Unlike the Italian Renaissance, which took its primary inspiration from classical Greek and Roman culture, the Renaissance in the North was marked by movements for moral and religious change.
Renaissance and Reformation
Studied the Bible and the writings of the church fathers.
“ the Prince of Humanists” Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536)
The first humanist to make use of the printing press.
Produced a critical edition of the New Testament
: Albrecht D ü rer (1471?1528), Erasmus of Rotterdam, 1526. Engraving,
Luther and the Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
1505 he abandoned his legal studies to become an Augustinian monk.
Spoke out against the church.
His inflammatory sermons and essays offered radical remedies to what he called “the misery and wretchedness of Christendom.”
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther, 1533. Panel, 8" x 5 3/4". .
The Anglican Church
Monarch Henry VIII (1491-1547)
He was determined to have a male heir, but after 18 years of marriage to his wife and produced one daughter he asked the church if he could annul the marriage and take a new wife.
The pope refused, prompting the king to break with Rome. In 1526 declared himself head of the Church of England
Hans Holbein the Younger. Henry Vlll , c. 1540. Oil on panel
Religious Persecution and Witch-Hunts
The witch-hunts that infested Europe during the 16 th century were fueled by the popular belief that the devil was actively involved in human affairs.
The first massive persecutions occurred at the end of the 15 th century and reached their peak approximately one hundred years later.
The Praise of Folly ,(1511) a satiric oration about human foibles, including greed, intellectual pomposity, and pride.
Sir Thomas More, (served as chancellor to King Henry VIII)
Was the first literary description of an ideal state since Plato’s Republic.
Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) (Spaniard)
Don Quixote recounts the adventures of a chivalrous knight who confronts reality through the lens of personal fantasy.
Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) (French)
“ father of the personal essay,”
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Shakespeare
emerged during the Golden Age of England
under the rule of Elizabeth I. He produced
37 plays- comedies, tragedies,
romances, and histories
- 154 sonnets and other poems.
Qeen Elizabeth of England, the Armada Portrait, Woburn Abbey (George Gower, ca 1588).
The Shakespearean Stage
Henry V; Richard III (1593-1600)
Much Ado About Nothing; All’s Well that Ends Well; The Taming of the Shrew(1593-1602)
Hamlet; Macbeth; Othello; King Lear (1600-1606)
Complete works :http: //shakespeare.mit.edu/works.html
Shakespeare’s sonnets (1609)
SHALL I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer’s lease (1) hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye (2) of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimm’d;
And every fair from fair sometime declines, (3)
By chance, or nature’s changing course untrimm’d; (4)
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st,
Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st; (6)
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
Sonnet XVIII , “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?” 1) allotted time 2) The sun 3)Beautiful thing from beauty 4)Stripped of beauty 5)Your fame will grow as time elapses 6) the sonnet itself
Jan van Eyck
Pioneer in early Netherlandish art(1380-1441)
Perfected the art of oil painting
The couple are in the process of making some type of vow.
Jan van Eyck (c. 1395–1441), Arnolfini Portrait , 1434. Oil on wood, 32 1/4" x 23 1/2".
Jan van Eyck Jan van Eyck. Ghent Altarpiece (open), completed 1432. Oil on panel, approx. 11' 6" x 14' 5".
Jan van Eyck Jan van Eyck, The Ghent Altarpiece (closed), completed 1432. Oil on panel, 11' 6" x 7' 7“..
Jan van Eyck, The Virgin in a Church , c. 1410-25. Oil on panel, 12 1/4" x 5 1/2". Gemaldegalerie, Berlin
Jan van Eyck (c. 1395–1441), Man in a Red Turban (Self-portrait?) , 1433. Tempera and oil on wood, approx. 13 1/8" x 10 1/8"
The Crucifixion; The Last Judgment , ca. 1430 Jan van Eyck and Workshop Assistant (Netherlandish, active by 1422, died 1441) Oil on canvas, transferred from wood
Hieronymus Bosch(1460-1516) Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450–1516). World before the Flood , from Garden of Earthly Delights , c. 1510-1515. Oil on wood, center panel 7' 2" x 6' 4".
Preoccupied with human folly, most of his paintings reflect the long reach of medieval values into modern times.
Detailed the fallibility of humankind, its moral struggle, and its apocalyptic.
