SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGYTechnical solutions for the sulphur regulations 2015 Professor Karin Andersson Shipping and Marine Technology Maritime Environment
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY • SHIPPING• Low energy use and specific emissions in intercontinental transport• Small contribution from shipping to emissions and energy use in a long product chain• But also• “... absent any new regulations on maritime vessels, shipping will be responsible for NOX emissions that are on par with, and SO2 emissions that are greater than, all land-based sources by 2020”. (European commission 2005)• Shipping-related particle (PM) emissions cause approximately 60,000 cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths annually (Corbett et al 2007)
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY Nordic Sea and Baltic Sea (SECAs) Euro VI diesel = 0,001 %“…man försökt minska (eldnings)oljornas svavelhalt. Den maximala haltensattes fr o m den 1 juli 1969 till 2,5 vikt %. I det centrala Stockholm satteman maximihalten till 1,0 % från den 1 oktober 1968 och till 1 % I helaStockholms stad från 1 oktober 1969”Ur “Välfärd till döds” Nils Erik Landell, 1969
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGYAnd there are many pathways to a fuel
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY Fuel properties Propulsion system Fuel pre-treatment Investment cost requirements Technical Criteria Fuel price Economic criteria Operational costSafety and safe Future Marinehandling criteria Fuels Consequences of fuel spills and accidentsLogistical criteriaPublic opinion Other criteria Exhaust emissions EnvironmentalPolitical and strategy aspects criteria Life cycle environmental performanceSecurityEthics
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGYEnd-of pipe solutions
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGYSea Water Scrubber Closed Scrubber Hansen 2012 Dry Scrubber
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY Some chemistrySea water: Closed loop:SO2(g)⇆SO2(aq) NaOH (s) + H2O ⇆ Na+ + OH- + H2OSO2(aq) + 2H2O(l) ⇆ HSO3–(aq) + H3O+(aq) SO2(g)⇆SO2(aq)HSO3–(aq) + H2O(l)⇆SO32–(aq) + H3O+(aq) SO2(aq) + 2H2O(l) ⇆ HSO3–(aq) + H3O+(aq)And the low pH may release CO2 from the water HSO3–(aq) + H2O(l)⇆SO32–(aq) + H3O+(aq)HCO3-(aq) + H3O+(aq)⇆CO2(aq) + 2H2O(l) The hydroxide ions will neutralise the surplus acidity and increase the absorption of SO2CO2(aq)⇆CO2(g) A higher pH may also cause absorption of CO2Dry scrubber :SO2 (g)+ Ca(OH)2 (s)+ 1/2O2 ⇆ CaSO4(s) + H2OSO3 (g) + Ca(OH)2 (s) + O2 ⇆ CaSO4(s) + 2H2O
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY Reducing impact from use of fuelLow sulphur fuel and catalyst solves SOx and NOx problem
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY ++++ ------ ?????• No problem to fulfil S reduction requirements• Sea water scrubbing water release probably no problem in well mixed water, but has initially pH 3-4• Scrubber technology well known and used on land. Mainly dry scrubbers.• Scrubber technology is in an early stage of development at sea• Adds weight and needs space• Sludge from closed scrubbers has to be handled in ports• Dry scrubber gives solid waste.• One scrubber per engine?• Wet scrubber may prevent use of SCR• Pressure drop and cooling of exhausts – may affect waste heat recovery• Baltic Sea? HELCOM• ….
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY What does it cost?• Retrofit of scrubber – pay back time seems to be 3 – 20 years depending on ship type and use. Depends on difference in fuel price (source: manufacturers and shipping companies)• Cost of NaOH – 30 – 40 €/ton fuel (source Danish EPA)• Loss of space on board?• Increase in weight ?
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY• Member States may provide State aid for retrofitting existing vessels with emission abatement equipment• Promotion of testing and development of alternative methods, such on-board EGCS, liquefied natural gas (LNG) or biofuels is encouraged• Member States should ensure the availability of port waste reception facilities to meet the needs of ships using EGCS• The Commission should consider reducing port fees for EGCS waste streams
SHIPPING AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY Conclusions• Fuels • Many possible “HFO-alternative” fuels • Fuel selection is a multi-criteria process• End- of pipe solutions – scrubbers • Give good S reduction • Requires space and adds weight • Pay-back for retrofit varies a lot • Closed scrubbers give waste • May prevent use of SCR and WHR