Greek and romans chapter 2
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  • Successful elements of ancient Egyptian civilization . Egyptian civilization emerged along the banks of the Nile River in Africa. Describe what the Nile meant to the Egyptians not only in their religion but in their everyday lives. The nile river flooded and made the soil fertile, so the Egyptians could grow good crops. It also provided a source of transportation through the hot and dry desert and of course it provided water! It gave them plenty of fish Mud deposited from the nile was used to make bricks! The fish and water of the nile also attracted many birds that the egyptians hunted without the nile life in Egypt would have been almost impossible and because it gave water and nutrients to the plants and people it symbolized rebirth. I hope those little facts helped! Go ahead to the nile section of the site i've put in my "source" section, It's helpful! Source(s): http://www.carnegiemnh.org/exhibitions/e… (the Nile river sections)
  • Amon – Amun- Early, a god of air and wind. Later, a fertility god. The Creator of all things. During the New Kingdom he became "The king of the gods". He was said to be able to assume any form he wished, with each of the other gods being one of these forms. From the eighteenth dynasty on he was a national deity. Through political means managed to assimilate many lesser gods. Representation: A bearded Man wearing a cap surmounted by two tall plumes. A ram, a ram headed man, or a ram headed sphinx . Relations: Self created at the beginning of time. Believed to be the physical father of all Pharaohs. Worship of Aten, symbol of life force Worship of Osiris, symbol of rebirth
  • Both wear lavish crowns that symbolize authority over Upper and Lower Egypt. The cult of the sun dominated the religious history of ancient Egypt. Like other ancient deities, he was known by many names , each of which descried a different aspect of his power. Amon or Amon (giver of the breath of life), Atum ( the setting fun) Aten (the disk of the sun.
  • The transfer of power from the sun god to the pharaoh was frequently shown in Egyptian tombs and temples. In a carved relief from the White Chapel at Karnak, the Pharaoh Sesostris, wearing the combined crowns of Upper and lower Egypt, and holding the scepter and staff of authority, receives from Amon the symbol of life known as the ankh.
  • Ancient Egyptian identified the Nile with Osiris ruler of the underworld and god of the dead, According to Egyptian myth, Osiris was slain by his evil brother, Set who chopped his body into pieces and threw them into the Nile, But Osiris’s loyal wife Isis, Queen of Heaven, gathered the fragments and restored Osiris to life, the union of Isis and the resurrected Osiris produced a son, Horus, who ultimately avenged his father by over throwing Set and becoming ruler of Egypt. The Osiris myth vividly describes the idea of resurrection that was central to the ancient Egyptian belief system, Though the cult of the sun in his various aspects dominated the official religion of Egypt, local gods and goddesses - more than 2000 of them made up the Egyptian pantheon. These deities, most of whom held multiple powers, played protective roles in the daily lives of the ancient Egyptian. However, the following invocation to Isis, found inscribed on a sculpture of the goddess, suggests her central role among the female deities of Egypt.
  • Local rulers governed the Neolithic villages along the Nile until roughly 3150 b.c.e.
  • Local rulers governed the Neolithic villages along the Nile until roughly 3150 b.c.e., when they were united under the authority of Egypt’s first pharaoh, Narmer (also known as Menes) This important political event- the union of Upper and Lower Egypt – is commemorated on a 2 foot high slate object known as the Palette of Narmer.
  • p.47
  • Sphinx the recumbent creature that guards the entrance to the ceremonial complex at Gizeh.Theocratic – governed by god. Antiquity’s largest and earliest surviving colossal statue, bears the portrait was from the Old kingdom pharaoh Khafre and the body of a lion, king of the beasts. It is a hybrid symbol of superhuman power and authority. Throughout their long history, ancient Egyptians viewed the land as sacred, It was owned by the gods, ruled by the pharaohs, and farmed by the peasants with the assistance of the slaves, The fruits of each harvest were shared according to the needs of the community, This divinely sanctioned way of life, known as theocratic socialism, provided Egypt with an abundance of food and a surplus that encouraged wide spread trade, The land itself, however, passed from generation to generation not through the male but through the female line, that in from the king’s daughter to the man she married, For the pharaoh's son to come the thrown he had to marry his sister or half sister.
