By contrast with the Minoans, the Mycenaeans were a militant and aggressive people .
Mycenaean Civilization (ca. 1600-1200 B.C.E)
Mycenae Lion Gate c. 1350-1200 B.C.E., constructed heavily fortified citadels and walls so Massive that later generations thought they had been built by a mythical race of giants known as the Cycops. I
Upper left - pre-linear A script from Crete - hierogliphic Upper right - Linear A (untranslated) - Lower - Linear B Script, the Mycenaean language -
Linear B Script
Linear B Script is the first phonetic script in Europe
Based on syllables; each symbol represents a syllable rather than a speech sound
Vowel is the peak of a syllable
The palace at Mycenae
Reconstruction of the large megaron at Pylos.
Mycenaean Civilization: Burial of rulers in giant beehive-shaped tombs.
Grave Circle A at Mycenae aerial view
Mycenaean , "Agamemnon" Mask, Tomb V, 16 B.C.E. I
Edward Dowdell, 1834 drawing o f the interior of what Schliemann called the Treasury of Atreus, after a king mentioned by Homer in The Iliad
. the entrance to the tomb of Atreus
Was there a Trojan War?
Always be the best, my boy, the bravest, and hold your head up high above the others. Never disgrace the generations of your fathers. -- The Iliad. Hippolochus to his son Glaucus
7th century BC pottery depiction of the Trojan Horse
The city of Troy computer modeled reconstruction of Troy 6 Troy 7 walls - an archeologist's reconstruction
Mycenaean Civilization (1600-1200 BCE)
More of a militaristic peoples with warships vying for control of the Eastern Mediterranean
The Citadel of Mycenae includes heavily fortified walls expected of a militaristic society
Storage rooms ensure the population could hold out for weeks
Peasants and townspeople were accommodated during periods of siege.
The Heroic Age (ca. 1200-750 B.C.E)
A more powerful, iron-bearing tribes of Dorians, a Greek-speaking people from the north, destroyed Mycenaean civilization.
It took three hundred years before they were written down. The Iliad and Odyssey became the “ national” poems of ancient Greece. Achilles bandages the arm of his friend Patroclus. (Homer gets credit) The adventures of the Mycenaeans and the Trojan War Iliad and Odyssey
Patroclus - Achilles’ beloved friend, companion, and advisor.
Helen - Reputed to be the most beautiful woman in the ancient world, Helen left her husband, Menelaus, to run away with Paris.
Hector - mightiest Trojan warrior. Resents his brother Paris for bringing war upon their family and city.
Paris - Paris’s abduction of the beautiful Helen, wife of Menelaus, sparked the Trojan War. self-centered
Greek Mythology The Gods of Olympus The Olympians are a group gods who ruled after the overthrow of the Titans. All the Olympians are related in some way. They are named from their dwelling, Mount Olympus.
Mount Olympus ( Greek : Όλυμπος ; also transliterated as Ólympos , and on Greek maps, Óros Ólimbos ) is the highest mountain in Greece at 2,919 meters high (9,570 feet ). Mount Olympus & Litochoro Mitikas, the highest peak
Although Greek popular religion produced no sacred scriptures or doctrines, the oracle at Delphi became very famous throughout the region.
Oracle at Delphi
Delphi: Site of the Oracle
Founding Myth: A sanctuary for the Titan earth goddess Gaia
Sun God (Apollo) slays the Python, the dragon who guarded the gate
Founded the Temple of Apollo, henceforth the oracle of prophesy
This is where King Laius receives the prophecy that his son will kill him and marry his wife
Layout of Delphi, including the Temple of Apollo
Upper left: amphitheater
Center: Temple of Apollo (columned building)
Other sanctuaries are set aside for Dionysius, other gods and kings
For complete plan, see p. 139
Perseus Once there was a king named Acrisius, he had a beautiful daughter named Danae. The oracle of Apollo told Acrisius that Danae's son would one day kill him. Acrisius could not let that happen, so he locked Danae in a bronze tower so that she would never marry or have children. Perseus with Medusa's Head Benvenuto Cellini Bronze statue, 1545-54 Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence
She came into the world in the undesirable state of being female. As a result her Father had her carried into the woods and left exposed to die. Instead, she was raised during her childhood by a bear.
