Globalism <ul><li>The information Age </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 15 </li></ul><ul><li>The last chapter for Intro to Humanit...
Existentialism <ul><li>Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic premise: the idea that existence precedes esse...
The Cold War <ul><li>Berlin Wall – divided East and West Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Korean War (1905-1953)– divided North a...
MAYA LIN THE VIETNAM’S VETERANS MEMORIAL, (1982) <ul><li>Names of the 57,939 Americans who were killed in the Vietnam War....
End of Colonialism <ul><li>Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)  </li></ul><ul><li>–  Hindu, led India’s struggle for  </li></ul><u...
Racial Equality  <ul><li>Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant pastor and civil rights activ...
Art and  Society <ul><li>Art as a social tool used to help change society </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Political issues </...
Betye Saar <ul><li>Attack on the icons of commercial white culture </li></ul>Betye Saar (1926– ),  The Liberation of Aunt ...
Kara Walker <ul><li>Used a more subtle and complex approach to matters of race  </li></ul><ul><li>She suggests that libera...
Gender Equality <ul><li>Germaine Greer (1939-) The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and their work (1979)  </...
Cindy Sherman,  Untitled Film Still #35 , 1979, Black-and-white photograph Sherman plays different roles in her photograph...
<ul><li>Aware of the extent to which commercialism shapes identity, she creates photographs that deftly unite word and ima...
Barbara Kruger,  Untitled (I Shop Therefore I Am),  1987, Photographic silkscreen on vinyl Look of Advertising (Kruger wor...
BARBARA KRUGER ALL VIOLENCE IS THE ILLUSTRATION OF A PATHETIC STEREOTYPE, (1991)
JUDY CHICAGO <ul><li>A room-sized sculpture consisting of a triangular table with 39 place settings, each symbolizing a fa...
Sexual Identity <ul><li>Aids Memorial Quilt, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the movement for body-conscious politics an...
<ul><li>String Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brian Greene (b.1962) describes a multidimensional universe in which loops of ...
American Precursors to  ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM
<ul><li>In western art, for the first forty years of the 20 th  century, the further you were away from Paris, meant the f...
Thomas Hart Benton <ul><li>He considered himself to be a “Regionalist” artist. His work seems to be highly influenced by B...
<ul><li>Benton hated Avante Garde art.  He didn’t like anything that was going on in Europe and considered himself very co...
American   Social  Realism <ul><li>American Realism came from a backlash American Impressionism, many artist wanted their ...
Ash Can School Everett Shinn, The Fight Robert Henri, Snow in New York  George Bellows, Cliff Dwellers, 1913
John French Sloan &quot; Six o'clock, Winter &quot; 1912 The Ash Can argued that ‘life is beautiful, this is what life act...
Edward Hopper <ul><li>Hopper, a realist and another member of the Ash Can School is easily the most famous member to come ...
Nighthawks,1942 New York Movie  1939 Automat Hopper
 
What it is… <ul><li>Abstract Expressionism  is   a painting movement in which artists typically applied paint rapidly, and...
<ul><li>Made New York the center of the art world, and was often called the “New York School”. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract ...
<ul><li>European artists began moving to America during WW II.  </li></ul><ul><li>The main result of the new American fasc...
<ul><li>Arshile Gorky was the artist to put this movement into motion, because his  art ideals  were  obtained  from  Surr...
“ What was to go on the canvas was not a picture, but an event.”  Critic- Harold Rosenberg Hans Hoffman Rising Moon
European Influence <ul><li>European Surrealists obtained their notion of the unconscious mind, from Sigmund Freud.  </li><...
<ul><li>One of the two techniques for Abstract Expressionism was known as Action Painting. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A style o...
Jackson Pollock  (1912-1956) <ul><li>Influenced by Mexican muralist painters, and Surrealism. </li></ul><ul><li>Canvases w...
Jackson Pollock  Shimmering Substance 1946
Jackson Pollock Enchanted Forest 1947
Jackson Pollock  Lavender Mist  1950
“ I have no fears about making changes, destroying the image… because the painting has a life of its own.”  Jackson Pollock
<ul><li>3 Factors in work of the 1940’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense childhood memories of Armenia, prime subject matter....
Waterfall- Arshile Gorky (1943) <ul><li>The unstructured shapes, and drips of paint hint at the fluidity of the Waterfall....
