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Chapter 7 renaissance
 

Chapter 7 renaissance

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  • Renaissance means re-birth, between 1300-1600 was a revival of the culture of Greco-Roman civilization spread from its birthplace in Italy to all parts of the western Europe. Individualism and an optimistic view of the human potential for knowledge and pleasure here on earth cultivated a spirit of humanism that left the world many of its most distinctive landmarks. Period in Europe from the late fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries, which was characterized by a renewed interest in human-centered classical art, literature, and learning.
  • The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% – 60% of Europe's population , reducing the world’s population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. This has been seen as creating a series of religious, social and economic upheavals which had profound effects on the course of European History. It took 150 years for Europe's population to recover. Because the plague killed so many of the poor population, wealthy land owners were forced to pay the remaining workers what they asked, in terms of wages. Because there was now a surplus in consumer goods, luxury crops could now be grown. This meant that for the first time in history, many, formerly of the peasant population, now had a chance to live a better life. Most historians now feel that this was the start of the middle class in Europe and England.
  • Betrayed by her supporters in 1431 she was condemned as a heretic and burned at the stake. The Hundred Years’ War was instigated by English claims to French lands and the French crown. Joan of Arc is captured However she took part in an attack upon the army of the Duke of Burgundy, but was taken prisoner by him. For a large sum of money the duke delivered her into the hands of the English, who put her in prison in Rouen. Joan of Arc is charged with Sorcery and brought to trial She lay in prison for a year, and finally was charged with sorcery and brought to trial. It was said that she was under the influence of the Evil One. She declared to her judges her innocence of the charge and said, "God has always been my guide in all that I have done. The devil has never had power over me." Her trial was long and tiresome. At its close she was doomed to be burned at the stake. Joan of Arc is burnt at the Stake In the market-place at Rouen the English soldiers fastened her to a stake surrounded by a great pile of fagots. A soldier put into her hands a rough cross, which he had made from a stick that he held. She thanked him and pressed it to her bosom. Then a priest, standing near the stake, read to her the prayers for the dying, and another mounted the fagots and held towards her a crucifix, which she clasped with both hands and kissed. When the cruel flames burst out around her, the noble girl uttered the word "Jesus," and expired. At the age of 12, she began to experience visions – st. Catherine, St. Margaret, Archangel Michael, at first that told her to be good and go to church, then they urged her to go the France and drive out the English and Burgundians. On trial for Hersey, - English conducted the proceedings for the purposes of revenge rather than out of any genuine belief that she was a heretic.
  • Her feminism is all the more significant because it occurred at a time in which men were making systematic efforts to restrict female inheritance of land and female membership in the guilds. Some say that many women are deceitful, Wily, false, of little worth: Others that too many are liars, fickle, flighty , and inconstant; Still others accuse them of great vices, blaming them much, excusing them of them nothing, thus do clerics, night and day, First in French verse, then in Latin, based on who knows what books That tell more lies than drunkards do.
  • The Magna Carta is a document that King John of England (1166 - 1216) was forced into signing. King John was forced into signing the charter because it greatly reduced the power he held as the King of England and allowed for the formation of a powerful parliament. The Magna Carta became the basis for English citizen's rights. Constitutional monarchy means a country has a monarch head of state with limited powers. Most constitutional monarchies the power rests with the government's parliament. Examples of constitutional monarchies are UK, Canada, Denmark, and Japan. The purpose of the Magna Carta was to curb the King and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came. The Magna Carta was a collection of 37 English laws - some copied, some recollected, some old and some new. The Magna Carta demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant. The content of the Magna Carta was drafted by Archbishop Stephen Langton and the most powerful Barons of England. King John signed the document which was originally called the 'Articles of the Barons' on June 10, 1215. The barons renewed the Oath of Fealty to King John on June 15, 1215. The royal chancery produced a formal royal grant, based on the agreements reached at Runnymede, which became known as Magna Carta. Copies of the Magna Carta were distributed to bishops, sheriffs and other important people throughout England.
  • beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology and science. Life on earth was not a vale of tears but, rather, an extended occasion during which human beings might cultivate their unique talents and abilities The classical revival of the 14 th to 16 th century Generated new and more all-embracing attitudes toward Greco-Roman antiquity than any that had preceded it. Most were Catholics. A cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements, and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology and science. HU MANISM a Focus on Human Beings: Education that perfected humans through the study of past models of civic and personal virtue. Value system that emphasized personal effort and responsibility. Physically and intellectually active life that was directed at a common good as well as individual nobility .