  • The pharaoh and the sun-god generally viewed as having shared aspects. Egyptions viewed the land as sacred . It was owned by the gods ruled by the pharaohs and farmed by the peasants with assistance of slaves. the fruit of the harvest was shared.In this freestanding sculpture of the Old Kingdom pharaoh Mycerinus. the queen stands proudly at his side, one arm around his waist and the other gently touching his arm. A sense of shared purpose is conveyed by their lifted chins and confident demeanor.
  • On his death, the pharaoh could join with the sun god to govern Egypt eternally. Burial practices based on stringent belief in reincarnation. Ancient Egyptians venerated the pharaoh as the living representative of the sun god. They believed that on his death, the pharaoh could join with the sun to govern Egypt eternally. His body was prepared for burial by means of a special, 10 week embalming procedure that involved removing all of his internal organs ( with the exception of his heart) and filling his body cavity with preservatives. His intestines, stomach, lungs, and liver were all embalmed separately-the brain was removed and discarded. The king’s corpse was then wrapped in fine linen and placed in an elaborately ornamented coffin which was floated down the Nile Delta.
  • The enthroned Osiris, god of the underworld (far right) and his wife Isis (far left) oversee the ceremony in which the heart of the deceased Princess Entiu-ny is weighed against the figure of Truth. If the heart is not found true “by trial of the great balance”, it will be devoured by the monster Ament, thus meeting a second death. If pure it might sail with the sun up and down the river. (Anubus)
  • An image of the heavenly domain that the pharaoh can expect when he dies is depicted on the walls of bordered by beneficent gods (top) and flourishing fruit trees (bottom) Here death is a continuation of daily life in a realm that floats eternally on the primordial waters – indicated by the jagged blue lines that frame the registers.
  • Inside the pyramid’s are hieroglyphs formed an essential component of pictorial illustration, narrating the achievements of Egypt’s rulers, listing the grave goods and offering perpetual prayers for the deceased. Carved and painted figures representing important royal officials, such as administrators and scribes, accompanied the pharaoh to the afterlife.
  • The name King Tut has instant recognition in today's world, however, prior to the discovery of his tomb in 1922 people were unfamiliar with this pharaoh. In fact, his name had been omitted from all of the lists of rulers the ancient Egyptians compiled. King Tut was born 1341 BC during the Amarna Age, a time when the pharaoh Akhenaten, his probable father, had introduced quasi-monotheistic beliefs into ancient Egypt, replacing the traditional religion. Akhenaten had moved both the administrative capital (Memphis) and religious capital (Thebes) to Akhetaten (modern Tel el Amarna) in Middle Egypt, a site not previously associated with any other god. It is here that this young prince, named Tutankhaten - to honor Aten, the deity of his new religion - was born and spent his early childhood. The prince, however, ultimately did not maintain the religious movement his father introduced. He ascended the throne (around 1333 BCE), while still a child. Guided by two officials of the court, Tutankhamun restored the traditional gods and re-established Thebes as the religious capital and Memphis as the administrative centre. He also changed his name to Tutankhamun in order to direct attention to the restoration of the pantheon and the god Amun at its head. King Tut reigned for only about nine years, as he died in his late teens, but he has become famous the world over because his tomb was uncovered in almost perfect condition.
  • Thieves invaded Tutankhamun's tomb fairly soon after his burial. The thieves were caught in the act and official inspectors reorganised the contents and resealed the tomb. Several generations later, workmen constructing the nearby tomb of another pharaoh built their huts over the young king's place of burial, thus obscuring it. Later flooding in the area erased any evidence of its existence. Tutankhamun's tomb would remain hidden for more than 3,000 years. On November 4, 1922, workmen uncovered the top step of a staircase which archaeologist Howard Carter followed to discover eleven stairs and a sealed door. Stamped on the surface of the doorway was the Jackal-and-Nine-Captives seal of the official guards, but a royal name was not visible. He immediately sent a telegram to Lord Carnarvon in England advising him of a 'wonderful discovery', although he did not yet know quite how wonderful it would turn out to be.
