is lost. The calcium content in rice is generally low. B-group vitamins are found in rice grains as in wheat. Valuable protein, vitamins and minerals are lost in the milling process of rice. The embryo and aleurone layer of rice are removed during course of milling. However, much of the loss of nutrients can be avoided through parboiling process.<br />The by-products of rice milling are used for a variety of purposes. Rice bran is the most valuable by-product of rice milling industry. It is obtained from the outer layers of the brown rice. Generally, rice bran consists of pericarp, aleurone layer , germ and a part of endosperm. Bran removal amounts to 4 to 9 per cent of the weight of paddy milled and is abundant in oil. Raw rice bran contains about 18 to 20 per cent oil whereas parboiled rice bran contains about 22 to 25 per cent oil. The de-oiled bran, which is a rich source of protein (about 17%) and vitamins (Vitamins A and E ), is used as cattle feed and poultry feed. It is a good source of foreign exchange earnings. Rice hulls can be used in manufacture of insulation materials, cement and cardboard . It is also used as litter in poultry keeping. Rice straw is used as cattle feed and it is also used as litter during winter season.<br />Origin And History   <br />The origin and history of rice probably dates back to the antiquity. As per archaeological evidences and by the many references, India and Burma should be regarded as the centre of origin of cultivated rice. It has probably been the staple food and the first cultivated crop in Asia. Rice has been cultivated in India since ancient times. In fact, rice was known in India before the present era as per the reports of the many investigators based on the study of Sanskrit and various other languages in South-Eastern Asia.<br />China is another ancient region of rice cultivation. In this connection, the investigators have reported that pottery from excavated has been found to carry imprints as well as rice husk. The period of that culture is estimated at 2000 B.C., but a greater antiquity has also been claimed. The region covering Burma, Thailand and Cambodia is well suited to rice cultivation. This region has also a large population of wild rices.<br />Climatic Conditions   <br />India lies between 8° and 35° N latitude, with a tropical and sub-tropical climate. Among the various weather elements, rainfall is the most single important factor, which determines the extent, growth and production of rice crop.<br />Rice is indigenous to the humid area of tropics, sub-tropics and temperate regions. It has a wide physiological adaptability and is grown successfully from below the sea level to 2000 meters above the sea level. There are many varieties of rice which are cultivated with differential response to climatic factors, such as temperature, rainfall and day length. The soil types and different physiographic factors are also quite relevant in the cultivation of rice crop. The indica varieties of rice (Oryza sativa ) are grown mainly in the tropical countries. These varieties are photosensitive and maturity period is affected with the date of planting.<br />Rainfall is the most important weather element for successful cultivation of rice. The distribution of rainfall in different regions of the country is greatly influenced by the physical features of the terrain, the situation of the mountains and plateau. The regions experiencing very heavy rainfall in the country are given :-<br />Western Ghats (the western slopes and the coastal region.)<br />In the Assam region.<br />The sub-montane Himalayan region, Deccan plateau, Eastern Ghats with coastal plains and the vast Gangetic plains.<br />Generally south west monsoon from Arabian sea becomes active on the Malabar coast in the end of May or in the first week of June. At the same time, the south-west monsoon from the Bay of Bengal also strikes the hills of north-eastern India in the Assam region and in the Sub-Himalayan West Bengal. Gradually, south-west monsoon extends northwards and reaches western Rajasthan.<br />Rainfall is the most important weather factor to determine the paddy production because rainfall during the active phase of the initiation of panicle primordia is significantly beneficial. Thus, rainfall always gives beneficial effect even when this factor is taken jointly with other climatic elements, such as the mean temperature and sunshine. Therefore, rainfall is one of the most important climatic elements to determine the growth and yield of rice crop.<br />Temperature is an other climatic elements which has a favourable and in some cases unfavourable influence on the development, growth and yield of rice. Rice being a tropical and sub-tropical plant, requires a fairly high temperature, ranging from 20° to 40°C. The optimum temperature of 30°C during day time and 20°C during night time seems to be more favourable for the development and growth of rice crop. The low temperature affects the tillering rate. The period of tillering is prolonged due to low temperature but low temperature gives more tillers and more panicles than higher temperature. Low temperature depresses the internodal elongation and thereby induces the partial emergence of panicles. This phenomena further affects the rate of photosynthesis and also induces partial sterility. However, low temperature during the period of ripening, prolongs the ripening period and enables the plant to maintain green leaves. Such condition contributes to the accumulation of carbohydrates in the grains.