Childhoodbilingualism by: Luz Canto Janet Parra Karen Schneeberger.
• Language acquisition is very similar to the process children use in getting first and second languages. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language natural communication. (Brown and Hanlon, 1970; Brown, Cazden, and Bellugi, 1973)
• First Language Acquisition: Studies infants’ acquisition of their native language.Native Language: A first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language(s) a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.
Second Language acquisition, or L2 acquisition, generally refers to the acquisition of a Second Language by someone who has already acquired a First Language.Bilingual Language acquisitionRefers to the simultaneous acquisition of two languages beginning in infancy, or before the age of three years.
Bilingualism is an intriguing topic.• People wonder how it´s possible for a child to acquire two or more languages at the same time:• Doesn´t the child confuse the two languages?• Are bilingual children brighter?• Does acquiring two languages negatively affect the child´s cognitive development in some way?
Children’s abilities The ability of children to form complex rules and constructgrammars of the languages used around them in a short time isphenomenal.Beginning from birth, babies everywhere follow a similar pattern toacquire their first language according to their individual biologicaltimetable- from crying, cooing, babbling to one-word utterances,two-word phrases, full sentences, and eventually, to complexgrammar.
How about stages of children´s Second Language acquisition? Individuals learning a Second Language use the same innateprocesses that are used to acquire their first Language from thefirst days of exposure to the new Language in spite of their age.They reach similar development stages to those in first Languageacquisition, making some of the same type of errors ingrammatical markers that young children make, picking upchunks of Language without knowing precisely what each wordmeans (Collier, 1998).
Processes and Phenomena of Second Language Acquisition Roseberry-McKibbin(2002)• Interference: e.g. “this house is more bigger”; “Take a seat”.• Interlanguage: e.g. “ What Pat doing now? (neither L1 nor L2)• Silent Period: e.g. when learner listens but rarely speaks in the new language.• Codeswitching: Changing languages over phrases or sentences e.g.: “Me gustaría manejar- I´ll take the car”
Processes and Phenomena of Second Language Acquisition• Language Loss: e.g.: when a child´s first language diminishes.• Bilingual Code Mixing: Use of patterns from two languages in the same utterance. e.g.: I´m going with her to la esquina.
Children´s Second Language Acquisition Stages and related linguistic Patterns (Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell, 1983)STAGE 1. PRE-PRODUCTION (Silent Period):• Minimal comprehension; No verbal production. Up to 500 words in their receptive Vocabulary.• They need Repetition.STAGE 2. EARLY PRODUCTION:• Limited comprehension one/two- word response. Vocabulary of 1000 words.STAGE 3. SPEECH EMERGENCE:• Increased Comprehension; Simple sentences; Some errors in speech. Vocabulary of 3,000 words.
Children´s Second Language Acquisition StagesSTAGE 4. INTERMEDIATE FLUENCY: Very good comprehension; More complex sentences and concepts; Complex errors in speech. Able to synthesize and make inferences. Vocabulary of 6,000 active words.STAGE 5 ADVANCED FLUENCY: Near- native in their ability; From 4-10 years to achieve cognitive academic language proficiency.
Stages of Second Language Acquisition Approximate TimeStage Characteristics Teacher Prompts FramePreproduction The student 0–6 months •Has minimal comprehension •Show me... •Does not verbalize •Circle the... •Nods “Yes” and “No” •Where is...? •Draws and points •Who has...?Early Production The student 6 months–1 year •Has limited comprehension •Yes/no questions •Produces one- or two-word •Either/or questions responses •One- or two-word •Participates using key words answers and familiar phrases •Lists •Uses present-tense verbs •Labels
Stages of Second Language Acquisition ApproximateStage Characteristics Teacher Prompts Time FrameSpeech Emergence The student 1–3 years •Has good comprehension •Can produce simple sentences hy...? •Makes grammar and pronunciation errors ow...? •Frequently misunderstands jokes xplain...Intermediate Fluency The student 3–5 years hrase or short- •Has excellent comprehension •What would happen sentence answers •Makes few grammatical if...? errors •Why do you think...?Advanced Fluency The student has a near-native 5–7 years • Decide if... level of speech. • Retell...Source: Adapted from Krashen and Terrell (1983).
RESEARCH AND STUDIES Early Research:-Two languages were learned independently and the knowledge of learning one did not transfer into the other. -As more was learned in one language, less could be learned in the other. This gave the idea of having an amount of language acquisition.
Recent Research- Two languages influence each other.- Example : *Concept of adding *Recognition of spoken language which is represented in writing.
Meaning of words: When children are fluent in two languages, they know more thanone word for the same concept, this can add cognitive flexibility inthe children which allows them to build a more complexunderstanding of the word at a younger age.
According to:Ellen Bialystok and Kenji Hakuta the benefits for being bilingual gomuch further than simply knowing two languages. Because thestructures and ideas of the two languages are so different it forcesthe child to think in more complicated ways than if they learningonly one language
• Other benefits of language acquisition is a greater sensitivity to language in general and greater awareness of meaning and structure in language.• Children receive more linguistic input, requiring a greater amount of language analysis. Cummins suggested that if L1 has not reached a certain competence, the child may develop “semi-linguistic” or “limited bilingualism”, a situation of lower competence in the various languages acquired, in comparison to monolingual children.
Dr. Janet Werner of the University of British Columbus carried out a phonological study because she considers that every aspect of language including sound system is essential for getting the full message from the speaker.In her study Dr. Werker proposed the following question : Can early bilingual achive native competence in phonetic perception in both languages or is there language dominance even in infance?
- To address this question she used a prior research conducted by Dr. tracey Burns. In this research a bilingual mother was exposed to 2 languages prenatally over five year period.. - After that period, she concluded that both languages are equally dominant at birht in the infants. Newborn of bilingual mother keep both familiar language active
Childhood bilingualismFamilies’ definitionHaving a language planRaising bilingual children
Types of childhood bilingualism Simultaneous learning of two languages. The parents ability parents use of language with the child other family members’ language (s) the language the child uses in the community Sequential or successive bilingualism.
Simultaneous learning of two languages.Strategies:• One parent, one language.• Both parents speak one language in the home and a second language is used at school.
Simultaneous learning of two languages.Strategies: One language is used in the home and at school and the second language is used in the community. Both parents speak both languages to the child but separate the languages according to speaking situations or alternate days.
Parents’ planningConsistencyLanguages balanceRich languageexperiencesQuality of thelanguage interaction
Individual differencesStability and mobility.Relationships within the family affect bilingual languagedevelopment.Attitudes toward each language
AdvantagesChilds self identitySelf-esteemSchooling optionsSocio-Cultural :visual-social abilities,interpersonal skills, Social sensitivity
Conclusion:• Research into bilingualism is crucial today. Although it plays out differently in other parts of the world, research on bilingualism does serve to elucidate an understanding of the human mind and an understanding of social possibilities of other cultures, and how these can be used to educate children to prepare them to be citizens of the world.
BibliographyDr. Fred H. Genesee. Early childhood bilingualism: Perils and possibilitiesVol. 2, Special Issue, Article 2, April 2009Journal of Applied Research on Learning 1Rose Li and Associates, Inc.January 2005. Childhood BilingualismCurrent Status and Future Directions 2004Workshop Summary.Marsha Rosenberg. “Raising Bilingual Children”.Reprinted from: The Ambassador, The American School in Japan Alumni & Community Magazine. Spring 1996The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. II, No. 6, June 1996 ARTICLE TAKEN FROM: The Internet TESL Journal http://iteslj.org/Link: http://iteslj.org/Articles/Rosenberg-Bilingual.html