  • Humanism Humanism was the basic concept of the Italian Renaissance. It is the term used to define that philosophical movement in Italy at the end of the 14th century and during the 15th and 16th centuries which asserted the right of the individual to the use of his own reason and belief, and stressed the importance and potential of man as an individual. This concept can be identified with a belief in the power of learning and science to produce "the complete man". This rational and scientific conception of the world is the basis of our modern civilization. Modern Humanism originated in the Renaissance when scholars, writers, poets, artists, philosophers and scientists sought regeneration in the freer intellectual spirit of Classical times. The Humanists saw no conflict between the New Learning--the newly rediscovered wisdom of the ancient world--and the authority of the Church. They felt that the study of the ancient great writers of Greece and Rome was a tool for the understanding of true Christian doctrine, and that Platonic philosophy (the belief in the ideal of physical beauty as the mani-festation of God, the One Supreme Being) could only illumi-nate, never undermine, theology.Petrarch – “Father of Humanism” (1304-1374) the most famous of the early Florentine humanists/poet. Literary Landmark- Canzoniere (songbook) (1350) The object of his affecton and the inspiration for the Canzoniere was a married Florentine woman named Laura de Sade. The classical revival of the 14 th to 16 th century Generated new and more all-embracing attitudes toward Greco-Roman antiquity than any that had preceded it. Most were Catholics Life on earth was not a vale of tears but, rather, an extended occasion during which human beings might cultivate their unique talents and abilities saw no conflicts between humanism and religious belief One imprisons me, who neither frees nor jails me, nor keeps me to herself nor slips the noose: and Love does not destroy me, and does not loose me, wishes me not to live, but does not remove my bar.   I see without eyes, and have no tongue, but cry: and long to perish, yet I beg for aid: and hold myself in hate, and love another.   I feed on sadness, laughing weep: death and life displease me equally: and I am in this state, lady, because of you.
  • Castiglione - An insider's view of court life and culture during the Renaissance, here is the handiwork of a 16th-century diplomat who was called upon to resolve the differences in a war of etiquette among the Italian nobility. The ultimate resource on aristocratic manners, it remains the most definitive account of life among the Renaissance nobility.
  • Exiled from Florence upon the collapse of the republican government he had served from 1498- 1512, and eager to win favor with the Medici now that they had returned to power, Machiavelli penned The Prince , a political treatise that called for the unification of Italy under a powerful and courageous leader. Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian philosopher/writer, and is considered one of the main founders of modern political science .He was a diplomat , political philosopher , musician , and a playwright , but foremost, he was a civil servant of the Florentine Republic . In June of 1498, after the ouster and execution of Girolamo Savonarola , the Great Council elected Machiavelli as Secretary to the second Chancery of the Republic of Florence . Like Leonardo da Vinci , Machiavelli is considered a good example of the Renaissance Man . He is most famous for a short political treatise, The Prince , written in 1513, but not published until 1532, five years after Machiavelli's death. Although he privately circulated The Prince among friends, the only work he published in his lifetime was The Art of War , about high-military science. Since the sixteenth century, generations of politicians remain attracted and repelled by the cynical approach to power posited in The Prince and his other works . Whatever his personal intentions, which are still debated today, his surname yielded the modern political word Machiavellianism —the use of cunning and deceitful tactics in politics . More Here Neoplatonism 
 A compilation of Platonic, Aristotelian and Stoic ideas that experienced a strong revival during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Central to the philosophy is the notion that spiritual things are real and that material things are not. The freeing of the spiritual element, the soul, from the material element, the body, should be the ultimate goal of all of mankind and could be achieved through knowledge and contemplation.
  • (Bocatchau) - Prolific writer of Italian prose - Decameron was created because of the Plague, eager to escape contamination 7 young women and 3 young men retreat to a villa in the suburbs of Florence, where to pass the time each tells a story on each of the 10 days .
  • Giotto Feelings and physical nature of human beings. Giotto is considered to be the most influential artist on Renaissance painting. Giotto’s dignified figures seemed to displace space, to stand upon the ground with real substance and weight.
  • The Scrovegni Chapel, Padua Giotto is considered to be the most influential artist on Renaissance painting. Father of the Renaissance Giotto’s dignified figures seemed to displace space, to stand upon the ground with real substance and weight. Florentine painter and architect. Outstanding as a painter, sculptor, and architect, Giotto was recognized as the first genius of art in the Italian Renaissance. Giotto lived and worked at a time when people's minds and talents were first being freed from the shackles of medieval restraint. He dealt largely in the traditional religious subjects, but he gave these subjects an earthly, full-blooded life and force. Giotto is considered to be the most influential artist on Renaissance painting. Father of the Renaissance Giotto’s dignified figures seemed to displace space, to stand upon the ground with real substance and weight. The figures seem to extend both backward, into the picture, and forward, toward the spectator’s space. Florentine painter and architect. Outstanding as a painter, sculptor, and architect, Giotto was recognized as the first genius of art in the Italian Renaissance. Giotto lived and worked at a time when people's minds and talents were first being freed from the shackles of medieval restraint. He dealt largely in the traditional religious subjects, but he gave these subjects an earthly, full-blooded life and force. Fresco A method of wall-painting on a plasterground. Buon fresco, or true fresco, was much used in Italy from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries. First, the arriccio is applied and upon this the design, or sinopia, is traced. An area. small enough to be completed in one day - the giornata - is covered with a final layer of plaster, the inionaco. The design is then redrawn and painted with pigments mixed with water. Fresco secco is painting on dry plaster and suffers, like distemper, from impermanence.
  • Giotto represents a transition from medieval to renaissance art . Giotto is recognized as the first genius of Renaissance art. He lacked the knowledge of human anatomy, but made up for it in human emotional expression. Giotto is the single most important person in bringing about emotion in Renaissance art. He knew what was significant in life, and showed that through stress, desire, and suffering in his art. Giotto is regarded as the founder of the central tradition of Western painting because his artwork went away from the Byzantine art style, introducing new ideals of naturalism and creating a convincing sense of pictorial space. Giotto left a profound impression on artists such as Michelangelo.