<br />Sunlight is very essential for the development and growth of the plants. In fact, sunlight is the source of energy for plant life. The response to solar radiation is a varietal character. The yield of rice is influenced by the solar radiation particularly during the last 35 to 45 days of its ripening period. The effect of solar radiation is more profound where water, temperature and nitrogenous nutrients are not limiting factors.<br />Bright sunshine with low temperature during ripening period of the crop helps in the development of carbohydrates in the grains. Solar radiation is a limiting factor for upland rice, because upland rice is grown during rainy season. Therefore, low productivity in the case of upland rice is a problem in the tropics.<br />Rice Soils of India   <br />Rice is grown in India in different types of soils. These soils in which rice is grown are so extraordinarily varied that there is hardly any type of soil on which rice can not be cultivated with some degree of success. The classification of soils has been done depending upon the soil texture, colour of the soil etc. The rice soils of India has been classified into 17 types as mentioned below and these are depicted in the Map No.1.<br />1.Sub-montane soils2.Hill soils3.Tarai soils4.Calcareous soils5.Riverine Alluvium6.Laterite soils7.Saline and Alkaline soils8.Red yellow loams9.Red sand or Gravelly soils10.Mixed Red and Black soils11.Deltatic Alluvium12.Medium Black soils13.Seleletal soils14.Deep Black soils15.Red Loamy soils16.Coastal Alluvium17.Shallow Black Soils.<br /> <br />Distribution of Different Rice Soils    <br />The state-wise area under rice during 1999-2000 is given in Table 1. The area occupied under rice in West Bengal is the highest followed by Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Assam , Punjab , Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Karnataka. These states put together accounts for about 92 per cent of the total area under rice in the country. These states except Punjab also constitute the traditionally rice growing areas in the country. Punjab has emerged as rice growing state in the country during early seventies. The other states in the country have, however, limited area under rice crop.<br />The distribution of various kinds of rice soils in the country is discussed region-wise below :-<br />The Humid Western Himalayan Region<br />This region comprises of sub-montane soils, hills soils and tarai soils. The distribution of this region is in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Kumaon and Garhwal division of Uttranchal. The rice soils which are found in Jammu and Kashmir have been formed from the alluvium brought by the major rivers Chenab, Ravi, Tawi and their tributaries. Such soil is found mostly in Jammu and Kathua districts.<br />The sub-montane soils are found in Anantnag , Baramulla and Srinagar districts. These soils are formed from the alluvium deposited in the valley floor by the Jhelum and the Indus rivers. They are silty loam to clay loam and are neutral to alkaline.<br />The hill soils are found in the districts of Almora, Chamoli, Pithoragarh, Uttar Kashi and Dehradun of Uttranchal. These soils are shallow with fragments of rock occurring according to the elevations and have been categorized as red loam, brown forest soil, meadow soil and podzolic soil.<br />The tarai soils are found from north-west to the extreme north-east as a narrow strip. These soils are always saturated because of sufficient rainfall and high ground water table. These soils have been formed from transported materials by different rivers originating from the Himalayas. The tarai soils are very productive and responding well to fertilizer application.<br />The soils occurring in Himachal Pradesh are formed from parent rocks such as sandstones, gray micaceous sandstones and shales of Sub-Himalayan region. These soils are loam to silty loam and medium to high in organic matter. Generally, these soils are poor in available nutrients.