  • It wasn't until Lord Carnarvon arrived and they entered the tomb that Carter realised the extent of his discovery. He recalls his first impression in his popular book, The Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen : 'As my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues and gold - everywhere the glint of gold...I was struck dumb with amazement, and when Lord Carnarvon, unable to stand the suspense any longer, inquired anxiously, "Can you see anything?" it was all I could do to get out the words, "Yes, wonderful things."'
  • In modern times, popular myths about pharaonic Egypt often focus on the use of curses, and the Curse of King Tut is among the most famous. This popular legend was born when Lord Carnarvon, the English Earl who funded the Tutankhamun expedition, died less than six months after the opening of the tomb. As news of Lord Carnarvon's death was reported around the world, stories of the curse began to surface almost immediately. It was reported that the tomb had contained an ancient Egyptian curse: "They who enter this sacred tomb shall swift be visited by the wings of death." Despite the fact that no such hieroglyphic text existed, the public seemed fascinated by such misinformation - they preferred the dramatic story of the curse reported in the newspapers, rather than listening to experts and scholars. At this point in time it was not easy for the media to receive direct information regarding what the excavators were doing in the tomb, as access was restricted to only a select few. Journalists therefore had limited resources for information and perhaps for this reason several stories were invented. In the beginning only the one death was attributed to the curse, but soon the fatality of anyone even remotely connected with the tomb was ascribed to the same cause. In fact, only six individuals directly associated with opening of the tomb had died after 10 years. Perhaps most important is that the discoverer of the tomb, Howard Carter lived more than 17 years after discovering the tomb and then died at the age of 64. It is true, however, that the ancient Egyptians did in fact engage in the use of various types of curses and threats. Some even were directed specifically against trespassers who attempted to violate the tomb - but the tomb of Tutankhamun did not possess such protection. Despite all this, the legend of the Curse of King Tut lives on...
  • Goddess Isis - Scarab Beetle (kheper) Appearance: The particular species of beetle represented in the numerous ancient Egyptian amulets and works of art was commonly the large sacred scarab ( Scarabaeus sacer ). This beetle was famous for his habit of rolling balls of dung along the ground and depositing them in its burrows. The female would lay her eggs in the ball of dung. When they hatched, the larvae would use the ball for food. When the dung was consumed the young beetles would emerge from the hole. Millions of amulets and stamp seals of stone or faience were fashioned in Egypt depicted the scarab beetle. Meaning: It seemed to the ancient Egyptians that the young scarab beetles emerged spontaneously from the burrow were they were born. Therefore they were worshipped as "Khepera", which means "he was came forth." This creative aspect of the scarab was associated with the creator god Atum . The ray-like antenna on the beetle's head and its practice of dung-rolling caused the beetle to also carry solar symbolism. The scarab-beetle god Khepera was believed to push the setting sun along the sky in the same manner as the bettle with his ball of dung. In many artifacts, the scarab is depicted pushing the sun along its course in the sky. During and following the New Kingdom, scarab amulets were often placed over the heart of the mummified deceased. These "heart scarabs" (such as the one pictured above) were meant to be weighed against the feather of truth during the final judgement. The amulets were often inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead which entreated the heart to, "do not stand as a witness against me.“ In the Book of the Dead , Isis is regarded as the giver of life and food to the dead. She may also be one of the judges of the dead. Another of her roles was to protect Imsety , one of the four sons of Horus , as he guarded over the liver of the deceased. Isis was a great magician and is famous for the use of her magical skills. For example, she created the first cobra and used it's venomous bite to coerce Re into revealing his secret name.
  • Elevated Aten (sun god) to position of supremacy over all other deities to suppress power of priesthood Centered a new city (Akhetaten) between existing political capitol at Memphis and religious center at Thebes, thereby redirecting influences of each
  • She is often pictured as Isis, the goddess from whom all Egyptian queens were said to have descended. Akhenaten’s chief wife, Queen Nefertiti, along with her mother-in-law, assisted in organizing the affairs of state.
  • The sun’s rays end in human figures and relaxed contours suggest a conscious departure from traditional modes of representation.