  • Giotto represents a transition from medieval to renaissance art. Giotto is recognized as the first genius of Renaissance art. He lacked the knowledge of human anatomy, but made up for it in human emotional expression. Giotto is the single most important person in bringing about emotion in Renaissance art. He knew what was significant in life, and showed that through stress, desire, and suffering in his art. Giotto is regarded as the founder of the central tradition of Western painting because his artwork went away from the Byzantine art style, introducing new ideals of naturalism and creating a convincing sense of pictorial space. Giotto left a profound impression on artists such as Michelangelo.
  • Florentine architect and engineer. First to carry out a series of optical experiments that led to a mathematical theory of perspective. His method of perspective had a dramatic impact on the depiction of 3-dimensional space in the arts. The family of bankers became the rulers of Florence, and through their patronage brought about the Renaissance and  changed the western world forever. It was Cosimo de’Medici who first took control of Florence, commissioning the completion of the great red dome of the Florence Duomo by Brunelleschi
  • ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO and others
  • Linear Perspective Linear perspective, or one point perspective is a system for drawing objects that use lines and a vanishing point to determine how much an object’s apparent size changes with space. So Why Is Perspective Important? Perspective helps artists accurately recreate a three-dimensional physical space like a building, in a two dimensional space like a piece of paper. Overall this system, called “perspective,” produces a greater sense of “realism,” and a correspondence between the physical reality of nature and the representational reality created by the artist. This was all made possible through advancements in mathematics and its inventor, Filippo Brunelleschi. Brunelleschi and Perspective The Florentine architect and engineer Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was the first to carry out a series of experiments leading to a mathematical theory of perspective. In one of his experiments he used a clever technique to paint a picture of an hexagonal-shaped building in Florence named the Baptistery. He wanted what today we would produce with a camera, an exact replica of the baptistery that would fool your eye. To make sure that his painting was exact, he set up a series of mirrors so he could compare his painting with the actual building to make sure all the lines of his picture matched up precisely with the actual building. The reflected image in the mirror was painted onto a wooden tablet in which a small hole had been drilled. Unfortunately, the painted panel has not survived. New rules of proportions and symmetry were created from Brunelleshi’s work and also led to other explorations in art perspective.
  • Early life Ghiberti was born in Pelago (Florence). His father was Bartoluccio Ghiberti, a trained artist and goldsmith, who trained his son in the gold trade. Lorenzo Ghiberti then went to work in the workshop of Bartoluccio de Michele , where Brunelleschi also got his training. When the bubonic plague struck Florence in 1400, Ghiberti emigrated to Rimini , where he assisted in the completion of wall frescoes of the castle of [[Carlo I Malatesta Career Ghiberti first became famous when he won the 1401 competition for the first set of bronze doors for the Baptistery of the cathedral in Florence. Brunelleschi was the runner up . The original plan was for the doors to depict scenes from the Old Testament , and the trial piece was the sacrifice of Isaac . However, the plan was changed to depict scenes from the New Testament , instead. To carry out this commission, he set up a large workshop in which many artists trained, including Donatello , Masolino , Michelozzo , Uccello , and Antonio Pollaiuolo . Ghiberti had re-invented the lost-wax casting ( cire perdute ) of bronze-casting as it was used by the ancient Romans. This made his workshop so special to young artists. When his first set of twenty-eight panels was complete, Ghiberti was commissioned to produce a second set for another doorway in the church, this time with scenes from the Old Testament, as originally intended for his first set. Instead of twenty-eight scenes, he produced ten rectangular scenes in a completely different style. They were more naturalistic, with perspective and a greater idealization of the subject. Michelangelo dubbed these scenes the "Gates of Paradise." "The Gates of Paradise" is known to be a monument to the age of humanism. He was then commissioned to execute monumental gilded bronze statues to be placed within select niches of the Orsanmichele in Florence , one of Saint John the Baptist for the Arte di Calimala (Wool Merchants' Guild) and one of St. Matthew for the Arte di Cambio (Bankers' Guild). Finally, he also produced a bronze figure of St. Stephen for the Arte della Lana (Wool Manufacturers' Guild). End of life He was also a collector of classical artifacts and a historian. He was actively involved in the spreading of humanist ideas . His unfinished Commentarii are a valuable source of information about Renaissance art and contain an autobiography, the first of an artist. This work was a major source for Vasari 's Vite . Ghiberti died in Florence at the age of seventy-seven. [
  • Donatello Incorporates Greek idealism into Christian context. Goes beyond Classical Idealism by incorporating the dimension of personal expression.
  • New sense of naturalism in sculpture Use of classical contrapposto stance (relaxed not rigid) Statue of David considered first full scale nude since ancient times Name at birth: Donato di Niccolô di Betto Bardi: A towering figure in the history of western art, Donatello was an Italian sculptor of the Early Renaissance whose work is seen as a bridge from classic to modern art. He trained in Florence with Lorenzo Ghiberti and began working on his own in 1408. A student of antiquity and master craftsman, Donatello is considered one of the founders of modern sculpture because of he created realistic human expressions and stressed action and character. He is famous for his use of perspectives, including physical distortions for dramatic effect, and was a master craftsman with a flair for invention. He is known to have visited Rome (1403 and 1433), and for a time he had a workshop in Padua (1443-53), but he spent most of his life in Florence. His works there include St. George , John the Evangelist and Magdalen . He is considered the first sculptor since antiquity to create free-standing statues (separate from an architectural framework), and his life-size bronze equestrian portrait of Gattamelata (the popular name of commander Erasmo da Narni) is said to be the first since ancient Rome. His other famous works are the monument to the antipope John XXIII and his bronze statue of David . Other Renaissance artists include Leonardo da Vinci , Michelangelo and Raphael .