<br />The Humid Bengal-Assam Basin and Humid Eastern Himalayan Region<br />The altitude of rice growing areas in this region ranges from few metres in Sundarbans in West Bengal to about 1600 metres in Mizoram state and more than 2000 metres in Arunachal Pradesh. Generally, the crop is grown in this region on flat lands to facilitate the supply of water requirement. One of the most limiting factor in this region is the availability of water. The alluvial soils deposited by the rivers mostly occupy the major part of the wetland rice soils in this region. These soils are formed from the silt deposition by the numerous tributaries of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers. The water-table is high and drainage is poor in the wetland rice soils.Soils in the Assam valley are acidic and high in available phosphorus and potassium and moderate in organic matter and nitrogen. In the north-eastern mountainous upland areas of Assam, the soil is lateritic. In the upland areas drainage is good. The rice crop is better grown in acidic soils in the pH range of 5.5 to 6.5 . In the Gangetic delta, rice is successfully grown in saline soils of Sundarbans.The Sub-Humid Sutlej-Ganga Alluvial Plains<br />In this region a single crop of rice is grown during May-June to September-October. The temperature during winter remains low. The major group of soils in this region are calcareous alluvial, riverine alluvial, saline-alkaline, red yellow loam, red sandy and mixed red and black. The alluvial soils of this region are formed from the materials brought and deposited by the great rivers originating from the Himalaya mountain. The alluvial soils are rich in potash and calcium but are deficient in organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. The alluvial soil can broadly be classified as -<br />(a) light-textured alluvial soils of the west and north-west<br />(b) intermediate-textured alluvial soils in the central region<br />(c) calcareous alluvial soils in the north-east.Saline soils are found all along on the left side of the Ganga river in the districts of Meerut, Aligarh, Bulandshahar, Mainpuri, Etah, Kanpur, Fatehpur, Allahabad, Lucknow, Pratapgarh and Sultanpur. The soils are highly alkaline, indurated and have below hard pan which obstruct the downward movement of water. The soils of Allahabad, Varanasi, Ghazipur and Balia are black and fine-textured. The soils are formed from the alluvial deposits transported by the Yamuna river from central parts of the country.Bihar state is divided by the Ganga river into two halves i.e. north and south. The texture of alluvium of north Bihar region is sandy loam to clay loam and pH is neutral to alkaline. Generally, lime content is high in alkaline soils. The texture of south Bihar in the districts of Patna, Gaya and Shahabad is gray to black and light loam to heavy clay. The lime content in this soil is generally less and pH of the soil is alkaline. The soils of Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Santhal Parganas, Singhbhum and Manbhum are red. These soil are acidic. These soils are rich in potassium and poor in phosphorus.<br />The Sub-Humid to Humid Eastern and South-Eastern Uplands<br />In eastern Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh the rice soils are laterite, red-yellow loam, red sandy, mixed red and black, deltaic alluvium, deep and medium-deep black, red loam and coastal alluvial. In Chhattisgarh plains, Mahanadi basin and in the eastern region soils are red and yellow. These soils are mainly sandy but sometimes silty loam to silt-clay loam are also found. Black soils are found in the Narmada valley. The laterite soils of Orissa are found in the eastern Ghat region. The soils of Khurda are mainly laterites. The soils of Balasore are gravelly.In Andhra Pradesh, particularly in the districts of Nellore, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Ongole, the soils are red and black. The alluvial soils of the deltas are very deep and well drained. These soils are very fertile. The alluvium soils of Godavari is different from the alluvium soils of Krishna. The soils of coastal districts of Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, East and West Godavari, Guntur, Krishna and Nellore are purely sandy. In some parts of Medak, Nellore and Visakhapatnam districts laterite soils are found. These soils are red but they differ from red soils. Such soils are found in heavy rainfall and high temperature areas. These soils are acidic, pH ranging from 4.0 to 5.0.Generally, black soils are found in long stretches. Sometimes black soils are also found in isolated pockets along with the red soils. Drainage in black soils is poor and the content of soluble salt is high. These soils contain sufficient lime and pH ranges from 7.0 to 8.5 . These soils are also deficient in phosphorus and low in organic matter and nitrogen.<br />The Arid Western Plains<br />The soils of this region are alluvial, red-yellow and medium-deep black. These soils are found in Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.The districts of Karnal, Ambala, Jind and Sirsa in Haryana state are having mainly alluvial and saline-alkali soils in low-lying areas. The rice is grown mainly in these districts of Haryana and in such soils.Red-yellow soils are mainly found in Banaswara district and alluvial soils are found in Ganganagar, Alwar, Bharatpur, Jaipur and Udaipur districts of Rajasthan. Generally, these districts are growing rice in Rajasthan.The soils of Sabarkanta and Ahmedabad districts of Gujarat are riverine alluvium. Rice is mainly grown in these two districts. Medium black soils are found in the district of Rajkot, Junagadh and Jhalwar. Rice is also cultivated in deep-black and coastal alluvium soils of Broach, Varodara and Kheda districts of Gujarat state.