Arshile Gorky - One Year the Milkweed 1944
Willem de Kooning <ul><li>A pioneer in Abstract Expressionism. </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to capture energy and emotion throu...
Willem de Kooning Woman I 1950-1952
Willem de Kooning Pink Angels  1945
Willem de Kooning Black Friday  1948
Willem de Kooning  Women III 1952
Willem de Kooning, Excavation,  1950
Franz Kline  (1910-1962) <ul><li>His works around 1946 had a Cubist structure, or were abstract. </li></ul><ul><li>Around ...
Franz Kline Figure Eight  1952
Franz Kline New York, N.Y. 1952
Franz Kline Untitled 1958
Color Field Painting <ul><li>The Second Type of Abstract Expressionism paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings with solid a...
Mark Rothko (1903-1970) <ul><li>Asymmetrical blocks of color, and painted the edges of his canvases, then displayed them w...
Mark Rothko Red, Orange, Tan and Purple 1949
Mark Rothko  Orange and Red on Red 1957
Kenneth Noland (1924-2010) <ul><li>First to stain canvases with thinned paints. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeared as pure and...
Kenneth Noland Heat 1958
Kenneth Noland Back and Front 1960
Sculptures <ul><li>David Smith is one of the most famous Abstract Expressionism sculptor’s </li></ul><ul><li>He created la...
David Smith Cubi XIX 1964
What it Influenced <ul><li>Created a whole new way to look at art </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced later art movements </li></...
Once you “got” Pop, you could never see a sign the same way again.  And once you thought Pop, you could never see America ...
 
Pop Art <ul><li>Pop Art was an art movement in the late 1950s and 1960s that reflected everyday life and common objects. P...
“ Pop Artists did images that anybody walking down the street could recognize in a split second…all the great modern thing...
<ul><li>The Pop artists moved away from Abstract Expressionism which was the “in” style of art in the 50s. The Abstract Ex...
<ul><li>Pop Artists used common images from  </li></ul><ul><li>everyday culture as their sources including:   </li></ul>Ro...
Pop Artists used bold, flat colors and hard edge compositions adopted from commercial designs like those found in: <ul><li...
<ul><li>Pop Artists reflected 60’s culture by using new materials in their artworks including: </li></ul><ul><li>Acrylic P...
<ul><li>As well as new technologies and methods: </li></ul>Claes Oldenburg,  Floor Burger  1962,    Claes Oldenburg   <ul...
<ul><li>Pop art was appealing to many viewers, while others felt it made fun of common people and their lives. It was hard...
Andy Warhol was one of the most famous Pop Artists.  Part of his artistic practice was using new technologies and new ways...
Warhol appropriated (used without permission) images from magazines, newspapers, and press photos of the most popular peop...
Warhol used the repetition of media events  to critique and reframe cultural ideas  through his art Jackie  paintings, 196...
Warhol took common everyday items and gave them importance as “art” He raised questions about the nature of art:  Knives ,...
Pop artists stretched the definitions of what art could be and how it can be made.   “ The Pop idea, after all, was that a...
The art world today reflects many of the ideas, methods and materials initiated by the Pop Art movement. Barbara Kruger,  ...
New realism (Super-realism) <ul><li>American Art Movement in late 1960’s – 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of Pop Art  ...
Audrey Flack,  Marilyn , 1977, Oil over acrylic on canvas Influenced by  realism  in photography “ I studied art history, ...
Chuck Close,  Big Self-Portrait , 1967 – 1968, Acrylic on Canvas (8’11” x 11’2”) Large Scale Portrait Paintings based on P...
Made  plaster molds from real people Stereotypical “average” Americans “The subject matter I like best deals with the fami...
Site-specific Art /  Environmental  Art <ul><li>Progressive Movement developed in the 1960’s in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Incr...
Christo and Jeanne-Claude,  Running Fence  (California, USA), Pink woven synthetic fabric, 1972 - 1976 5.5 meters high  40...
Robert Smithson,  Spiral Jetty , 1970, Black rock, salt crystals, earth, red water (Utah, USA) Manipulated the earth the c...
Neo-Expressionism <ul><li>Movement in 1980’s inspired by German Expressionists and Abstract Expressionists </li></ul><ul><...
