ETRUSCANS (800 AND400 B.C.E.)Greatly influenced the Romans.
THE ETRUSCANS (800 AND 400B.C.E.) “ The Etruscans, as everyone knows, were the people who occupied the middle of Italy in early Roman days, and whom the Romans, in their usual neighborly fashion, wiped out entirely.” DH Lawrence
Etruscans (800 and 4003 B.C.E.) Asia Minor (Turkey) and then settled in Etruria. They were the first civilized people to settle in Italy.
Economics: farmers and metal workers (bronze, iron and precious metals), sailors and merchants iron ore deposits "The Orator" - A second century BCE life- size representation of Aulus Metellus, magistrate and Master of the Etruscan
Women equal to Men Social: liberated women Legal status Literacy Owned property
Etruscan society Consisted of wealthy overlords who made slaves of conquered people Aristocratic priests who sacrificed prisoners of war
TRADE Boats - Sea Trade Treaty with Carthage is only surviving treaty, but likely one of many. Storage
ETRUSCAN LIFE Religion Polytheistic beliefs and ritualistic practices Belief in predestination “divine will.”
ETR U S CAN LI F E written language (non Indo- european) funerary inscriptions in tombs or identification of ownership.
Lemnos Stele The inscription on the Lemnos Stele, 600 BCE language similar to Etruscan The Etruscans adopted the Greek alphabet.
U R BAN I ZAT I O N Engineering, underground water pipes, pressure boxes, floor heating introduced the construction of arch to Italy The Etruscans built Romes first drainage
Water Control, created clean water hydraulics controlled floods and helped agriculture prosper Statuette of a Ploughman from Arezzo, 4th B.C
U R BAN I ZAT I O N Use of Local Geology- Etruscans utilized the tufa layer of volcanic rock for both drainage and construction.Etrusco-latin cuniculus on the outskirts of
Etruscan Art14 A large proportion of Etruscan art did not survive Roman destruction of Etruscan Art
ETR U S CAN ART First true masters of bronze works Praised by Greek and Roman writers, techniques adopted.http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0023712.html
ETR U S CAN ART Bronzes The Chimera of ArezzoCapitoline She-wolf5th century B.C.E. Bronze. Roma,Musei Capitolini Head of young Man Cervereri, 3rd Cent BCE
ETR U S CAN ART Sculpture Sarcophagus adornment Terracotta sculptures of gods decorated temple roofs Archaic SmileEtruscan Terra Cotta Sarcophagus 520 BCE, Italian peninsula
Apulu (Apollo), ca. 510–500B.C. Painted terracotta , Etruscan Characteristics? Expressive face Gesticulating Energetic Swelling Contours Placed on the peaks of the roof of a temple.
Apulu (Apollo) Ca 510-500 BCE Painted terracotta 5’11” high Kroisis, 530 BCE GreekHow is it similar or different from Greek statuary?
antefix from the temple of Juno Sospita, Lanuvium (6th - 5th Century BCE)
21 Statuette of Haruspex, 4th B.C..
22 Warrior with Villanovan Helmet, 700 B.C. Statuettes from Brolio, 590 B.C. Statuettes of Spear-Throwers, . 5th B.C.
23 Statuette of a Woman, 2nd B.C.
ETR U S CAN ART Frescoes, Decorated walls of tombs. Most of the knowledge of the Etruscans have been found in their burial Fishing Scene, chambers. Tomb of Hunting & Fishing, Tarquiniafresco from Tarquinia, Italy. Thisfresco was found on the wall of atomb and dates from c. 465 BC.
Frescoes enjoyed sports, religious ceremonies, music and feasts.
Etruscan Tomb paintingscommonly portrayedMen and women beingentertained.
ETR U S CAN ART Pottery Geometric c.1000 to 700 B.C.E. Orientalization Phase ca. 700 B.C.E. Black and Red Figure Ca. 630-540 B.C.E Bucchero 7th and early 5th century B.C.E.
29 pottery Etruscan - Corinthian Amphora, Decorated With Friezes of Animals by the so-called Painter of the Bearded Sphynx, 7th B.C. Amphora, 600 B.C.
30 Etruscan Kalpis, 6th B.C.
31 Hydria with Europa Riding the Amphora by the so-called Paris Painter, Bull, 6th B.C. 6th B.C
32 Etruscan Bell-Shaped Cup from Spina, 4th B.C. Hydria from Cerveteri, 550-525 B.C.
33 Askos, 4th B.C. Crater by the so-called Painter of Dawn (from Falerii), 375-350 B.C. .
34 The Charinos Female Head-Shaped Rhython, 490 B.C.
35 Canopic Urn, Impasto, 7th B.C. Front view. Canopic Urn, Impasto, 7th B.C. Side view. Head from a Canopic Urn, Terracotta, 6th B.C.