Oracle of Gaea then prophesied that Metis first child would be a girl but, her second child would be a boy that would overthrow Zeus as had happened to his father and grandfather.
Orpheus and Eurydice
Orpheus fell in love with Eurydice a woman of unique beauty; they got married and lived happily for many years. Hymen was called to bless the marriage and he predicted that their perfection was not meant to last for years.
Orpheus Son of God Apollo Orpheus Son of God Apollo
Zeus overthrew his Father Cronus and then drew lots with his brothers Poseidon and Hades. Zeus won the draw and became the supreme ruler of the gods. Zeus & Ganymedes Olympia Museum , Greece Zeus Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain Zeus (Dias)
Hera is Zeus wife and sister. She is the protector of marriage and takes special care of married women. Musee du Louvre, Paris, France Hera Hera & Zeus
Poseidon is the brother of Zeus. After the overthrow of their Father Cronus he drew lots with Zeus and Hades,(brothers), to share the power of the world. His prize was to become lord of the sea . N ational Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece Sculpture Copenhagen Port Poseidon – Milos
Athena is the daughter of Zeus. She is fierce and brave in battle but only fights to protect the state and home from outside enemies. She is the goddess of the city, handicrafts, and agriculture Varvakeion Athena Parthenos , National Archaelogical Museum, Athens, Greece Athena
Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto. His twin sister is Artemis. He is the god of music, playing a golden lyre, of light and truth, who can not tell a lie. Temple of Apollo at Delphi Fokidos, Greece Apollo - west pediment of Zeus‘ temple at Olympia , Greece, British Museum, London, UK
Artemis i s the daughter of Zeus and Leto. Her twin brother is Apollo. She is the lady of the wild things. She is the huntsman of the gods. She is the protector of the young. Musee Du Louvre, Paris , France Artemis – Face Artemis - Draw
Hermes is the son of Zeus and Maia. He is Zeus’s messenger. He is the fastest of the gods. He wears winged sandals, a winged hat, and carries a magic wand. Hermes of Praxitelis Archaeological Museum of Olympia, Greece Hermes of Lysippos Hermes - statue
Demeter is t he Greek earth goddess par excellence , who brings forth the fruits of the earth, particularly the various grains. Museo Pio-Clementino, Musei Vaticani, Vatican City , Italy Demeter,Persephone,Triptolemus Demeter
Ares is the son of Zeus and Hera. Both parents disliked him. He is the god of war and he is considered murderous and bloodstained ,but also a coward. Palazzo Altemps, Museo Romano Nazionale, Rome,Italy Head of Ares, copy ca. 150–160 CE, after a votive statue of Alcamenes in the temple of Ares in Athens
Aphrodite is the goddess of love, desire and beauty. In addition to her natural gifts she has a magical girdle that compels anyone she wishes to desire her. Aphrodite, Eros & Pan N ational Archaelogical Museum,Athens,Greece Aphrodite by Boticelli Aphrodite of Milos Musee du Louvre, Paris, France
Hephaestus is the son of Zeus and Hera. Sometimes H e is the god of fire and the forge. He is the patron god of both smiths and weavers. He is kind and peace loving. Hephaestus, God of fire and the forge Hephaestus - draw
Hestia is Zeus sister. She is a virgin goddess. She does not have a distinct personality. She plays no part in myths. Athenian red-figure clay vase 525-475 BC, Characterized as the most gentle, peace-loving, and charitable of the Olympian gods. Hestia, Goddess of hearth and home, remains guardian of the threshold of personal security and happiness. Hestia State Hermitage Museum, St.Petersburg,Russia
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia, which housed the magnificent gold and ivory statue of Zeus by Phidias , one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sounion, Attica, Greece. The temple is of Doric style and was built in the 5th Century B.C.E., supposedly on the location of an even older temple.
The Temple of Hepha i st o s in central ancient Athens-Greece , is the best-preserved ancient Greek temple in the world Temple of Apollo at Delphi Fokidos, Greece. Central among the number of imposing ruins that are interspersed on the Southern slopes of Parnassos mountain .
