Phcog 1.1.

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تاریجچه فارمکوگنوزی …

تاریجچه فارمکوگنوزی
Introduction to Pharmacognosy

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  • 1. Pharmacognosy- Pharmacognosy- 1 Introduction to PharmacognosyBy Abdul Ghani Karimi,Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy. Date: 06/01/1391 1
  • 2. Introduction to Pharmacognosy• Pharmacognosy and its Objectives• A brief history of Pharmacognosy• Value of natural drug products 2
  • 3. Definition of Pharmacognosy• The word Pharmacognosy is derived from the Greek "Pharmakon", meaning a drug or poison and “Gnosis “ meaning knowledge and literally meaning "the entire knowledge of drug".• The nomenclature ‘Pharmacognosy’ was used first and foremost by C.A. Seydler, a medical student in Halle/Saale, Germany, who emphatically employed Analetica Pharmacognostica as the main title of his thesis in the year 1815.• This compilation exclusively deals with the medicinal plants and 3 their corresponding characteristics.
  • 4. Targets of Pharmacognosy• Study of medicinal plants as an important sources of active pharmacological substances.• Study of the reserves of medicinal plants.• Standardization of medicinal plants and its preparations.• Search for new herbal preparations in order to provide effective drugs and meet the medical requirements. 4
  • 5. History of Pharmacognosy 5
  • 6. 1- The old Chinese medicine• Beside the famous acupuncture, the Chinese medicine is very acknowledged for the herbal medicine.• The Bencaco Gangmu (Pen Tsao Kang Mu 1000 B.C. ) contained an incredible number of medicinal plants and drugs of animal origin.• This book includes many recipes for every disease.• Among the plants highly esteemed for its magic health were; Ginseng, Rhubarb, Ephedra, Star Anise, Pomegranate, Aconite....• Opium is a very old Chinese drug for diarrhea and dysentery. 6
  • 7. 2- Ancient Egyptian period• The ancient Egyptians were experts in using drugs for curing diseases.• The healing of the sick was undertaken by priest doctor and pharmacist "Son" who prescribed and prepared medicines.• Ebers papyrus, 1550 BC is one of the oldest publication of Egyptians.• Crude drugs of vegetable origin used included Aloes, Gum, Myrrh, Poppy, Pomegranate, Colocynth, Linseed, Squill, Coriander, Onion, Anise, Melon, Castor, etc... 7
  • 8. Egyptians (Ebers papyrus, 1550 BC) 8
  • 9. 3- The Babylonians• The Babylonian medicine was known (Laws of Hamorabi 772 B.C.).• The drugs used were mainly of vegetable origin.• The drugs used include 250 materials of plant, and 180 materials of animal source.• Many of these drugs were known to the ancient Egyptians. 9
  • 10. 4- Old Indian medicine• The "Riveda" and Ayurveda (Acoko 2000 B.C.), contained the sacred medicinal plants.• The collection of plant materials was done only by an innocent, pure, religious person.• The fresh plants were considered to be the most effective.• The most celebrated Indian drugs were; Sandal wood, Clove, Pepper, Cardamom, Caraway, Ginger, Benzoin, Cannabis, Castor oil, Sesame oil, Aloes, etc... 10
  • 11. 5- The Greek and Romans• Hippocrates (460-377 BC)“The Father of Medicine”.• Hippocrates was familiar with numerous drugs, and wrote "Corpus Hipocraticum 460 B.C.“ which describes 220 plants. 11
  • 12. Theophrastus• Theophrastus following Hippocrates played an important role in describing medicinal plants.• Pliny who lived about the same time as Dioscorides, was also an eminent author of natural history.• He described 304 medicinal plant in his book. 12
  • 13. Dioscorides (40-80 AD) “De Materia Medica”• Dioscorides (78 A.D.) who was a Greek by birth, he was the first to describe drugs in his work “De Materia Medica" included 600 medicinal plants in addition to animal and mineral drugs. 13