PERFUME BOTTLES IN THE FORM OF ANIMALS 7th - 4th B.C.37
ETR U S CAN ART Jewelry Influences: Greek, Orient, Celtic Amulets, necklaces, mirrors, fibulas
*Fibula withOrientalizing Lions,Gold ; Regolini-GalassiTomb 650-640 BCE Lions from the Orient. Repousse Granulation Ostentatious display of newly acquired wealth
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*Archaic Temple Model 6th Cent BCE as described by Vitruvius How similar to or Materials different from Greek Wood, brick, Temple? terra cotta Single staircase 3 cellas Frontal, not Statues on roof sculptural High podium Tuscan columns
Etruscan Architecture Walls with protective gates and towers surrounded the cities Arcuated Gateway: Anticipates the Roman use of the round arch
Anatomy of the Arch
Porta Marzia, Gate of Mars,Perugia, Italy, c. 100 BCE Pilasters: engaged rectangular columns “triumphal arch”
THE AFTERLIFETomb sitesare most ofthearcheologicalevidence ofthe culture Caere or Cerveteri
60 Sarcophagus of a Couple, 6th B.C. The Girl from Monte Abatone, 6th B.C. (Detail)
61 Banqueter and Vanth, Limestone Cinerary Urn, 400 B.C.
62 Mother and Child from Chianciano, Limestone Cinerary Urn, 400 B.C.
63 Etruscan, early 4th century BCE, Reclining Youth, Cinerary Urn, bronze, length of base 69 cm, height of figure 42 cm, State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. See cinerary urn.
64 Sarcophagus of Larthia Seianti from Chiuisi, 2nd B.C .
Death Leaning into the Face of an Old Man, 2nd B.C.65 Votive Statuette of Dionysos Enthroned, 2nd B.C. Votive Figures of Swaddled Babies with Bullae, 4th-1st B.C.
Etruscan, Lions Head, firsthalf of the 5th centuryBCE, bronze, height 26cm, State HermitageMuseum, St. Petersburg,Russia. CLASSICAL ETRUSCAN Mythical Animals
The Kings twin grandsons Romulus and Remus were placed next to the River Tiber and left to die. a she-wolf found them and took care of themRomulus and Remus, added in the 15thcentury, probably by Antonio Pollaiuolo. She-Wolf, 5th B.C
Chimera of Arezzo, 325 BCE, 2’ 7 1/2 “bronze, Greek monster Lions head and body, serpents tail, goats head Wounded by Greek hero Bellerophon
70 Mars of Todi, 4th B.C. Statuette of a Striding Hoplite, 450 B.C. .
(ARRINGATORE,ORATOR) BRONZE 5’7”HIGH1ST CENT BCE (DURINGROMAN DOMINATION)Etruscan art became RomanartResembles Romanportraits, toga and bootsof a Roman magistrate
The Founding of Rome and theMonarchy The Etruscans went on to lay the foundation of the city of Rome The Romans adopted almost all of their superior warfare techniques including weapons and armor designs from the Etruscans, using the same techniques to conquer them in the fourth century B.C.E. Bust of Brutus, 300 B.C.
The End.73 Head of a Man from the Votive Deposit of Manganello, Cerveteri, 100 B.C.
75 Sarcophagus of the Married Couple from The Bandataccia Necropolis, Cerveteri, 6th B.C. (Detail)
76 Boy Playing with a Bird, 2nd B.C.
77 Chimera of Arezzo, 4th B.C.
78 Sarcophagus of Velthur Partunus, So- called Magnate, Painted Marble and Limestone, 4th B.C.
79 Goat, 5th B.C.
80 Cinerary Urn of a Woman, Alabaster, 2nd B.C.
81 Statue of a Young Girl, 1st A.D.
82 Funerary Stele from Bologna, Sandstone, 350 B.C.
83 Cinerary Urn of a Woman, Alabaster, 2nd B.C.
Relief Urn from Chiusi, 520-50084 B.C. Relief Base of Cippus from Chiusi, with Scene of Women at Home, 475 B.C
85 Cenatur from Vulci, Nenfro, 550 B.C.
86 Statue of a Boy on a Hippocamp from Vulci, Nenfro, 520 B.C. .
87 Sarcophagus of Larthia Seianti from Chiuisi, 2nd B.C
Rome88 The Etruscans went on to lay the foundation of the city of Rome
89 She-Wolf, 5th B.C. Romulus and Remus, added in the 15th century, probably by Antonio Pollaiuolo.
Etruscans responsible for the civilization and foundation of the city of Rome and many other Mediterranean cities. Contributed engineering, technology, and pottery techniques to entire Mediterranean. Learn about them through the impact they had on other societies.“Nearly the whole of Italy was once under Etruscan Rule.” - Cato 2nd Century BCE
91 Etruscan, Lions Head, first half of the 5th century BCE, bronze, height 26 cm, State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.
From their beginnings in the area that is now Tuscany, these Etruscans had deep rooted influences which survive to this day. Although the Etruscan language is by no means totally decoded, we now know enough to see that many words of Etruscan origin found themselves into Latin and from there into English. For an unknown language, many Etruscan words look very familiar.
Etruscan: (800 and 400B.C.E.)
Capitoline Wolf Rome Italy 500-480 BCE(Remus and Romulus added during the Renaissance by Pollaiuolo) 2’71/2” high, hollow cast bronze Famous symbol of Rome Boys were sons of Mars and mortal woman Abandoned Later founded the city of Rome in 753 Vitality- ferocious wolf contrast with motherhood
predestination95 Although a postponement is sometimes possible by means of prayer and sacrifice, the end is certain.
Etruscan religion96 the destiny of man was completely determined by the unpredictability of the many deities
AR C HITE CTU RE“ Etruscan architecture looked quite different from the familiar stone temples and gleaming marble statuary of Greek architecture.