<br />The Semi-Arid Lava Plateau and Central Highlands<br />This region comprising of Maharashtra, Western and Central Madhya Pradesh and Goa, Daman and Diu Union Territories, having alluvium coastal alluvium, mixed red and black soils. The Ratnagiri district, parts of Kolhapur and south of Kolaba are having laterite soils. This is a high-rainfall zone and rice is cultivated in laterite soils. Non-laterite soils are found in high rainfall zone of Thana district, part of Kolaba and some areas of Nasik district in Maharashtra.In Western Madhya Pradesh, alluvial soils are found which are formed due to the alluvium deposited by the Chambal river. These soils are neutral to slightly alkaline, nitrogen and phosphorus are low in these soils. However, potassium is medium to high.<br />The Humid to Semi-Arid Western Ghats and Karnataka Plateau<br />Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Union Territory of Pondicherry and Lakshadweep Islands are coming in this region. The soils of this region are laterite, red sandy or gravelly, red loamy, deltaic and coastal alluvium.Karnataka state is having varied type of climate, ranging from humid to sub-humid. Laterite and lateritic soils are found in the coastal districts of north and south Kanara, parts of Belgaum, Shimoga, Chickmagalore, Hassan and Coorg. The black soils are found in the districts of Belgaum, Dharwar, Bidar, Raichur and parts of Bellary. These soils are calcareous, enriched with bases and alkaline. The districts of Mysore and parts of Hassan are having red soils where as some parts of shimoga and Chickmagalore districts are having red loam soils. These soils are well-drained and light-textured. Black and red soils are found in the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwar, Raichur, Bellary and Chitradurga. Generally, upland areas are having red soils and lowland areas are having black soils. The districts of Tiruchirapalli and Thanjavur are the main rice growing areas in Tamil Nadu besides Kanyakumari, Changulput, South Arcot, eastern parts of Ramnathapuram and Tirunelveli. The Cauveri delta is called 'rice-bowl'. Black soils are found in all the districts except the Nilgiris district. The major portion of the Cauveri alluvium is in the Thanjavur district. This soil is poor in nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter but is rich in potassium and calcium.The major portion of the soils in Kerala is acidic. In the acidic soils of Alleppy, Quilon, Kottayam and Ernakulam districts of Kerala, rice is mainly grown, of which "Kuttanad" the rice-bowl of Kerala covers major rice areas. Alleppey and Kottayam districts are having a large isolated patches of peat soils (Kari soils). These are deep, black and heavy clayey soils, with poor aeration and bad drainage. These soils are having low content of available plant nutrients. They are generally inundated with saline water resulting in highly acidic.The south of Kerala and the Malabar coast zones are having red and lateritic soils. These soils are also acidic in reaction. The soils which are found in the plains are deeper and possessing sufficient amount of nitrogen and organic matter, but they are deficient in phosphorus, potassium and lime.<br />Table-1 : State-wise Rice Area During 1999-2000   <br /> <br />SLName of the State/UTs   Area ('000 Hectares)  1.Andhra Pradesh4,014.20 2.Arunachal Pradesh122.70 3.Assam2,646.00 4.Bihar5,001.80 5.Jharkhand- 6.Goa56.7 7.Gujrat664.40 8.Haryana1,083.00 9.Himachal Pradesh80.20 10.Jammu & Kashmir250.60 11.Karnataka1,449.80 12.Kerala349.70 13.Madhya Pradesh5,354.20 14.Chhatisgarh- 15.Maharashtra1,519.80 16.Manipur157.10 17.Meghalaya106.40 18.Mizoram49.70 19.Nagaland148.50 20.Orissa4,601.80 21.Punjab2,604.00 22.Rajasthan200.20    <br />Rice in India : A Status Paper<br />RICE GROWING SEASONS      <br />In India rice is grown under widely varying conditions of altitude and climate . Therefore, the rice growing seasons vary in different parts of the country, depending upon temperature, rainfall, soil types, water availability and other climatic conditions. In eastern and southern regions of the country, the mean temperature is found favourable for rice cultivation through out the year. Hence, two or three crops of rice are grown in a year in eastern and southern states. In northern and western parts of the country, where rainfall is high and winter temperature is fairly low, only one crop of rice is grown during the month from May to November. There are three seasons for growing rice in India viz.- autumn, winter and summer. These three seasons are named according to the season of harvest of the crop. Autumn rice is known as pre-kharif rice. The sowing of pre-kharif rice is taken up during May to August. However, the time of sowing slightly differs from state to state according to weather condition and rainfall pattern. It is harvested in September-October. Autumn rice crop is know as 'Aus' in West Bengal, 'Ahu' in Assam, 'Beali' in Orissa, 'Bhadai' in Bihar, 'Virippu' in Kerala and 'Kuruvai/kar/ Sornavari' in Tamil Nadu. About 7% crop is grown in this season. The varieties grown during this season are mostly varieties of short duration ranging from 90 to 110 days.