The Temple of Athena Nike ("Victorius Athena") in Athens, Greece, was the earliest Ionic building to be built on the Acropolis. The temple was begun around 427 B.C.E. and completed during the unrest of the Peloponnesian war . The temple of Hera , at Olympia, is one of the oldest monumental temples in Greece, protected by a powerful terrace wall .
The site of the temple of Artemis Agrotera (the Huntress) is one of the most important historical and archaeological sites that have survived in the center of Athens. The building of the Temple of Olympian Zeus actually began in the 6th Century by Peisistratos but work was stopped, and the temple was not finished until the Emperor Hadrian completed in 131 C.E., seven hundred years later .
The recently restored Temple of Demeter in Naxos, Greece . Until recently, the 6th-century BC Temple of Demeter was in a state of complete ruin. It had been partially dismantled in the 6th century AD to build a chapel on the site, and what was left was plundered repeatedly over the years. The Temple of Ares stood in the northern part of the Agora in Athens; originally built on another site around 440 B.C., it was moved to its present position in the Augustan period.
Samos - Temple of Hermes and Aphrodite was built in the beginning of the 7 th century . Temple of Aphrodite at Rhodes , Greece is situated opposite the Gate of Freedom; This temple was built in the beginning of the 3rd century B . C .E. , and is one of the few ancient remains to be found in the Old Town of Rhodes.
The Greek City-State and the Persian Wars
200 Independent Greek city-state
The early Greek city-states were forced to unite against the rising threat of the Persians.
The Greek City-State
Herodotus (ca. 485-425 b.c.e.)
World’s first documented historian
“ father of history”
travelogue of Egypt and Asia
History of the Persians Wars
The Persian war
The Persian war began after the Persians conquered the lands of Lydia on the coasts of Asia Minor.
Battle of Marathon
In 490 BCE - Athenians vs. Persians at Marathon.
The Athenians were outnumbered.
The Greek League was the alliance of the Greek city-states led by Athens, Corinth, and Sparta.
The Persian War -
three key battles after Marathon.
This is the most well known battle during the Persian War.
300 Spartans sacrificed themselves
These brave men could have held out longer if not for the betrayal of Ephialtes.
military formation the Hoplite
This was the defining battle that delivered the crippling blow to the Persians. The Greeks lured the Persian navy to the island of Salamis.
Citizens rich with sliver
final battle of the war.
479 B.C.E. the remaining Persian army was defeated
The victory for the Greeks set their tone of superiority in the world, especially the Athenians.
The Greeks had excessive pride or “hubris” after winning battles. Athens establishes an empire.
The Spartan family
The word "spartan" has come down to us to describe self-denial and simplicity.
The boy who followed the Spartan code . Spartan children were taught stories of courage and fortitude .
Citizens of Athens included only landed males over the age of eighteen
citizens owned at least one slave.
Slavery was common practice
They worked not only as domestic servants, but as factory workers, shopkeepers, mineworkers, farm workers and as ship's crewmembers.
Slavery in Ancient Greece Funerary stele of Mnesarete ; a young servant (left) is facing her dead mistress.  Attica , circa 380 BC.
Athens and the Greek Golden Age
Pericles’ glorification of Athens
(ca. 495-429 b.c.e.)
a leading statesman and proponent of Athenian democracy who dominated the city-states politics for over thirty years.
Pericles' Funeral Oration , given at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War (431 - 404 BC) as a part of the annual public Funeral for the war dead.
Pericles' Funeral Oration
“ principles of action” “the school of Hellas”
The greatness of Athens lies not merely in its military might and in the superiority of its political institutions, but in the quality of its citizens, their nobility of spirit, and their love of beauty and wisdom .
The most famous woman of Ancient Athens
Her influence was so great that Plato later joked that she had written Pericles' most famous speech, The Funeral Oration
The Greek Golden Age was one of the most creative in the history of the world.
Myron Discobolus ca. 450 B.C.E. The Olympic Games ( 776 B.C.E .)