  •   We must remember that the church in the 14 and 1500′s still held enormous sway even in free-thinking places like Florence, and the reception towards such images as “the Birth of Venus” and Donatello’s “David” was still highly controversial. This painting was a private commission from Lorenzo deMedici, as were many other revolutionary works. Public attitude was another matter. Enter the radical Dominican Monk, Girolamo Savonarola. In 1490, Savonarola came to Florence. He took residence at San Marco (where his monastic cell is still seen today) and began preaching firey sermons about the last days. To a zealous preacher like Savonarola, Florence was filled with evidence of the devil’s work. Free-thinking was everywhere, as were symbols of vast Medici wealth. He saw they entire city going straight to hell, and made sure that everyone heard the message. He claimed to have the gift of prophecy, and foretold that Lorenzo would die soon (as it turns out, he was right). Savonarola must have been a very persuasive preacher, because he soon held the city in his hand. Even Botticelli, the painter or beautiful “pagan” paintings, fell under his spell. The Medici had no choice but to flee the city and Savonarola took charge of Florence in 1494. He set about cleansing the city and returning it to God. He held an enormous public burning in the Piazza della Signoria that came to be called “the Bonfire of the Vanities”. Florentines came to cast all kinds of evils into the flames, including books and manuscripts, symbols of wealth, jewelry, ancient relics and statues, cosmetics, fine clothing, mirrors, musical instruments and many priceless works of early Renaissance art. Botticelli cast his own paintings into the flames. No one knows how many works were destroyed by the artist himself, but it must have been truly gut-wrenching for him. His work was his life, yet he feared- as many Florentines did- for his eternal soul and had no other choice. Over the next few years,  public opinion turned on Savonarola. The city was used to Medici wealth and all the benefits it brought, something Savonarola wanted no part of. Eventually, things got so bad that the city revolted, and Savonarola himself was burned at the stake in the same spot as the bonfire. The entire episode was a black eye on the city and took years to recover from. The Medici returned, but under very different circumstances. Please take the time to watch part 2 of the Medici film, called “The Magnificent Medici”. It is a great movie on all that was discussed here, and really brings to life this crazy time in Florence. Enjoy-  
  • First artist to paint a full-length female nude. In Birth of Venus the figure occupies the center of the work which was traditionally reserved for the Virgin. This work is possibly the most pagan image of the entire Renaissance. When he suddenly died, his son Lorenzo took charge. He would become known as “Lorenzo the Magnificent”, as he brought about some of the greatest works of art ever through his patronage. It is staggering how many great artists and thinkers came out of Florence at this time, and considering how small Florence is they must have been elbow to elbow with each other. One of the most important Renaissance painters that came about under Lorenzo deMedici was Sandro Botticelli. It was Botticelli who created the first overtly pagan images at a time when the church of the middle ages was still large and in charge, an act that would never have happened had Lorenzo not relaxed the attitude of the city toward ancient “non-church” ideas. This sort of attitude resulted in enormously free creativity in art, as well as in writing and in the sciences. All of it was happening in Florence. The painting is a true masterpiece of Renaissance art. In it, the mythical goddess Venus is blown into the shore on a shell and received into the world on land. The story from mythology is far more detailed (and downright gross but you’ll have to research that yourself). The image is a true celebration of beauty, an exercise in pure pleasure on the part of the artist. Botticelli elongates the figures, adding to their grace and movement. Just look at Venus’ neck… super long, yet he makes it work. Until this time, feminine nudes just weren’t very common, except in images of Adam and Eve from the garden . Here’s a great short video that picks the painting apart: We must remember that the church in the 14 and 1500′s still held enormous sway even in free-thinking places like Florence, and the reception towards such images as “the Birth of Venus” and Donatello’s “David” was still highly controversial. This painting was a private commission from Lorenzo deMedici, as were many other revolutionary works. Public attitude was another matter. Enter the radical Dominican Monk, Girolamo Savonarola. In 1490, Savonarola came to Florence. He took residence at San Marco (where his monastic cell is still seen today) and began preaching firey sermons about the last days. To a zealous preacher like Savonarola, Florence was filled with evidence of the devil’s work. Free-thinking was everywhere, as were symbols of vast Medici wealth. He saw they entire city going straight to hell, and made sure that everyone heard the message. He claimed to have the gift of prophecy, and foretold that Lorenzo would die soon (as it turns out, he was right). Savonarola must have been a very persuasive preacher, because he soon held the city in his hand. Even Botticelli, the painter or beautiful “pagan” paintings, fell under his spell. The Medici had no choice but to flee the city and Savonarola took charge of Florence in 1494. He set about cleansing the city and returning it to God. He held an enormous public burning in the Piazza della Signoria that came to be called “the Bonfire of the Vanities”. Florentines came to cast all kinds of evils into the flames, including books and manuscripts, symbols of wealth, jewelry, ancient relics and statues, cosmetics, fine clothing, mirrors, musical instruments and many priceless works of early Renaissance art. Botticelli cast his own paintings into the flames. No one knows how many works were destroyed by the artist himself, but it must have been truly gut-wrenching for him. His work was his life, yet he feared- as many Florentines did- for his eternal soul and had no other choice. Over the next few years,  public opinion turned on Savonarola. The city was used to Medici wealth and all the benefits it brought, something Savonarola wanted no part of. Eventually, things got so bad that the city revolted, and Savonarola himself was burned at the stake in the same spot as the bonfire. The entire episode was a black eye on the city and took years to recover from. The Medici returned, but under very different circumstances. Please take the time to watch part 2 of the Medici film, called “The Magnificent Medici”. It is a great movie on all that was discussed here, and really brings to life this crazy time in Florence. Enjoy-  