  • Since all property was inherited through the female line, Egyptian women seem to have enjoyed a large degree of economic independence, as well as civil rights and privilegesThe role of women – all property inherited through the female line of a family, offering large degrees of economic freedom; women could own and operate businesses
  • The most notable of all female pharaohs. She governed Egypt for 22 years. She is often pictured in male attire, wearing the royal wig and false beard, and carrying the crook and flail- traditional symbols of rulership. As pharaoh, Hatshepsut (reigned from c1479 - 1458 BCE)was different - she was a woman. Customarily Egyptian culture restricted kingship to men, but Hatshepsut's determination and cunning silenced her enemies and enhanced her reputation. Ancient Egyptian society gave women far more respect than most other societies of the time . But it was still extremely unusual for a woman to become pharaoh . A man's world Despite their relatively high status, many thought that it was fundamentally wrong for a woman to rule. So Hatshepsut had to spend her reign securing her position and fighting to be seen as a legitimate ruler. After the death of her father, Tuthmosis I, Hatshepsut became queen to Tuthmosis II, her half-brother. After he died, power passed to her stepson, Tuthmosis III , while he was still a small boy. A grab for power Hatshepsut became co-regent, ruling with others on behalf of her stepson until he grew up. This was standard practice, but Hatshepsut then surprised everyone by grabbing sole power for herself and declaring herself Pharaoh - just the third woman to be pharaoh in 3,000 years. At first, Hatshepsut's move was very unpopular. To persuade her people, Hatshepsut stressed her royal ancestry and claimed that her father had publicly appointed her as his successor. She also relied heavily on propaganda. On her temple walls she ordered carvings that told how the god Amen had taken on her father's appearance on the day she was conceived. This effectively made Hatshepsut the daughter of the chief of all Egyptian gods. Then Hatshepsut made sure that she was portrayed in pictures as a man, with a male body and even a false beard. Finally, she replaced her husband and father's old courtiers with new supporters, so if she went, they went too. Family problems Despite these efforts, Hatshepsut was still worried about her position. In particular, she had to deal with her army, which was led by her stepson (and rightful pharaoh), Tuthmosis. She had a dilemma: if she led them into battle and lost, she would be blamed and could lose power. If her army won the battle, Tuthmosis would get all the credit and she could lose power. Hatshepsut was nothing if not cunning, and she devised a win-win solution. She ordered the army to make itself useful, not by going into battle, but by setting off on a trading expedition to the land of Punt, where no Egyptian had been for more than 500 years. A cunning plan The expedition had a double advantage: it would keep her army busy so that Tuthmosis posed no danger to her. It also offered Hatshepsut the chance to bring back to Egypt a wide variety of valuable and exotic goods, such as ivory, leopard skins and incense. Click on the image for a gallery viewThe expedition was an enormous success and enhanced Hatshepsut's reputation. She became the ruler who had reached out to foreign countries and who had delivered to Egyptians marvelous wonders from far away. Erased from history After 22 years of reign, Hatshepsut died and her stepson, Tuthmosis III , finally gained the throne that had been rightfully his for decades. Tuthmosis resented his long wait for power and was determined to make Hatshepsut pay. He wanted to wipe her from history so that Egyptians would forget that she had ever ruled. In a massive operation, he ordered that her name and image be removed from every part of Egypt. He was so successful that Hatshepsut was totally erased from Egyptian history until 1903, when British archaeologist Howard Carter found her tomb and her story was rediscovered for the first time in 3,500 years.
  • Literature – no masterpieces of literature emerged from ancient Egypt, but many examples survive of written business records, lyric poetry, and works of advice
  • Figures are usually sized according to a strict hierarchy or graded order: upper-class individuals are shown larger that lower-class one.
  • Pylons – (two truncated pyramids that made up the gateway) symbolized the mountains that trimmed the edge of the world, while the progress from the open courtyard through the Hypostyle hall into the dark inner sanctuary housing the cult statue represented the voyage from light to darkness (and back) symbolic of the sun’s cyclical journey. Obelisks – (commemorative stone pillars). Such sacred precincts were not intended for communal assembly –in fact, commoners ere forbidden to enter. Temple rituals were celebrations of the solar cycle, associated not only with the birth of the sun god but with the regeneration of the ruler upon whom cosmic order depended.