All city-states of Greece participated
Honor Greek Gods
Midsummer every four years
Winners received garlands of
wild olive, or laurel leaves, olive oil
and the acclaim of Greek painters and poets
Where did the name Marathon
The Ancient Greeks marked time using a four-year measurement called the Olympiad.
(Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes)
Greek Drama: Overview
Characters were all played by men.
The structure comprised a stage, rather small, and the seating for the audience, which were levels of stair-like seats
The chorus played an important role of informing the sequence of events.
Athens and the Greek Golden Age
The individual and the community
Antigone (an-tig'-uh-nee}, the devoted daughter of Oedipus, king of Thebes in Greek legend.
. William Henry Rinehart Antigone Pouring a Libation Over the Corpse of her Brother Polynices , M arble, 1867-1870
After his death, attempted to reunite her quarreling brothers. Both brothers were killed, but her uncle, King Creon, forbade the burial.
When Antigone secretly buried her brother, she was walled up alive in a tomb.
His son Haemon, to whom Antigone is betrothed, pleads in vain for her life and threatens to die with her.
But he is too late: he finds lying side by side Antigone and Haemon
The Queen stabbed herself in the heart.
pottery depicting drama
Sappho ca. 610-580 B.C.E. (The female Homer)
Great Greek lyrists
One of a few known female poets of the ancient world.
Settled on The island of Lesbos, where she led a group of young women dedicated to the cult of Aphrodite.
Sappho’s He is more than a hero
He is more than a hero he is a god in my eyes-- the man who is allowed to sit beside you -- he who listens intimately to the sweet murmur of your voice, the enticing laughter that makes my own heart beat fast. If I meet you suddenly, I can'
speak -- my tongue is broken; a thin flame runs under my skin; seeing nothing, hearing only my own ears drumming, I drip with sweat; trembling shakes my body and I turn paler than dry grass. At such times death isn't far from me
Greek Philosophy: The Speculative Leap
Naturalist philosophy: pre-Socratics
The Greek physician “Hippocrates” remembered as the father of medicine.
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Thales of Miletus
624 BC - 547 BC
Produces an accurate theory of the solar eclipse he also advance the study of deceptive geometry.
instructed his students to question any and all mathematical problems.
Heraclitus (ca.500 BCE)
Heraclitus is the first Western philosopher to go beyond physical theory in search of metaphysical foundations and moral applications.
Leucippus (5th C. BCE)
Leucippus was the founder of Atomism.
Leucippus was the first philosopher to affirm the existence of empty space. The Pythagorean void had been more or less identified with ‘air’, but the void of Leucippus was really a vacuum.
Democritus (460—370 BCE)
Gave public lectures
acquainted with the virtues of herbs, plants, and stones
spent his life in making experiments upon natural bodies.
Pythagoras (c.570—c.495 BCE)
Argues for a spherical earth around which five planets revolve
the “Pythagorean Theorem”
If the triangle had a right angle (90°) ... ... and you made a square on each of the three sides, then ... ... the biggest square had the exact same area as the other two squares put together!
Hippocrates (c.450—c.380 BCE)
“ the Father of Medicine”
Investigated the influences of diets and environment on general health
Agnodice, first female doctor and gynecologist
Athenian high society
laws that banned women from studying.
she cut her hair and dressed like a man
attended classes of famous physician Herophilus.
The growing demand for education in 5th century BCE. Greece called into existence a class of teachers known as sophists.
Greek Philosophy: The Speculative Leap
In 300 BC, Socrates (470-399B.C.E.) engaged his learners by asking questions (now known as the Socratic or dialectic method).
He often insisted that he really knew nothing, but his questioning skills allowed others to learn by self-generated understanding.
He was sentenced to death by drinking hemlock, a poisonous herb . Jacques-Louis David’s , The Death of Socrates, 1787
Socrates and the quest for virtue
The dialogue takes place in Socrates' prison cell, where he awaits execution.
He is visited before dawn by his old friend Crito, who has made arrangements to smuggle Socrates out of prison to the safety of exile.
He founded the first school of philosophy, the Academy.
two dozen treaties most of which were cast in the dialogue of Socrates.
Plato is one of the world’s best known and most widely read and studied philosophers. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle.
Plato (ca. 428 – 347b.c.e.)
