thought to protect the body form decay and assist in achieving immortality.
Prancing horse, eastern Han dynasty second century c.e., bronze
Descendants of celestial horses.
. Buckle ornament with dances, western Han dynasty 206-8 c.e. bronze
Seated Buddha , Stone carving, 45’ tall, 460 CE. China Shows Indian/Central Asian Buddhist iconography with large shoulders + slender body, lotus position, long ears, ushnishu, and peaceful smile.
Pagodas developed from Buddhist stupas; the design was brought from India via the Silk Road
Built for sacred purpose
Great Wild Goose Pagoda Ci’en Temple, Xi’an Tang dynasty, 645 CE About 210’ tall
Forbidden City - Beijing, China, Ming Dynasty (14th century), Hall of Supreme Harmony. Balance & symmetry, tradition Courtyard style emphasizing empty space with crowded spaces. Reflects Confucianism.
Forbidden City - Yellow roof tiles reserved for royalty. Red also royal color. Dragon symbols appear. Rooftops supported by duogang, used for Imperial buildings . Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CE
courtyard style residence
larger scale in Forbidden City
Tang (618-907 C.E.) and Song (960-1279) Dynasty
Boasted a sophisticated urban culture with city population of one million.
Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians Tang Dynasty, 8th century CE Earthenware w/ 3 color glaze, 26” high Fascination w/Turkic cultures .. Shows Turkish musicans with Han Chinese Naturalism - new interest and trend in painting & sculpture
Standing Court Lady, Tang dynasty, mid-seventh century. Pottery with painted decoration, height 15 1/8 in.
Horse and Rider, Tang dynasty, early eighth century. Pottery with three-color glaze and painted decoration, height 15 in.
Marvels of calculated simplicity
The intellectual elite of Tang and Song China were deeply influenced by
Confucian traditions .
Ru ware, bowl in the shape of a lotus, Northern Song dynasty, twelfth century. Porcelain, height 4 in. National Palace Museum, Taiwan.
China, most revered of sculptured images
Beings who have postponed entrance into nirvana in order to assist others in attaining enlightenment
Guanyin, tenth to early twelfth century. Wood with painted decoration
Chinese calligraphy considered the highest art form.
Literati - Confucian scholars- practiced this art form
Portion of a letter by Wang Xizhi Six Dynasties period, mid 4th century CE Feng Ju style - ‘ walking” or semi cursive style fluid & graceful strokes, not too informal, but dynamic
A Solitary Temple Amid Clearing Peaks,
Northern Song Dynasty
Li Cheng (attrib.) (919-967), c. 940-967.
Hanging scroll, ink and slight color on silk,
ivory roller, 44 x 22".
The Tang and Song eras were a Golden Age of landscape painting.
Chinese landscapes offer a holistic and contemplative view of nature, A feature they share with Daoism and Buddhism.
Han Gan (618–906 ce), was known for portraying not only the physical likeness of a horse but also its spirit.
Landscape paintings highly prized in Chinese art.
Does not represent a particular forest, mountain, or view, but an artistic construct yielding a philosophical idea
Travelers Among Mountains and Streams,
Northern Song Dynasty, 11th century CE
Hanging scroll, ink & colors on silk, 6’9” high
Subtly graded ink tones
Northern Song painting
Dwelling in the Qinghian Mountains, 1617, ink on paper, Ming Dynasty Dong Qi Chang - famous literati painter, influenced by Daoism
Jar , Ming dynasty, China 15th Century, 19”high Xuande mark (1426 - 1435) Porcelain painted in underglaze blue
Buddha - Siddhartha Gautama
(Sanskrit “Enlighten One”)
560-480 or 440-360 B.C.E.
Devastated by his discovery of the three “truths” of existence- sickness, old age, and death.
Sitting beneath a bo (fig) tree, he finally arrived at the full perception of reality that became the basis of his teachings.
Four Noble Truths
One’s spiritual Journey must
lead to the awareness of
Four Noble Truths.
Pain is Universal
Desire causes pain
Ceasing to desire relieves pain
Right conduct provides escape from pain
Xie Huan, Literary Gathering in the Apricot Garden , detail. 1437. Handscroll, ink and colors on silk, 14 3/4 x 94 3/4 in. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644.
During the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) These scholar-gentleman played a major role in the administration of governmental affairs.
Buddhism travels to Japan…
Various forms of Buddhism became very popular in Japan, especially Zen Buddhism.
Japanese were influenced by Chinese ink scroll paintings
Buddhism came to Japan during early 6th century BCE, from Korea & China (Asuka Period). Adopted as state religion, yet existed side by side with Shinto, a nature based religion .
Monk Sewing , Kao Ninga – 14 th century
ordinary activities as a form of meditation. This cultural philosophy still exists. .
Innovative wood sculpture by Kosho shows practice of Pure Land Buddhist chanting. Monks traveled around Kuya Preaching, Kosho, 1207 monk traveling around chanting.. Tiny Buddhas coming out his mouth to represent the 6 syllables of the chang
Phoenix Hall , Kyoto prefecture, Heia period, 1053 CE, example of Pure Land Buddhist temple Chinese influence in roofs and stone base. Water is part of design.
Jocho, Amida Buddha, Phoenix Hall, c 1050 CE, gold leaf and laquer on wood 9’ tall .
The Birth of the Novel
8 th century
Murasaki Shikibu (978-1016)
The author of the world’s first novel, was one of a group of female writers.
The Tale of Genji (1000)
Niou serenades Nakanokimi (detail from the 12th century Genji Monogatari Emaki scroll).
Masanobu (?), Kabuki stage, ca. 1740. Colored woodblock print.
The oldest form of Japanese theater, No` drama
14 th century
performances in song, dance, and mime.
Ko-omote No mask, Ashikaga period, fifteenth century. Painted wood, height approx. 10 in.
16 th century emerges a new form of entertainment.
Kabuki, literally, “song-dance-art”
Fans, album leaves, and murals
Handscrolls on silk or cotton with dowels (meant to be unrolled and enjoyed, not hung on wall).. Read right to left.
Colophon - write comments or poetry
Hanging scrolls with main scene on front and title on top back
Same brushes used for painting & calligraphy
Aim of traditional painter was to capture not outer appearance but inner energy, and spirit. “DRAGON STEED”
Rejected color or too much background info
Pure line to define form, no opaque pigments “white painting ”
At 29 he renounced his wealth.
Abandoned his family and took up the quest for enlightenment.