Large scale painting Thick, encrusted surface (highly textured) Re-examination of German History “ Nigredo” means black (s...
Francesco Clemente,  Francesco Clemente,  Oil on Canvas, 1985 Clemente’s work  draws  inspiration from Expressionism and S...
Post-Pop <ul><li>American artists in 1980’s still influenced by Pop Art from the 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism and ...
Jeff-Koons,  Pink Panther , 1988, Porcelain sculpture Magazine centerfold with well-known cartoon character Commercialism ...
Keith Haring,  Untitled , 1985, Mixed Media on Canvas Keith Haring (1958-1990) started by drawing in NY Subways (related t...
Keith Haring in his  “Pop Shop”  in New York City
Adidas shoe with Keith Haring designs
Joseph Beuys,  How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare , 1965, Performance art Performance art Sacred ritual “ the conditio...
Laurie Anderson,  O Superman , 1985, Performance Art Anderson wrote music and lyrics Experimentation with sound  (electric...
Montri Toemsombat,  Performance , 2003, Performance at the Venice Biennale (Italy) Art inspired by Buddhism Critical of Th...
Technology  and Art   <ul><li>Video, Digital Imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Artists started experimenting with video in 1960’s ...
Origins <ul><li>Artists began experimenting with video since the invention of the television. </li></ul><ul><li>Wolf Voste...
History <ul><li>Andy Warhol and Nam June Paik were the pioneers of the Video Art movement.  </li></ul><ul><li>Warhol creat...
History <ul><li>With the invention of the Sony Portapak in 1965, the first portable video recorder, artists were able to i...
History <ul><li>Nam June Paik (1932-2006) was one of the first artist to obtain a portapak, and created the  first video a...
<ul><li>Well-known Korean-born video artist who moved to New York Experimented with electronic music  (collaborated with J...
Video Art Versus Film Making  <ul><li>Video Art before the digital age could be recorded and played back instantly.  Where...
Jenny Holzer,  Protect Me From What I Want , 1988, LED Electronic Signboard (Times Square, New York City) Social Conscious...
JENNY HOLZER PROTECT ME FROM WHAT I WANT, (1986)
Bill Viola,  The Crossing , 1996, Sound / Video Installation Slow motion video with fire and water (the elements) Relation...
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Globalism 20 21 st century

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Globalism 20 21 st century

  1. 1. Globalism <ul><li>The information Age </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 15 </li></ul><ul><li>The last chapter for Intro to Humanities </li></ul>
  2. 2. Existentialism <ul><li>Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic premise: the idea that existence precedes essence, that one’s material being exists prior to and independent of any intrinsic factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual is the sum of his or her actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Condemned to be free, each individual bears the over -whelming burden of total responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Being and Nothingness 1943 </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Cold War <ul><li>Berlin Wall – divided East and West Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Korean War (1905-1953)– divided North and South Korea, Soviet Union and United States, 3 million Koreans died, mostly civilians </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam War (1964-1973)- 50 thousand Americans died, 15 million Vietnamese died, US withdrew and communist Vietnam was established. </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of Soviet Union and the fall of the Berlin Wall 1989. </li></ul>
  4. 4. MAYA LIN THE VIETNAM’S VETERANS MEMORIAL, (1982) <ul><li>Names of the 57,939 Americans who were killed in the Vietnam War. </li></ul>
  5. 5. End of Colonialism <ul><li>Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) </li></ul><ul><li>– Hindu, led India’s struggle for </li></ul><ul><li>independence from Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful protests against colonial oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Followers were called “Mahatma” or ”great souls” </li></ul><ul><li>His program of nonviolent resistance, including fasting, and peaceful demonstrations, influenced subsequent liberation movements throughout the world. </li></ul><ul><li>1947 India’s independence, one year later he was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic who opposed his conciliatory gestures toward India’s Muslim minority. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Racial Equality <ul><li>Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant pastor and civil rights activist who modeled his campaign of peaceful protest on the example of Gandhi. </li></ul><ul><li>As president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, King served as an inspiration to all African –Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in April 4, 1968 </li></ul>Oscar Graves, 1982, Dr. Martin Luther King Detroit MI
  7. 7. Art and Society <ul><li>Art as a social tool used to help change society </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Political issues </li></ul><ul><li>Art by and for minorities (issues of gender, race, sexuality) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Betye Saar <ul><li>Attack on the icons of commercial white culture </li></ul>Betye Saar (1926– ), The Liberation of Aunt Jemima , 1972. Mixed media