The Theory of Forms
Every discussion of a general issue turns ultimately upon one or more general notions or ideas.
The just society ( Republic )
The major intent of the debate in the Republic is to determine an extended definition of what constitutes Justice
Plato’s student from Macedonian, whose contributions rivaled his teacher.
Aristotle was the greatest scientist of the ancient world.
Father of the Natural Sciences
Taught Alexander the Great
Aristotle on tragedy (384-322 b.c.e.)
In the Poetics, the world’s first treatise on literary criticism.
Aristotle (384-322 b.c.e.)
In his Ethics , Aristotle argued that the good life was identical to the life of reason, and would be guided by the Golden Mean.
What is the Golden Mean?
Theory of the Good Life and the Nature of Happiness.
Ideal conduct is the middle ground between any two extremes of behavior.
Ethics required individuals to reason their way to ethical conduct.
Aristotle’s The Golden Mean
The First Hospital
There was nothing like a hospital until the cult of Asclepius and the Temples of Healing.
votive tablet from the Temple of Asclepius at Athens, depicting a case of scalpels and cupping instruments
Achilles’ wrath at Agamemnon for taking his war prize, the maiden Briseis, forms the main subject of The Iliad .
Achilles - greatest hero. Proud and headstrong.
The Iliad (Homer)
Describe the charter Achilles in the epic poem The Iliad .
Compare the story’s focus on war to that of Greek Society.
Why do you think the Iliad became the “national” poems of ancient Greece?
Anaximander (c.610—546 BCE)
Anaximander was the author of the first surviving lines of Western philosophy. He speculated and argued about “the Boundless” as the origin of all that is. He also worked on the fields of what we now call geography and biology. Moreover, Anaximander was the first speculative astronomer. He originated the world-picture of the open universe, which replaced the closed universe of the celestial vault.
Our western philosophical tradition began in ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE. The first philosophers are called “Presocratics” which designates that they came before Socrates. The Presocratics were from either the eastern or western regions of the Greek world. Athens — home of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle — is in the central Greek region and was late in joining the philosophical game. The Presocratic’s most distinguishing feature is emphasis on questions of physics; indeed, Aristotle refers to them as “Investigators of Nature”.
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae was an important Presocratic natural philosopher and scientist who lived and taught in Athens for approximately thirty years. He gained notoriety for his materialistic views, particularly his contention that the sun was a fiery rock.
The closing period of Greek philosophy is marked in the third century CE. by the establishment of Neoplatonism in Rome. Its founder was Plotinus of Lycopolis in Egypt (205-270) and its emphasis is a scientific philosophy of religion, in which the doctrine of Plato is fused with the most important elements in the Aristotelian and Stoic systems and with Eastern speculations. At the summit of existences stands the One or the Good, as the source of all things. It emanates from itself, as if from the reflection of its own being, reason, wherein is contained the infinite store of ideas.
Construction of gigantic fortifications on the Greek mainland
War with Troy forms the setting for both the Iliad and the Odyssey
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Socrates and his Followers
A new period of philosophy opens with the Athenian Socrates (469-399 BCE). Like the Sophists, he rejected entirely the physical speculations in which his predecessors had indulged, and made the thoughts and opinions of people his starting-point; but whereas it was the thoughts of and opinions of the individual that the Sophists took for the standard, Socrates questioned people relentlessly about their beliefs.
Interior of a red-figured kylix (a Greek drinking cup),
Douris, ca. 480 b.c.e. Terracotta, height 4 3/8” , The scene recreates a moment of conversation between a teacher and a student, scholars interpret the painting to depict an older man propositioning a younger one. The artist , Douris, is said to have ornamented some 10,000 pieces of pottery in the course of his career.
Eris, the Goddess of Discord, throws an apple with the inscription “To The Fairest” in a crowd at a wedding.
Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom, Hera, the wife of Zeus, and Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love, Sex, Beauty, and Fertility, vie for the apple
They agree to allow Paris, a moral (and Trojan) to make the judgment.
Athena promises victory against the Greeks; Hera promises dominion over the known world;
Aphrodite promises him the love of a beautiful women
Choices Have Consequences: The Trojan War
Paris gives the golden apple to Aphrodite
The spurned goddesses, Hera and Athena, conspire with other deities for revenge.