  • 14. Galen (131- 201 A.D.)• Galen (131- 201 A.D.) was a physician and to him is ascribed the use of "Galenical preparations".• He have around 200 publication on medical and pharmaceutical sciences. 14
  • 15. 6- Islamic Contribution• In Islamic writings were found the first beginnings of chemistry, the name of which is derived from an Arabic word "Kemia"; as were also such familiar words alcohol and alkali.• The Arabs added numerous new plants and medicaments to those already known to the Greeks and Romans.• In their days, pharmacy attained its highest reputation and became an independent branch of medicine.• It is interesting to note that the first dispensary was opened in Baghdad, the center of trade in those days. 15
  • 16. Rhazey (850-932 A.D.)• Rhazey who was born at Rai in Persia was the director of Baghdad hospital in the days of El- Mansour.• He published a famous book "Alhawi Kabeer". 16
  • 17. ‫).‪Ibn Sina (980-1037 A.D‬‬ ‫”القانون في الطب“‬ ‫71‬
  • 18. Abu Al Hosayn Ibn-Sina• Abu Al Hosayn Ibn-Sina (980-1037 A.D.) whose name was latinised to Avicenna.• He was one of the most eminent and gifted Arabian physicians.• His "Canoon Fi Elteb" has been described as the most famous medical text ever written and as having dominated the medical schools of Europe and Asia and served as the chief source of medical knowledge for 5 centuries, till the 15th century. 18
  • 19. Ibn Al-Baitar “‫”الجامع لمفردات األدوية واألغذية‬• Ibn Al-Baitar (1197-1248 A.D.) was the best Arabian pharmacognosist and botanist and ranked with Dioscorides in that respect.• His book "Jame-ul-Muffradat" contains description of 2000 drugs. 19
  • 20. Abu Rayhan Albironi (973-1044 A.D.) “‫” الصيدنه فی الطب‬• He wrote Al-Saidana Fi Elteb.• He discribed 750 sp. of medicinal plants.• Al-Saidana has translated to different languages. 20
  • 21. Sheikh Dawood El-Antaki• Sheikh Dawood El-Antaki wrote a book named "Tazkaret Uli Al-Albab", now known as "Tazkaret Dawood Alantaki" which describes several hundred herbs besides drugs of animal and mineral origin. 21
  • 22. Ibn Altabari (770−850 A.D.) “‫” فردوس الحكمه‬ 22
  • 23. The era of European exploration overseas (16th and 17th century) 23
  • 24. The 18th century, Pharmacognosy• Linnaeus (naming and classifying plants)• At the end of the 18th century, crude drugs were still being used as powders, simple extracts, or tinctures. 24
  • 25. The era of pure compounds (In 1803, a new era in the history of medicine)• Isolation of morphine from opium• Strychnine (1817)• Quinine and caffeine (1820)• Nicotine (1828)• Atropine (1833)• Cocaine (1855) 25
  • 26. The era of pure compounds (In 1803, a new era in the history of medicine)• In the 19th century, the chemical structures of many of the isolated compounds were determined.• In the 20th century, the discovery of important drugs from the animal kingdom, particularly hormones and vitamins.• Microorganisms have become a very important source of drugs. 26
  • 27. Value of natural products• Compounds from natural sources play four significant roles in modern medicine:1. They provide a number of extremely useful drugs that are difficult to produce commercially by synthetic means. H 3C C O O H C O O H C O O H Ib up rofen2. Natural sources also supply basic compounds that mayH O H 3C O be modified slightly to render them more effective or O S a lic y lic A c id A sp ir in less toxic. C H 3 27 C H 3
  • 28. 3. Their utility as prototypes or models for synthetic drugs possessing physiologic activities similar to the originals.4. Some natural products contain compounds that demonstrate little or no activity themselves but which can be modified by chemical or biological methods to produce potent drugs not easily obtained by other methods. Baccatin III → Taxol 28
  • 29. End of lesson 1 THANK YOU! 29