<br />The main rice growing season in the country is the 'Kharif'. It is known as winter rice as per the harvesting time. The sowing time of winter (kharif) rice is June-July and it is harvested in November-December. Winter rice is know as 'Aman' in West Bengal, 'Sali' in Assam, 'Sarrad' in Orissa, 'Agahani' in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, 'Sarava' in Andhra Pradesh, 'Mundakan' in Kerala and 'Samba/Thaladi' in Tamil Nadu. About 84% of the country's rice crop is grown in this season and generally, medium to long duration varieties are grown in this season.<br />Summer rice is called as Rabi rice. It is known as 'Boro' in Assam and West Bengal, 'Dalua'in Orissa, 'Dalwa' in Andhra Pradesh, 'Punja' in Kerala and 'Navarai' in Tamil Nadu and 'Garma' in Bihar. The sowing time of summer rice is November to February and harvesting time is March to June. The area under summer rice is only 9% and early maturing varieties are mostly grown in this season.<br />The sowing/harvesting period of autumn, winter and summer rice, region/state-wise are shown below -<br />Table-2 : Sowing and Harvesting Periods    <br />SLRegion/StateAutumnWinterSummerSowingHarvestingSowingHarvestingSowingHarvesting1.Northern RegionHaryana      PunjabMay-AugSep-Nov----West U.P.      Himachal PradeshJune-JulySep-Nov----Jammu & Kashmir--Apr-JulySep-Dec--2.Western regionGujrat--Jun-AugOct-Dec--Maharashtra--Jun-JulyOct-Dec--Rajasthan--July-AugOct-Dec--3.North-East RegionAssamMid Feb-AprJune-JulyJune-AugNov-DecDec-FebMay-June4.Eastern RegionBiharMay-JulySep-OctJuly-SepNov-DecJan-FebMay-JuneEast M.P.June-AugMid Sep - Mid Dec----OrissaMay-JuneSep-OctJune-AugDec-JanDec-JanMay-JuneEast U.P.May-JulySep-NovJuly-AugNov-DecJan-FebApr-JuneWest BengalMar-June(Broadcasting)May-June(Transplanting)July-NovApr-June(Broadcasting)July-Aug(Transplanting)Nov-DecOct-FebApr-May5.Southern RegionAndhra PradeshMar-AprilJuly-AugMay-JuneNov-DecDec-JanApril-MayKarnatakaMay-AugSep-DecJune-OctNov-MarchDec-FebApril-JulyKeralaApril-JuneAug-OctSep-OctJan-FebDec-JanMarch-AprTamil NaduEarly SambaLate Samba SonavariApril-MayJuly-AugJune-JulyNov-DecOct-NovMarch-Apr    SambaNavarai   KarMay-JuneAug-SepJuly-AugDec-JanDec-JanApril-May    Thaladi/Pishanam   KuruvaiJune-JulySep-OctSep-OctDec-Jan--<br />RICE GROWING REGIONS   <br />Rice is grown under so diverse soil and climatic conditions that it is said that there is hardly any type of soil in which it can not be grown including alkaline and acidic soils. Rice crop has also got wide physical adaptability. Therefore, it is grown from below sea-level (Kuttanad area of Kerala) upto an elevation of 2000 metres in Jammu & Kashmir, hills of Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and North-Eastern Hills (NEH) areas. The rice growing areas in the country can be broadly grouped into five regions as discussed below :<br />North-Eastern Region<br />This region comprises of Assam and North eastern states. In Assam rice is grown in the basin of Brahmnaputra river. This region receives very heavy rainfall and rice is grown under rain fed condition.<br />Eastern Region<br />This region comprises of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. In this region rice is grown in the basins of Ganga and Mahanadi rivers and has the highest intensity of rice cultivation in the country. This region receives heavy rainfall and rice is grown mainly under rain fed conditions.<br />Northern Region<br />This region comprises of Haryana, Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Uttranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. The region experiences low winter temperature and single crop of rice from May-July to September-December is grown.<br />Western Region<br />This region comprises of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Rice is largely grown under rain fed condition during June-August to October - December.<br />Southern Region<br />This region comprises of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Rice is mainly grown in deltaic tracts of Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery rivers and the non-deltaic rain fed area of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Rice is grown under irrigated condition in deltaic tracts.<br /> <br />RICE ECO-SYSTEMS   <br />Rice is grown under varying Eco-systems on a variety of soils under varying climatic and hydrological conditions ranging from waterlogged and poorly drained to well drained situations. Rice is also grown under rain fed as well as irrigated conditions. These different Eco-systems are discussed below :<br /> <br /> <br />Irrigated Rice<br />The total area under irrigated rice is about 22.00 million hectares, which accounts about 49.5 per cent of the total area under rice crop in the country. Rice is grown under irrigated conditions in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra

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