Paris kidnaps Helen.
(Daughter of Zeus and Leda)
Menaleus, King of Sparta and her husband, forms an alliance with other Achaeans (Greeks) to get his wife back
A ten-year war ensues
The Iliad: The Battle of Troy
Through an alliance of gods and mortals, war breaks out between the “Achaeans” and the Trojans of Troy, a commercial center in Asia Minor (now Turkey)
The Iliad is set in the last days of the Trojan war
The war end when the Trojan Horse, containing Achaean solders, taken to be a gift, is haled onto the fortress, and the Achaeans slaughter the Trojans in a ruse.
Iliad: Achilles as Central Character
The central figure of the Iliad is Achilles, a powerful warrior who at first refuses to join the Achaeans
He consents only after a close friend of his, Patroclus, is killed in battle by Hector, the chieftain of the Trojans
Though half-god, half man, he has a flaw: his heel which his mother Thetis held while dipping into the river Styx, which rendered him invulnerable:
Except for the heel, which any weapon could penetrate.
Note the penetration of the arrow in his heel.
Iliad: The Main Themes
The theme of Achilles that recurs in Greek thought:
Selfhood vs. community responsibility
We see it later in Socrates’s refusal to escape after being condemned to death
Heroic act to prove virtue or excellence ( arête has both connotations)
Both God and Man displays a range of human emotions: anger, love, grief (over loss of friend)
Odyssey: Frustrated Homecoming
Odysseus encounters obstacles—adventures—while trying to sail home to Ithaca after the war
On one occasion, he is within sight of Ithaca when a strong wind blows the ship out to open sea.
He has to navigate the ship between Scylla, a monster perched on a rock, and Charybdis, the monster lurking in a large whirlpool
Allows himself to listen to the Sirens, while tied to the mast and the men rowing with earplugs, so they can hear neither him, nor then; otherwise the ship would have been lost to the rocks
In the end, he does arrive home, and he slaughters the suitors trying to woo his wife Penelope because of his long absence.
The Assembly ( Ekklesia , ἐκκλησία ) was the regular gathering of male Athenian citizens (women also enjoyed a certain citizen status, but without political rights) to listen to, discuss, and vote on decrees that affected every aspect of Athenian life, both public and private, from financial matters to religious ones, from public festivals to war, from treaties with foreign powers to regulations governing ferry boats.
The Council of 500 represented the full-time government of Athens . It consisted of 500 citizens, 50 from each of the ten tribes, who served for one year. The Council could issue decrees on its own, regarding certain matters, but its main function was to prepare the agenda for meetings of the Assembly . The Council would meet to discuss and vote on “Preliminary decrees” ( probouleumata , προβουλεύματα ), and any of these that passed the Council ’s vote went on for discussion and voting in the Assembly .
Athenian Democracy: the People’s Court · Of almost equal importance to the Assembly and Council , and probably of greater importance (if not greater prestige) than the Areopagus was the People’s Court , the Heliaea and other courts where juries of citizens would listen to cases, would vote on the guilt or innocence of their fellow citizens, and vote on punishments for those found guilty.
Types of Greek Drama
Tragedy: A work with tragic consequences for the hero.
The hero is usually a noble, often one who has accomplished great things.
But he has some defect (see tragic flaw)
That brings him to ruin at last
Comedy: A work, usually with happy endings
Only later did it become identified with amusement
Often a work with realistic ends.
Hubris: Tragic Flaw
The hero is a noble
He is a man (almost always a man) of some accomplishment)
But he has some defect
That defect proves destructive to the hero.
Catharsis: the cleansing of the soul brought about by witnessing a demise
Socrates and the quest for virtue The nature of virtue
Athens’ premier philosopher and proponent of cross examination and inductive reasoning
Socrates maintains that most of his contemporary Greeks and Athenians have been led astray from the path of virtue exactly because they mistake false routines of pleasure for true arts of good.
making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics , politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre. He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. He was more empirically-minded than Plato or Socrates and is famous for rejecting Plato’s theory of forms.