  • Adorned with painted reliefs that cover the walls and the surfaces of its 134 massive columns shaped like budding and flowering papyrus Papyrus – these plants ere identified with the march of creation decorated with stars and other celestial images, the ceiling of the hall symbolized the heavens,
  • 9 th century Kush came to govern all of southern (Upper) Egypt . For at least a century, Nubian artists crafted objects of great technical sophistication. The Kushan king is shown kneeling, his palms facing each other, as if he is making an offering. He wears a crown of double serpents (unified kush and Egypt) , ornamented arm and wrist bands, and a necklace consisting of three ram’s head pendants (symbols of Amon) surmounted by a serpent crest and sun disk.
  • Found in 1931 near a farming village called Nok located along the Niger River in western Sudan. Western parts of the continent were not fully investigated by modern archaeologists until the mid 20 th century. They are the first evidence of a long tradition of naturalistic portraiture in African art, The Nok heads, many of which display clearly individualized personalities, probably represent tribal rulers for revered ancestors.

Greek and romans chapter 2 Greek and romans chapter 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 2 Africa: Gods, Rulers, and the Social Order (ca. 3100–330 B.C.E.)
  • Egypt
    • Nile River in Africa.
    • a uniform language, geographical isolation, a shared political and cultural life
  • The Gods of Ancient Egypt
    • Associated with the effects of the environment
    • Worship of Amon, the sun god and creator
      • Most powerful – but thousands of lesser deities existed
    • The rays of the sun god, Amon, shine down on Tutankhamen and his consort.
    Throne with Tutankhamen and Queen, detail of the back, late Marana period. New Kingdom, 18 th dynasty, ca. 1360 B.C.E. Wood plated with gold and silver, inlays of glass paste.
  • The god Amon, on the right, grants everlasting life to the Middle Kingdom pharoah Sesostris. Behind the pharaoh stands the protective falcon-headed god Horus. Amon recieves Sesostris (Senusret) I, pillar relief, White chapel, Karnak, ca. 1925 b.c.e.
    • Second only to the sun as the major natural force was the Nile River.
    • Isis - central role among the female deities
    Nile River and Isis
  • The Rulers of Ancient Egypt
    • Neolithic villages 3150 b.c.e.
    • Union of Upper and Lower Egypt by the first pharaoh, Narmer
    • Palette of King Narmer
    • Ca.3100 b.c.e., 25”
    ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • Theocratic socialism
    • The divine power flowed from the gods to their royal agents.
    • The Great Sphinx,Gizeh.
    • a hybrid symbol of superhuman power and authority.
  • Pharaoh Menkaure (Mycerinus) and his Queen Kha-merer-nebty II ca. 2599-1571 B.C.E.
    • freestanding sculpture of the Old Kingdom pharaoh Mycerinus with his queen stands proudly at his side
    • Pharaoh could join with the sun god to govern Egypt eternally.
    • reincarnation
    • Egyptian mummy and coffin, ca. 1000 b.c.e
    Egypt’s Cult of the Dead
  • Scene from a Funerary Papyrus, Book of the Dead
    • The Book of the Dead emerged as a lengthy guide for preparing oneself for physical death
      • a set of Egyptian funerary prayers.
      • A painted papyrus scroll brings to life the last judgment.
  • Illustration of Spell from the Book of the Dead burial chambers of Sennudjem, ca. 1279 b.c.e.
    • Egyptian pyramids function primarily as tombs.
    • The pyramids were built to assure the ruler’s comfort in the afterlife.
    Pyramids at Giza, Egypt, c. 2500-2475 B.C.E .
  • ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reconstruction of the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre at Gizeh. Ca. 2650-2600 b.c.e.
  • ©
    • The pyramids reached a zenith of organizational effort on behalf of the pharaoh’s comfort in the spirit world
  • ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    • The scribe was one of the highest officials in ancient Egypt. Trained in reading , writing, law, religion and mathematics.