Garden of Earthly Delights, detail of right wing
Last Judgment (fragment of Hell) Last Judgment (fragment of Paradise)
Hieronymus Bosch Attributed to Hieronymus Bosch. Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things , painted tabletop. Oil on wood, 3' 11 1/4" x 4' 11".
Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450–1516), The Cure for Folly, c. 1490s-1516. Oil on panel, 18 9/10 x 13 3/4 in.
Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450–1516), Death and the Miser , ca. 1485-1490. Oil on oak, 3 ft. 5/8 in. x 12 1/8 in.
Grunewald, Matthias Gothardt Neithardt (1460-158) Matthias Grünewald (c. 1470-1528). Crucifixion with Saint Sebastian (left), Saint Anthony (right), and Lamentation (below), the Isenheim Altarpiece, closed, c. 1510-1515. Oil on panel (with frame), side panels 8' 2 1/2" x 3' 1/2", central panel. Giraudon/Art Resource, NY
Naturalistic details and brutal distortion combine to produce the most painfully expressive painting style in all of 16 th century art.
The protestant reformation and Printmaking Woodcut. A relief printing process created by lines cut into the plank surface of the wood. Engraving. An intaglio method of printing
Protestant reformers encouraged the proliferation of private devotional imagery-biblical subjects in particular, In the production of such imagery printmaking technology established a landmark.
Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528). Self-Portrait , 1500. Oil on wood, 26 5/16" x 19 5/16". Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
One of the finest printmakers of all times!
Trained as an engraver, he earned international fame for his woodcuts and metal engravings.
Durer Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528). Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse , c. 1497-1498. Woodcut, 15 2/5" x 11".
He brought to the art of his day a profoundly religious view of the world and a desire to embody spiritual message of scripture in art.
This woodcut brings to life the terrifying prophecies described in Revelation 6:1-8.
Albrecht Dürer The Seven-Headed Beast and the Beast with Lamb's Horns Woodcut, 39 x 28 cm, from 'The Apocalypse of St. John' 1496 - 98
Durer Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), The Knight, Death and the Devil , 1513. Engraving, 11" x 14". HIP/Art Resource, NY.
Durer Albrecht Dürer (14711528), Melencolia I , 1514. Engraving, 9 1/2" x 7 5/16“..
Durer Albrecht Durer, Elector Frederick the Wise , 1524. Copper engraving, 7 3/8" x 4 3/4“.
Durer Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), Wire Drawing Mill , undated. Watercolor, 11 1/4 x 16 3/4 in. State Museums, Berlin. Photo: B. P. K
He also produced panoramic landscapes to be enjoyed in and for themselves.
An avid traveler, he introduced landscape painting as a legitimate genre in Western art.
Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553)
Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Judgment of Paris , 1530. Panel, 13 1/2 x 8 3/4".
Practiced a style that tended to flatten form by means of decorative linearity.
He was a highly acclaimed court painter at Wittenberg.
And like Durer, a devout follower of Protestant reform.
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther, 1533. Panel, 8" x 5 3/4".
Salome," 1530, Lucas Cranach Salome with the head of John the Baptist has always been a favorite subject for artists. The German Lucas Cranach the Elder painted the Biblical tease several times, always in contemporary 16th century dress
This is an excellent example of Cranach's mature but stereotyped style. The tragic figure of Lucrezia, who has suffered outrage at the hands of Tarquin, is about to take her own life. Every element in the composition is carefully exaggerated.
Lucas Cranach's "Suicide of Lucrezia"
Lucas Cranach the Elder ( 1472-1553), Portrait of a Young Woman Oil on wood, 1530, 49 x 42 cm (
Lucas Cranach - Adam and Eve
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1498–1543), Dance of Death , ca. 1490. Woodcut.
His woodcut series brought him renown as a draftsman and printmaker.
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/98-1543 ) is remembered as a brilliant portrait painter, especially in the court of Henry VIII, and as the designer of a series of remarkable woodcuts, The Dance of Death . The Death and the Knight is one of forty-one woodcuts in 1538. The other images show Death escorting people from all walks of life to their final destiny.
Portrait of Henry VIII - portrait after Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/8-1543) Edward VI as a Child , probably 1538 oil on panel, 56.8 x 44 cm (22 3/8 x 17 3/8 in.)