  9. 9. Kara Walker <ul><li>Used a more subtle and complex approach to matters of race </li></ul><ul><li>She suggests that liberation is an on going process </li></ul>Kara Walker (1969- ), A Work on Progress , 1998. Cut paper and adhesive, Installation Kara Walker (1969- ), Slavery! Slavery! , 2000
  10. 10. Gender Equality <ul><li>Germaine Greer (1939-) The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and their work (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>She explains the scarcity of women artists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is……no female Leonardo, no female Titian, no female Poussin, but the reason does not lie in the fact that women have wombs, that they can have babies, that their brains are smaller, that they lack vigor, that they are not sensual. The reason is simple that you cannot make great artists out of egos that have been damaged, with wills that are defective, with libidos that have been driven out of reach and energy diverted into neurotic channels. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #35 , 1979, Black-and-white photograph Sherman plays different roles in her photographs (dressed in costume) - Not a Self-Portrait Feminism - Questions how women have been portrayed in movies, photography, art Photography shows the shutter release cable on the floor (artist took her own photograph)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Aware of the extent to which commercialism shapes identity, she creates photographs that deftly unite word and image to resemble commercial billboards. The artist calls attention to the controversial issue of abortion in contemporary society </li></ul>Barbara Kruger, (b.1945) Barbara Kruger (1945– ), Untitled (&quot;Your body is a battleground&quot;) , 1989. Photographic silkscreen on vinyl
  13. 13. Barbara Kruger, Untitled (I Shop Therefore I Am), 1987, Photographic silkscreen on vinyl Look of Advertising (Kruger worked as a graphic designer before becoming an artist) Deceptiveness of Media’s messages “ I think, therefore I am” - Philosophical statement by Descartes
  14. 14. BARBARA KRUGER ALL VIOLENCE IS THE ILLUSTRATION OF A PATHETIC STEREOTYPE, (1991)
  15. 15. JUDY CHICAGO <ul><li>A room-sized sculpture consisting of a triangular table with 39 place settings, each symbolizing a famous woman in myth or history. The feminist counterpart of the Last Supper, pays homage to such immortals Nefertiti, Sappho, queen Elizabeth 1, and Virginia Woolf. </li></ul>THE DINNER PARTY, (1974-1979), 48 x 48 x 48ft.
  16. 16. Sexual Identity <ul><li>Aids Memorial Quilt, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the movement for body-conscious politics and socially responsible art that animated the last decade of the 20 th century. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>String Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brian Greene (b.1962) describes a multidimensional universe in which loops of strings and oscillating globules of matter unite all of creation into vibrational patterns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chaos Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finds that universal patterns underlie all of nature and repeat themselves in physical phenomena ranging from the formation of a snowflake to the rhythms of the human heart. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Genome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the year 2000, molecular biologists were able to ascertain the order of nearly three billion units of DNA. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), that all forms of expression and all truths in are dominated by the modes of language used to convey ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. American Precursors to ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM
  19. 19. <ul><li>In western art, for the first forty years of the 20 th century, the further you were away from Paris, meant the further you were from the art world. American art was far from cutting edge. It evolved sluggishly from historical paintings to landscapes and agricultural genre scenes. </li></ul><ul><li>Flashes of brilliance did occur here and there and the artists that provided these flashes were very influential in what was to be the art movement that changed the epicenter of the art world firmly from Paris to New York. </li></ul>George Bellows, Stag at Sharkey’s, 1909 Oil on Canvas 36 1/4x48 ¼” The Cleveland Museum of Art,
  20. 20. Thomas Hart Benton <ul><li>He considered himself to be a “Regionalist” artist. His work seems to be highly influenced by Baroque. An Illinois native, he painted his live in the Navy and daily life in the ship yards of Norfolk VA. This lead to epic scenes filled with many workers and lots of machinery. </li></ul>Cut the Line 1944 I really wanted to find a size for this, but couldn’t… :(
  21. 21. <ul><li>Benton hated Avante Garde art. He didn’t like anything that was going on in Europe and considered himself very conservative amongst some of his peers in the art world. Eventually became the teacher of Jackson Pollock. </li></ul>Wreck of the Ol’ 97 Train 1943 29x46”
  22. 22. American Social Realism <ul><li>American Realism came from a backlash American Impressionism, many artist wanted their art to represent their current day America. </li></ul>Thomas Pollock Anshutz The Ironworkers Noontime 1880 Oil on Canvas Robert Henri was a teacher out of PAFA (Penn Academy of Fine Arts, Phila) who, with some other friends, started the Ash Can School. This was a group of painters who wanted their paintings to be ‘realistically ugly’. Street scenes and realistic urban landscapes were a cornerstone for this movement. Above is a painting by a teacher of Henri’s named Thomas Anshutz.