  • Equestrian displays an unprecedented degree of scientific naturalism and an obsessive attention to anatomical detail
  • Motivated by intense curiosity and a optimistic belief in the human ability to understand the world. There are three classes of people. Those who see; those who see when they are shown; those who do not see." Which was Leonardo? sfumato  A painting technique using an imperceptable, subtle transition from light to dark, without any clear break or line. The theory was developed and mastered by Leonardo da Vinci, and the term derives from the Italian word fumo , meaning vapor, or smoke. Leonardo da Vinci is best remembered as the painter of the Mona Lisa (1503-1506) and The Last Supper (1495). But he's almost equally famous for his astonishing multiplicity of talents: he dabbled in architecture, sculpture, engineering, geology, hydraulics and the military arts, all with success, and in his spare time doodled parachutes and flying machines that resembled inventions of the 19th and 20th centuries. He made detailed drawings of human anatomy which are still highly regarded today. Leonardo also was quirky enough to write notebook entries in mirror (backwards) script, a trick which kept many of his observations from being widely known until decades after his death.
  • Chiaroscuro Italian word meaning “light-dark.” The gradations of light and dark values in two-dimensional imagery; especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations of light and shade rather than line. Highly developed by Renaissance painters.
  • Possibly his second painting done by himself. There two paintings by the same name and very similar to one another. Virgin Mary receives news from the archangel Gabriel that she will bear the immaculate conception of Jesus.
  • here are two versions of the Virgin of the Rocks, one (the earlier) in the Louvre, Paris and another in the National Gallery, London. The first work that Leonardo executed in Milan is the so-called Virgin of the Rocks, which actually expresses the theme of the Immaculate Conception, the dogma that affirms Mary was conceived without original sin. The name of the picture reflects an iconographical peculiarity: the religious figures are depicted in a rocky grotto, in which they are sitting on a stone floor. The figures are subjected to a strict spatial arrangement called a pyramidal composition. The painting had a considerable influence on Leonardo's artistic colleagues in Lombardy. Virgin Mary is guiding John the Baptist (child with hands in prayer position) towards Jesus (the other child) who is blessing John . The angel Uriel (kneeling to the right of the child Jesus) is bearing witness to the event. There are two paintings by the same name and very similar to the another: The first was not painted with halo’s above the heads of the characters in the picture. The second has halo’s
  • Firstly, because Leonardo became a master in more fields than any other since or before him. Most Geniuses such as Albert Einstein, William Shakespeare or Alfred Hitchcock were masters in just a single field. This simply isn’t the case with Leonardo. No subject matter was beyond his grasp, once he began meticulously dissecting it. This is partly because he more than anyone in his time, did not see subjects disjointed from one-another especially the way we tend to today. For him, art and science in its many forms were inseparable which any of his invention tends to show. The connection between Leonardo Da Vinci and science is also present in any of his painted masterpieces. As a result of his boundless nature, he explored and mastered subjects as diverse as surgical anatomy, cartography, archaeology and engineering to botany (to just name a few!) whilst also earning his main livelihood from creating painted masterpieces such as the Last Supper painting.
  • Commissioned to paint his Patron’s mistress, Ludovico Sforaz (duke of milan) The ermine which Cecilia is holding is the signature symbol of her lover.
  • The complete working of the human body were of so much interest o him that he believed that there was deeper connection between the construct of the Universe and the human being. This drawing above is considered the be the apex of this understanding and work. The golden ratio the quest of artist since Roman times to find the proportional equation of the body which relates to every human body, irrespective of their size.
  • By knowing what was going on underneath human skin, He could more correctly project the exterior anatomy of his art, In order to gain this knowledge he had to dissect dead bodies. He broke many religious laws, He put his life in risk by being put to death for Necromancy.
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) wrote a treatise, the Codex on the Flight of Birds , which put forth the first scientific observations on the subject of flight.  He discovered the vortices that are produced off the wings, and observed the alulae, or "thumbs" of the wings.  He was concerned with the center of gravity, stability, and maneuverability. Leonardo sketched several types of flying machines:  helical wing, beating wings, parachute , and bat's wings. Through real life trial and error Da Vinci learned the difficulty of realizing his great dream of flying in a machine powered by human propulsion, and turned his talents toward the problem of gliding flight. In the glider drawing below, the flyer's position is studied at the point where he is balanced through movements of the lower part of the body. The wings, modelled upon those of bats and birds of large wingspans, are fixed on the inboard portion (next to the flyer), and mobile at the external portion. This part of the wing in fact can be moved by the flyer by a control cable connected to handles. Leonardo arrived at this solution by studying the wing structure of birds and observing that the inboard part of their wings move more slowly than the outboard, and that therefore serve to thus sustain themselves and produce forward thrust.
