High Classical Period Prominent feature: capture the “idea moment” before action Depiction of more vigorous action Dynamically posed of the figures (Discus Thrower) ( Zeus/ Poseidon)
Phidias, Man with Helmet
Belvedere Apollo (Roman copy) Vatican Museum- late fourth century B.C.E. Hellenistic Art
323 - 30 B.C.E
New emphasis on personal emotion &
Notable for its sensuous male/female
Apollo Belvedere, A landmark example
of the new sensuousness.
Laocoon and his sons c. 175-150 B.C.E. Vatican Museum
Hellenistic: Venus of Melos (Milo) c. 100 B.C.E.
Winged Victory , Pythocritos of Rhodes, Nike of Samothrace, ca. 190 b.c.e. Marble, height 8 ft..
Reconstruction - Nike of Samothrace
. A maenad leaning on a thyrsos, Roman copy of Greek original, ca. 420-410 b.c.e. Marble relief
Athena battling with Acyoneus, f rom the frieze of the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, ca. 180 b.c.e. Marble, height 7” 6’
. Suicidal Gaul 230-220 BCE Dying Gaul 230-220 BCE celebrate his victory over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia
Gold pendant disk
Gained international acclaim for their gold working
Gold in Greece Gold pendant disk with the head of Athena (one of a pair), from Kul Oba, ca. 400-350 b.c.e. Height
Ancient Greek Jewelry, 300 BCE
An ancient Greek art necklace with rams head gold decoration
Classical style in Music and Dance
Music played a major role in Greek life
Epictetus, cup detail, ca. 510 b.c.e., terracotta, 13” The graceful solo dance by a cult follower of Dionysus is accompanied by the music of a double autos (a set of reed pipes) held in place by leather straps.
Classical style in Music and Dance
Dance was prized for its moral value
Induces good health
. The Berlin painter, red-figure amphora, ca. 490 B.C.E. Terra-cotta,
Classical style in Poetry
Pindar (ca. 522-438 b.c.e.)
Odes (seems to love Wrestling)
Make the claim that prowess, not chance, leads to victory, which in turn renders the victor immortal.
Sappho ca. 610-580 B.C.E. (The female Homer)
Great Greek lyrists
One of a few known female poets of the ancient world.
Settled on The island of Lesbos, where she led a group of young women dedicated to the cult of Aphrodite.
Explain the conflict between the individual and the community in Sophocles’ Antigone .
Whom do you consider the “tragic figure” in Sophocles’ Antigone: Antigone or Creon? Why?
Parthenon replica - Nashville I Greek Architecture: The Parthenon (448 to 432 B.C.E.)
Landmark architectural achievement
of Golden Age Athens
Temple dedicated to Athena (the goddess of war and of wisdom, and the patron of the arts and crafts.
Commissioned by Pericles
Parthenon Romans innovated the use of which building material, which made large-scale architectural constructions much cheaper to build? Romans innovated the use of which building material, which made large-scale architectural constructions much cheaper to build?
he created an empire that stretched Greece to borders of modern India.
A Promising Future King
10 years old: Legend of Bucephalus
13 years old: Tutored by Aristotle
Fell in love with Greek culture
16 years old: Regent of kingdom when Philip was away
Crushed revolts, saved father’s life
Even though he was young, Alexander was destined to be an incredible leader.
The Invasion of Persia
Probably not an attempt to conquer the whole Empire
Reliving father’s dreams
Found out that he was very good at warfare
Small, mobile cavalry units (250) formed main striking force Military features :
The Invasion of Persia Deeper Phalanx
The Invasion of Persia War Machines Siege towers, catapults used effectively for first time Could hurl huge arrows, boulders 180 meters
Four Battles Alexander conquered the world in four decisive battles, in less than 10 years
Granicus (334 BC)
Army of 35 000 invades Asia minor
at River Granicus
Persians make their first stand
Demolished by cavalry
Near-death experience for
2. Issus (333 BC)
Massive battle – Alexander faces King Darius for 1 st time
Equal forces but cavalry defeats Persians again
Darius flees – Alexander realizes he can conquer whole empire
3. Gaugamela (331 BC)
Instead of chasing Darius, Alexander crushes Persian fleet
Phoenicia ,Damascus and
Darius tries to bribe Alexander
to stop, no deal
Final showdown at Gaugamela:
Alexander commands 45 000
against larger Persian army
Cavalry wins again, Darius flees, is
4. Hydspes (327BC)
Wanted to conquer India!
Greek army travels across Asia and fights
King Porus at Hydspes
Alexander’s superior strategy still
Wants to continue East, but men refuse – have already travelled over 17 000 km!
The End of Alexander Alexander’s conquests took a toll on him Died of Malaria at age 32
Incredible military genius
Never lost a battle
Huge cultural impact
Ensured Greek dominance by
spreading Greek culture all over world
Contributed to the Greek science, made Athens center of world
Aftermath After his death, the Empire quickly fell apart and was divided among three powerful generals: Egypt and fringe lands went to Ptolemy Asia Minor and old Persian Empire went to Seleucus Macedon and Greece went to Antigonus