  23. 23. Ash Can School Everett Shinn, The Fight Robert Henri, Snow in New York George Bellows, Cliff Dwellers, 1913
  24. 24. John French Sloan &quot; Six o'clock, Winter &quot; 1912 The Ash Can argued that ‘life is beautiful, this is what life actually looks like.’
  25. 25. Edward Hopper <ul><li>Hopper, a realist and another member of the Ash Can School is easily the most famous member to come out of the movement. Hoppers early work was in American Impressionism, but later, his palette darkened and he became intrigued with indoor painting and urban realism. </li></ul>Rooftops 1926 12x19 Watercolor on paper
  26. 26. Nighthawks,1942 New York Movie 1939 Automat Hopper
  27. 28. What it is… <ul><li>Abstract Expressionism is a painting movement in which artists typically applied paint rapidly, and with force to their huge canvases in an effort to show feelings and emotions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-geometrically, sometimes applying paint with large brushes, and looks as if to be an accident but is really quite planned. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Made New York the center of the art world, and was often called the “New York School”. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract Expressionism was the first </li></ul><ul><li>art movement to influence artists </li></ul><ul><li>over seas, rather than vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists wanted to establish their </li></ul><ul><li>independence from European surrealists </li></ul><ul><li>and other art trends. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>European artists began moving to America during WW II. </li></ul><ul><li>The main result of the new American fascination with Surrealism was the emergence of Abstract Expressionism . </li></ul><ul><li>Produced in New York roughly between 1940-1960. </li></ul>History… Jackson Pollack Ocean Greyness 1953
  30. 31. <ul><li>Arshile Gorky was the artist to put this movement into motion, because his art ideals were obtained from Surrealism , Picasso , and Miro . </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized the depiction of emotion’s rather then objects . </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings consisted of shapes , lines , and forms meant to create a separate reality from the visual world. </li></ul>
  31. 32. “ What was to go on the canvas was not a picture, but an event.” Critic- Harold Rosenberg Hans Hoffman Rising Moon
  32. 33. European Influence <ul><li>European Surrealists obtained their notion of the unconscious mind, from Sigmund Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Americans at this time, derived Carl Jung’s theory- the “collective unconscious” holds that beneath ones private memories, is a store house of feeling and symbolic thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>With all the European influence, Abstract Expressionists sought universal themes within themselves. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>One of the two techniques for Abstract Expressionism was known as Action Painting. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A style of painting which paint is spontaneously dripped, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather then being carefully applied. </li></ul></ul>Action Painting Willem de Kooning- Paris Review 1979
  34. 35. Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) <ul><li>Influenced by Mexican muralist painters, and Surrealism. </li></ul><ul><li>Canvases were usually on the floor, or the wall where he dripped or poured on the paint. </li></ul><ul><li>Used knives, sticks, or towels instead of brushes. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally putting sand, broken glass, or other matter, into his paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in direct expression and “Action Painting”. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Jackson Pollock Shimmering Substance 1946
  36. 37. Jackson Pollock Enchanted Forest 1947
  37. 38. Jackson Pollock Lavender Mist 1950
  38. 39. “ I have no fears about making changes, destroying the image… because the painting has a life of its own.” Jackson Pollock
  39. 40. <ul><li>3 Factors in work of the 1940’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense childhood memories of Armenia, prime subject matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing interest in Surrealism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many discussion with colleagues about Jungian ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jungian analysis is a specialized form of psychotherapy in which the Jungian analyst and patient work together to increase the patient’s consciousness in order to move toward psychological balance and wholeness. </li></ul></ul>Arshile Gorky (1904-1948)
  40. 41. Waterfall- Arshile Gorky (1943) <ul><li>The unstructured shapes, and drips of paint hint at the fluidity of the Waterfall. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Arshile Gorky - One Year the Milkweed 1944
  42. 43. Willem de Kooning <ul><li>A pioneer in Abstract Expressionism. </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to capture energy and emotion through Action Painting. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternated between abstract and figural painting. </li></ul><ul><li>Blended traditional forms, with a sense of uncertainty. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Willem de Kooning Woman I 1950-1952