  • In order to protect his ideas from them being stolen or abused by others, he lest out some information of his designs or put in misinformation. His notes are all also written in left-handed mirror written in order to better protect his ideas.
  • unique, almost godlike. In an artists hands, “life” could be created through inspiration from God. Name at birth: Michelangelo Buonarroti Perhaps the greatest influence on western art in the last five centuries, Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, architect, painter and poet in the period known as the High Renaissance. His great works were almost entirely in the service of the Catholic Church, and include a huge statue of the biblical hero David (over 14 feet tall) in Florence, sculpted between 1501 and 1504, and the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome (commissioned by Pope Julius II ), painted between 1508 and 1512. After 1519 Michelangelo was increasingly active in architecture; he designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica, completed after his death. Along with contemporaries Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael , he is considered one of the great masters of European art. Extra credit : Michelangelo's David was sculpted during almost the same years that da Vinci was painting the Mona Lisa . Four Good Links Michelangelo Buonarroti Pretty biography and links to more, from the website design firm Michelangelo.com Renaissance Art and Architecture Encarta's detailed backgrounder; includes a link to a fine bio of MIchelangelo WebMuseum: Michelangelo Basic information and examples of his most famous works Virtual Tour of the Sistine Chapel From the Vatican Museum, a high-tech tour of Michelangelo's work Vital Stats Birth 6 March 1475 Birthplace Caprese , Italy Death 18 February 1564 (age 88) Best Known As Master sculptor of The David Something in Common with Michelangelo Born on 6 March Born in 1475 Born in Italy Born in Caprese, Italy Pisces Models & Artists Last sketch found On December 7, 2007, Michelangelo's red chalk sketch for the dome of St Peter's Basilica, his last before his 1564 death, was discovered in the Vatican archives. It is extremely rare, since he destroyed his designs later in life. The sketch is a partial plan for one of the radial columns of the cupola drum of Saint Peter's.[17]
  • Expresses the Humanist concept of God: an idealized, rational man who actively tends every aspect of human creation and has a special interest in humans.
  • The picture (1)shows the Ignudo at the lower left corner of the Separation of the Earth from the Waters (above the Persian Sibyl). The poses of the pairs of ignudi become gradually more dynamic and agitated. The two above the Persian Sibyl (at the left) bend backward in opposite directions, while one of those above the prophet Daniel (at right) bends forward, casting an apprehensive glance at the viewer, and the other raises his arm in a movement reminiscent of Hellenistic sculptures of dancing fauns. The picture (2) shows the Ignudo at the upper left corner of the Drunkenness of Noah (above the prophet Joel). The figures of ignudi in this group bear garlands of oak leaves and acorns - allusions to the Della Rovere family - and ribbons passing through the frames of the large gilded medallions.
  • His great works were almost entirely in the service of the Catholic Church, and include a huge statue of the biblical hero David (over 14 feet tall) in Florence, sculpted between 1501 and 1504,
  • Contrapossto Italian for “counterpose.” The counterpositioning of parts of the human figure about a central vertical axis, as when the weight is placed on one foot causing the hip and shoulder lines to counter balance each other-often in a graceful s-curve.
  • David Carved from an abandoned eighteen foot block or marble. Symbol of freedom from tyranny for Florence which had just become a Republic. Career making piece for a 26 year old Michelangelo.
  • In the Pietà, Michelangelo approached a subject which until then had been given form mostly north of the Alps, where the portrayal of pain had always been connected with the idea of redemption: it was called the "Vesperbild" and represented the seated Madonna holding Christ's body in her arms. But now the twenty-three year-old artist presents us with an image of the Madonna with Christ's body never attempted before. Her face is youthful, yet beyond time; her head leans only slightly over the lifeless body of her son lying in her lap. "The body of the dead Christ exhibits the very perfection of research in every muscle, vein, and nerve. No corpse could more completely resemble the dead than does this. There is a most exquisite expression in the countenance. The veins and pulses, moreover, are indicated with so much exactitude, that one cannot but marvel how the hand of the artist should in a short time have produced such a divine work." One must take these words of Vasari about the "divine beauty" of the work in the most literal sense, in order to understand the meaning of this composition. Michelangelo convinces both himself and us of the divine quality and the significance of these figures by means of earthly beauty, perfect by human standards and therefore divine. We are here face to face not only with pain as a condition of redemption, but rather with absolute beauty as one of its consequences.