    Seated scribe, Saqqara, 5 th dynasty, ca. 2400
  • King Tutankhamen Ca. 1345-1325 B.C.E. the tomb housed riches of astonishing variety, including the pharaoh’s solid gold coffin, inlaid with semi-precious carnelian and lapis lazuli Why was King Tut so famous?
  • Egyptian cover of the coffin of Tutankhamen (portion), from the Valley of the Kings, ca. 1360 B.C.E. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  • Canopic coffinette (coffin of Tutankhamon), c. 1327 B.C.E. Gold inlaid with enamel and semiprecious stones, 15 3/4" high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo
  • Presentation of Nubian tribute to Tutankhamon (restored), tomb chapel of Huy, Thebes, 18th Dynasty, c. 1336-1327 B.C.E. Wall painting, 6' x 17 1/4'.
  • King Tut’s pyramid
  • Akhenaten is associated with monotheism as a religious view.
    • Defied the tradition of polytheism by elevating Aten (God of the Sun Disk) to a position of supremacy over all other gods.
    • (Akhenaten about 1351-1334 BCE. Abraham lived 1812-1637 BCE)
    Statue of Akhenaten, from Karnak, Egypt, Amarna Period, 1353-1350 B.C.E. Sandstone, approx. 13" high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  • Queen Nefertiti, Egyptian
    • Akhenaten’s chief wife.
    • The mother of 6 daughters.
    Ca.1355 B.C.E. New Kingdom 18 th dynasty, painted limestone
    • Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti and daughters. Sitting beneath the sun disk Aten.
    • The social hierarchy – topped by the ruling dynasty supported by a priestly elite; multiple rungs in the social ladder and anyone could advance through education
    The Social Order
  • Egyptian Women
    • all property was inherited through the female line,
    • economic independence, civil rights and privileges.
  • Procession of female musicians with instruments, including a harp, double pipes, and a lyre, Tomb of Djeserkarasneb, Thebes, ca. 1580-1314 B.C.E. Music – many surviving instruments from tombs, and visual representations of musicians
  • Hatshepsut, ca. 1500-1447 B.C.E .
    • The most notable of all female pharaohs.
    • 22 years, royal wig and false beard, and the crook and flail.
    • traditional symbols
    • of rulership.
  • The Arts in Ancient Egypt
    • Literature – no masterpieces of literature emerged
      • The canon of proportion in painting
      • Spatial depth represented through conceptual stacking
    The visual arts .
  • Scene of Fowling, tomb of Neb-amon Egyptian art mirrors the deep sense of order and regularity that dominated ancient Egyptian life.
  • Temple architecture -Mirrored Egyptian view of the cosmos: pylons, hypostyles, and obelisks ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • Hypostyle hall, great temple of Amon – Ra, Karnak ca. 1220 b.c.e.
    • painted reliefs
    • 134 massive columns shaped like budding and flowering papyrus
  • ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • Northern Sudan
    • Nubia
    • 1550 b.c.e the powerful state of Kush in Nubia defeated the Egyptian army
    King Shabaqo from the area of the ancient Kush, ca. 8 th century b.c.e Solid cast bronze, 6”
    • These portrait like heads are the earliest known 3-dimentional artworks of sub-Saharan African.
    Africa : Western Sudan Head, Nok culture, ca. 500 B.C.E.-200 C.E. Terracotta, height 14-3/16 in. National Museum, Lagos/Bridgeman.
    • Egypt was conquered in 332 B.C.E. by Alexander the Great.
    ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • Egypt’s Cult of the Dead
    • The pharaoh and the sun-god generally viewed as having shared aspects
    • Burial practices based on stringent belief in reincarnation
    • The pyramids reached a zenith of organizational effort on behalf of the pharaoh’s comfort in the spirit world
    • The Book of the Dead emerged as a lengthy guide for preparing oneself for physical death
    The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • Akhenaten’s Reform
    • Elevated Aten (sun god) to position of supremacy over all other deities to suppress power of priesthood
    • Centered a new city (Akhetaten) between existing political capitol at Memphis and religious center at Thebes, thereby redirecting influences of each
    The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • ©2010, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.