  44. 45. Willem de Kooning Pink Angels 1945
  45. 46. Willem de Kooning Black Friday 1948
  46. 47. Willem de Kooning Women III 1952
  47. 48. Willem de Kooning, Excavation, 1950
  48. 49. Franz Kline (1910-1962) <ul><li>His works around 1946 had a Cubist structure, or were abstract. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1950, he made large calligraphic paintings in black and white. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1958, Kline introduced color in some of his works. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Franz Kline Figure Eight 1952
  50. 51. Franz Kline New York, N.Y. 1952
  51. 52. Franz Kline Untitled 1958
  52. 53. Color Field Painting <ul><li>The Second Type of Abstract Expressionism paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings with solid area of color covering the whole canvas. </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to be seen up close, so the viewer is immersed in color. </li></ul>
  53. 54. Mark Rothko (1903-1970) <ul><li>Asymmetrical blocks of color, and painted the edges of his canvases, then displayed them without frames. </li></ul><ul><li>Titles were unimaginative leaving the interpretation up to the viewer. </li></ul>
  54. 55. Mark Rothko Red, Orange, Tan and Purple 1949
  55. 56. Mark Rothko Orange and Red on Red 1957
  56. 57. Kenneth Noland (1924-2010) <ul><li>First to stain canvases with thinned paints. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeared as pure and saturated color. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Made concentric rings, and parallels, in relation to the size of the canvas. </li></ul>
  57. 58. Kenneth Noland Heat 1958
  58. 59. Kenneth Noland Back and Front 1960
  59. 60. Sculptures <ul><li>David Smith is one of the most famous Abstract Expressionism sculptor’s </li></ul><ul><li>He created large, steel geometric sculptors </li></ul><ul><li>His motivations were similar to that of the painters </li></ul><ul><li>His most famous sculptors are his Cubi series </li></ul>
  60. 61. David Smith Cubi XIX 1964
  61. 62. What it Influenced <ul><li>Created a whole new way to look at art </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced later art movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tachisme </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. Once you “got” Pop, you could never see a sign the same way again. And once you thought Pop, you could never see America the same way again. -- Andy Warhol
  63. 65. Pop Art <ul><li>Pop Art was an art movement in the late 1950s and 1960s that reflected everyday life and common objects. Pop artists blurred the line between fine art and commercial art. </li></ul>Brillo Soap Pads Box , 1964,  AWF
  64. 66. “ Pop Artists did images that anybody walking down the street could recognize in a split second…all the great modern things that the Abstract Expressionists tried so hard not to notice at all.”— Gretchen Berg . Three Coke Bottles, 1962,  AWF
  65. 67. <ul><li>The Pop artists moved away from Abstract Expressionism which was the “in” style of art in the 50s. The Abstract Expressionist evoked emotions, feelings and ideas through formal elements such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul></ul>Jackson Pollock, Number 4, 1950 Carnegie Museum of Art; Gift of Frank R. S. Kaplan/  ARS
  66. 68. <ul><li>Pop Artists used common images from </li></ul><ul><li>everyday culture as their sources including: </li></ul>Roy Lichtenstein, Masterpiec e, 1962 <ul><li>Advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer goods </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrities </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Comic strip s </li></ul>
  67. 69. Pop Artists used bold, flat colors and hard edge compositions adopted from commercial designs like those found in: <ul><li>Billboards </li></ul><ul><li>Murals </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul>Campbell's Soup II, 1969,  AWF
  68. 70. <ul><li>Pop Artists reflected 60’s culture by using new materials in their artworks including: </li></ul><ul><li>Acrylic Paints </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent and </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic colors </li></ul>Robert Rauschenberg, Retroactive I I, 1963
  69. 71. <ul><li>As well as new technologies and methods: </li></ul>Claes Oldenburg, Floor Burger 1962,  Claes Oldenburg <ul><li>Mass production </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Printing </li></ul><ul><li>Serials </li></ul>
  70. 72. <ul><li>Pop art was appealing to many viewers, while others felt it made fun of common people and their lives. It was hard for some people to understand why Pop Artists were painting cheap, everyday objects, when the function of art historically was to uphold and represent culture’s most valuable ideals. </li></ul>Listerine Bottle , 1963,  AWF
  71. 73. Andy Warhol was one of the most famous Pop Artists. Part of his artistic practice was using new technologies and new ways of making art including: <ul><li>Photographic Silk-Screening </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Media events </li></ul>Andy Warhol, Brillo Boxes installation,
  72. 74. Warhol appropriated (used without permission) images from magazines, newspapers, and press photos of the most popular people of his time Silver Liz [Ferus Type], 1963,  AWF ©2006 Life Inc.