  • First of all, you’ll see that Moses is not just sitting down; his left leg is pulled back to the side of his chair as though he is about to rise. And because this leg is pulled back, his hips also face left. Michelangelo, to create an interesting, energetic figure where the forces of life are pulsing throughout the body, pulls the torso in the opposite direction. And so his torso faces to his right. And because the torso faces to the right, Moses turns his head to the left, and then pulls his beard to the right. Horns were symbolic of authority in ancient Near Eastern culture, and the medieval depiction had the advantage of giving Moses a convenient attribute by which he could easily be recognized in crowded pictures. So, what Michelangelo has done is create a figure where one part of the body turns in the opposite direction from another part. This creates a dynamic figure – we have a clear sense of the prophet and his duty to fulfill God's wishes.You have probably noticed that Moses has horns. This comes from a mistranslation of a Hebrew word that described Moses as having rays of light coming from his head. Venetian Renaissance More Giovanni Bellini and Titian Feast of the Gods Titian Bacchus and Ariadne Portrait of a Man Mannerism More Bronzino Portraits Cellini Perseus with the Head of Medusa Parmigianino Madonna of the Long Neck Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror Pontormo Entombment El Greco Adoration of the Shepherds Northern Renaissance More Gerard David Virgin and Child with Angels Holbein The Ambassadors Portrait of Henry VIII Dürer The Four Apostles Prints Self-portrait Cranach the Elder Wittenberg Altarpiece Adam and Eve Japan, Muromachi to Momoyama period More Negoro ware ewer Michelangelo's Moses Share this article Michelangelo,  Moses , marble, ca. 1513-15 (San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris , Dr. Steven Zucker   The Tomb of Pope Julius II When Michelangelo had finished sculpting David , it was clear that this was quite possibly the most beautiful figure ever created – exceeding the beauty even of Ancient Greek and Roman sculptures. Word of David reached Pope Julius II in Rome, and he asked Michelangelo to come to Rome to work for him. The first work Pope Julius II commissioned from Michelangelo was to sculpt his tomb (Pope Julius II's tomb that is). This may seem a bit strange to us today, but great rulers throughout history have planned fabulous tombs for themselves while they were still alive to ensure that they will be remembered forever (think of the Pharoahs in Egypt having the Pyramids built). When Michelangelo begins the tomb of Pope Julius II his ideas were quite ambitious. He planned a 2 story high structure that will be decorated with over 20 sculptures (each of these over life size - see the sketch above!). This was more than one person could do in a lifetime! Of course, Michelangelo was never able to finish the entire tomb. Not least because of Pope Julius himself, who asked Michelangelo to stop working on it and to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (but that’s another story). Michelangelo eventually completed a much scaled-down version of the tomb after trouble from the heirs of Pope Julius II (and this is what can be seen today in San Pietro in Vincoli, in Rome).
  • 1500 – 1600End of the Renaissance and the Reformation High Renaissance More Verocchio Baptism of Christ Leonardo Notebooks Virgin of the Rocks The Last Supper Burlington House Cartoon Mona Lisa Michelangelo Pietà David Moses Sistine Chapel Ceiling The Last Judgment Raphael Alba Madonna Portrait of Pope Julius II School of Athens Bramante, etc. Saint Peter's Basilica Galileo The Art of Renaissance Science The Interaction of Artists and Scientists in the Renaissance Venetian Renaissance More Giovanni Bellini and Titian Feast of the Gods Titian Bacchus and Ariadne Portrait of a Man Mannerism More Bronzino Portraits Cellini Perseus with the Head of Medusa Parmigianino Madonna of the Long Neck Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror Pontormo Entombment El Greco Adoration of the Shepherds Northern Renaissance More Gerard David Virgin and Child with Angels Holbein The Ambassadors Portrait of Henry VIII Dürer The Four Apostles Prints Self-portrait Cranach the Elder Wittenberg Altarpiece Adam and Eve Japan, Muromachi to Momoyama period More Negoro ware ewer Michelangelo's Moses Share this article Michelangelo,  Moses , marble, ca. 1513-15 (San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris , Dr. Steven Zucker   The Tomb of Pope Julius II When Michelangelo had finished sculpting David , it was clear that this was quite possibly the most beautiful figure ever created – exceeding the beauty even of Ancient Greek and Roman sculptures. Word of David reached Pope Julius II in Rome, and he asked Michelangelo to come to Rome to work for him. The first work Pope Julius II commissioned from Michelangelo was to sculpt his tomb (Pope Julius II's tomb that is). This may seem a bit strange to us today, but great rulers throughout history have planned fabulous tombs for themselves while they were still alive to ensure that they will be remembered forever (think of the Pharoahs in Egypt having the Pyramids built). When Michelangelo begins the tomb of Pope Julius II his ideas were quite ambitious. He planned a 2 story high structure that will be decorated with over 20 sculptures (each of these over life size - see the sketch above!). This was more than one person could do in a lifetime! Of course, Michelangelo was never able to finish the entire tomb. Not least because of Pope Julius himself, who asked Michelangelo to stop working on it and to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (but that’s another story). Michelangelo eventually completed a much scaled-down version of the tomb after trouble from the heirs of Pope Julius II (and this is what can be seen today in San Pietro in Vincoli, in Rome). Michelangelo, Moses , marble, 1515 (San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome) Moses is an imposing figure – he is nearly eight feet high sitting down! He has enormous muscular arms and an angry, intense look in his eyes. Under his arms he carries the tablets of the law – the stones inscribed with the Ten Commandments that he has just received from God on Mt. Sinai. In this story from the Old Testament book of Exodus, Moses leaves the Israelites (who he has just delivered from slavery in Egypt) to go to the top of Mt. Sinai. When he returns he finds that they have constructed a golden calf to worship and make sacrifices to – they have, in other words, been acting like the Egyptians and worshipping a pagan idol. One of the commandments is “Thou shalt not make any graven images,” and so when Moses sees the Israelites worshipping this idol, and betraying the one and only God who has, after all, just delivered them from slavery, he throws down the tablets and breaks them.Here is the passage from the Old Testament: 15 Then Moses turned and went down the mountain. He held in his hands the two stone tablets inscribed with the terms of the covenant. They were inscribed on both sides, front and back. 16 These stone tablets were God's work; the words on them were written by God himself. 17 When Joshua heard the noise of the people shouting below them, he exclaimed to Moses, "It sounds as if there is a war in the camp!" 18 But Moses replied, "No, it's neither a cry of victory nor a cry of defeat. It is the sound of a celebration." 19 When they came near the camp, Moses saw the calf and the dancing. In terrible anger, he threw the stone tablets to the ground, smashing them at the foot of the mountain.