  73. 75. Warhol used the repetition of media events to critique and reframe cultural ideas through his art Jackie paintings, 1964,  AWF
  74. 76. Warhol took common everyday items and gave them importance as “art” He raised questions about the nature of art: Knives , 1981,  AWF What makes one work of art better than another? Brillo Soap Pads Box , 1964,  AWF
  75. 77. Pop artists stretched the definitions of what art could be and how it can be made. “ The Pop idea, after all, was that anybody could do anything, so naturally we were all trying to do it all…” --- Andy Warhol photo by Hervé Gloaguen
  76. 78. The art world today reflects many of the ideas, methods and materials initiated by the Pop Art movement. Barbara Kruger, Untitled, 1991 Courtesy: Mary Boone Gallery, NY In Untitled , 1991, Barbara Kruger uses the iconography of the American flag and hard edge graphics to pose a series of provocative questions about American cultural values . In Rabbit, 1986 , artist Jeff Koons cast a mass-produced inflatable Easter bunny in highly polished stainless steel. The sculpture became iconic of art in the 1980s . Jeff Koons, Rabbit, 1986,  Jeff Koons
  77. 79. New realism (Super-realism) <ul><li>American Art Movement in late 1960’s – 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of Pop Art (similar subjects, but different style) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly detailed and realistic (sometimes called Photorealism) </li></ul>
  78. 80. Audrey Flack, Marilyn , 1977, Oil over acrylic on canvas Influenced by realism in photography “ I studied art history, it was always the photographs, I never saw the paintings, they were in Europe” Marilyn Monroe – references to her death (clocks, hourglass) Still Life “Vanitas” painting - symbolism relating to “emptiness” Airbrushed (commercial photo retouching tool)
  79. 81. Chuck Close, Big Self-Portrait , 1967 – 1968, Acrylic on Canvas (8’11” x 11’2”) Large Scale Portrait Paintings based on Photographs Avoided creative compositions, flattering lighting, and facial expressions
  80. 82. Made plaster molds from real people Stereotypical “average” Americans “The subject matter I like best deals with the familiar lower and middle class American types of today.” Sculptures sometimes mistaken for real people Duane Hanson, Supermarket Shopper , 1970, Polyester resin and fiberglass polychromed in oil with clothing, steel cart, and groceries
  81. 83. Site-specific Art / Environmental Art <ul><li>Progressive Movement developed in the 1960’s in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Increased concerns about environment ( pollution, litter, urban sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges traditional assumptions about art </li></ul>
  82. 84. Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Running Fence (California, USA), Pink woven synthetic fabric, 1972 - 1976 5.5 meters high 40 Kilometer long nylon fence Environmental art project Artists claim that the art has no meaning. Their goal is to create something beautiful and to see the landscape in a new way. Money raised by selling their preliminary drawings
  83. 85. Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty , 1970, Black rock, salt crystals, earth, red water (Utah, USA) Manipulated the earth the create an environmental sculpture “ enduring power of nature” Inspired by the location and the molecular structure of salt crystals that coat the rocks Spiral Jetty under water
  84. 86. Neo-Expressionism <ul><li>Movement in 1980’s inspired by German Expressionists and Abstract Expressionists </li></ul><ul><li>Reintroduced human feeling back into art </li></ul>
  85. 87. Large scale painting Thick, encrusted surface (highly textured) Re-examination of German History “ Nigredo” means black (symbolic meaning) Anselm Kiefer, Nigredo , 1984, Mixed media (including natural materials – straw and lead) on paper (11’ x 18’)
  86. 88. Francesco Clemente, Francesco Clemente, Oil on Canvas, 1985 Clemente’s work draws inspiration from Expressionism and Surrealism Self-Portrait Two sides of personality / “inner self” Francesco interested in connection of art to spirituality
  87. 89. Post-Pop <ul><li>American artists in 1980’s still influenced by Pop Art from the 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism and Popular culture </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul>
  88. 90. Jeff-Koons, Pink Panther , 1988, Porcelain sculpture Magazine centerfold with well-known cartoon character Commercialism / Consumerism Kitsch (bad taste) “ everything wrong with contemporary American society”
  89. 91. Keith Haring, Untitled , 1985, Mixed Media on Canvas Keith Haring (1958-1990) started by drawing in NY Subways (related to Grafitti art / Street Art) Keith Haring friends with Andy Warhol East-Village New York style Art for “the people”
  90. 92. Keith Haring in his “Pop Shop” in New York City
  91. 93. Adidas shoe with Keith Haring designs
  92. 94. Joseph Beuys, How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare , 1965, Performance art Performance art Sacred ritual “ the condition of modern humanity” Head coated with honey and covered with gold leaf (spiritual power )
  93. 95. Laurie Anderson, O Superman , 1985, Performance Art Anderson wrote music and lyrics Experimentation with sound (electric violin and synthesized voice) Feminist art combining elements of pop art, pop music, World music, dada
  94. 96. Montri Toemsombat, Performance , 2003, Performance at the Venice Biennale (Italy) Art inspired by Buddhism Critical of Thai culture (materialism) Ritul / Meditation Literally wearing text (text on clothing, text and tattoos) Artist is interested in relationship of fashion to art
  95. 97. Technology and Art <ul><li>Video, Digital Imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Artists started experimenting with video in 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at an image in a video monitor / screen (related to Renaissance idea of looking through a frame into a picture) </li></ul><ul><li>Element of time </li></ul>
  96. 98. Origins <ul><li>Artists began experimenting with video since the invention of the television. </li></ul><ul><li>Wolf Vostell was the first artists to include working television sets in his 1959 assemblage “Deutscher Ausblick.” </li></ul>Wolf Vostell, Deutscher Ausblick, 1959. Click on image or copy link to view. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJq9eh6QsBg
  97. 99. History <ul><li>Andy Warhol and Nam June Paik were the pioneers of the Video Art movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Warhol created films in his factory using 8mm, 16mm cameras and screened them for friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Warhol's films included were “Sleep”, “Eat”, “Empire”, and “Chelsea Girls” which are now considered part of the genre. </li></ul>Andy Warhol
  98. 100. History <ul><li>With the invention of the Sony Portapak in 1965, the first portable video recorder, artists were able to instantly record visual ideas for their work. </li></ul>Sony Portapak 1965
  99. 101. History <ul><li>Nam June Paik (1932-2006) was one of the first artist to obtain a portapak, and created the first video art piece titled “Electronic Video Recorder”. </li></ul>Nam June Paik
  100. 102. <ul><li>Well-known Korean-born video artist who moved to New York Experimented with electronic music (collaborated with Japanese artist) “Time collage” combining painting, music, Eastern philosophy, global politics, technology, etc. </li></ul>Nam June Paik, Global Groove , 1973, Video Still
  101. 103. Video Art Versus Film Making <ul><li>Video Art before the digital age could be recorded and played back instantly. Where film once it was shot had to be developed then edited. </li></ul><ul><li>Video art does not need actors, dialogue, or plot. </li></ul><ul><li>The video artist is concerned with exploring the medium itself, or to use it to challenge the viewer's ideas of space, time and form. </li></ul>
  102. 104. Jenny Holzer, Protect Me From What I Want , 1988, LED Electronic Signboard (Times Square, New York City) Social Consciousness Uses advertising format to deliver messages Art in Public Spaces
  103. 105. JENNY HOLZER PROTECT ME FROM WHAT I WANT, (1986)
  104. 106. Bill Viola, The Crossing , 1996, Sound / Video Installation Slow motion video with fire and water (the elements) Relationship to Religion (Viola interested in World Religions)

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