  • The picture shows the original wood model for the dome of St Peter's (left) and a section of it (right). In his eighty-fifth year or thereabouts, Michelangelo ordered a large wooden model of the dome. It has been preserved, and proves that his successors kept more or less closely to the original. Deviations are confined mainly to three particulars: instead of confining themselves to the proposed self-contained triangular window cornices, they alternate them with segment cornices. Between the ribs of the vaulting run three concentric and ascending groins to each section, breaking and enlivening the bare, vaulted surfaces. The handsome consoles of the attic above the tambour have been omitted.
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  • This fresco was commissioned by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) shortly before his death. His successor, Paul III Farnese (1534-1549), forced Michelangelo to a rapid execution of this work, the largest single fresco of the century. The first impression we have when faced with the Last Judgment is that of a truly universal event, at the centre of which stands the powerful figure of Christ. His raised right hand compels the figures on the lefthand side, who are trying to ascend, to be plunged down towards Charon and Minos, the Judge of the Underworld; while his left hand is drawing up the chosen people on his right in an irresistible current of strength. Together with the planets and the sun, the saints surround the Judge, confined into vast spacial orbits around Him. For this work Michelangelo did not choose one set point from which it should be viewed. The proportions of the figures and the size of the groups are determined, as in the Middle Ages, by their single absolute importance and not by their relative significance. For this reason, each figure preserves its own individuality and both the single figures arid the groups need their own background.
  • ichelangelo' last sculptures were two (or three if the Pietà Palestrina is his work) Pietàs. Some of them were probably planned to decorate his tomb. According to Vasari, the artist's wish was to be buried in Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, at the feet of the Pietà on which he had worked between 1547 and 1553; this was before he smashed it in 1555, because one leg had broken off and because the block of marble was defective. This is the Pietà, which is now in Florence Cathedral Museum. After having broken the statue, he let his servant take the pieces. Later the servant sold them and the new owner had it reconstructed following Michelangelo's models, so that the work has been preserved.
  • Perugian, Florentine, & Roman periods – Roman most famous , At 17 sent to Perugia, dead by age 37 "The young painter from Urbino thus adopted the artistic innovations of his elder colleagues, in particular those of Leonardo and Michelangelo, and synthesized them with his own aims." – Toman 1483 - 1520 Artist and Architect   Italy One of the most important and talented artists of the Italian Renaissance, Raphael (or Raffaello Sanzio, or Rafael Sanzi or Santi) was born in Urbino and took his earliest lessons in art from his father. He was apprenticed to Perugino in Perugia, then moved on to Florence and Rome. Raphael is noted for his Madonnas, and is considered by many to have produced some of the world's most beautiful paintings. He was also an architect, designing the church of Sant' Eligio degli Orefici and working on the basilica of St. Peter's. Raphael was as handsome and charming as he was talented, and he became so popular that he acquired the nickname "the prince of painters." He gained the respect and patronage of Pope Julius II and spent the last 12 years of his life in Rome. Among his prolific works were projects for the pontiff, including a cycle of frescoes for a suite in the pope's personal living quarters. Raphael lived life to the full, but died young, on his 37th birthday. His funeral mass was celebrated at the Vatican and he was buried in the Pantheon.
  • Raphael, like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci , is one of the most famous artists of Italy's High Renaissance and one of the greatest influences in the history of Western art. Immensely talented, he first studied with his father and then as an assistant to the great master Pietro Vannucci, known as Perugino. Raphael (also known as Raffaello Sanzio) worked in Florence (1504) and earned a reputation as a productive and much-admired painter before going to Rome sometime after 1508. In Rome he was commissioned by Pope Julius II to create the large-scale fresco The School of Athens , as well as other decorative work at the Vatican. Raphael also took over as architect of St. Peter's after the death of Donato Bramante (1514), contributed ten tapestries to the Sistine Chapel and painted some of the most prized and reproduced holy pictures of the era, including The Sistine Madonna and Transfiguration . His work is often cited for its harmony and balance of composition, and his early death (on his 37th birthday) is considered by many experts to be one of the great tragedies of art history.
  • The Pope who had commissioned the pictorial cycles and the works that had so contributed to the artist's fame, is depicted - according to historical sources, in the master's hand - in a portrait "so animated and true to life that it was frightening to behold, as though it were actually alive" (Vasari). The painting shows the Pope seated with the tiara on his head, dressed in a white surplice and a purple mantle. Here the simple but effective tonal contrast, first used in the Portrait of a Cardinal, reappears. The Pope, though old, still seems very vigorous and the Della Rovere energy is clearly visible in the hand that grasps the right arm of the chair with strength and pride. The two acorn-shaped knobs on the back of the chair recall the Pope's coat of arms. The intimacy of the image indicates that Raphael has progressed from the narrative compositions of the Vatican Stanze to the full dominance of individual subjectivity.
  • Venetian masters Bellini, Giorgione, Titian, Palladio (architecture) Most versatile: portrait, landscape, mythological, & religious paintings. Manner & styles changed drastically throughout long life, but consistent interest in use of color Tiziano Vecellio -- Titian -- was a sixteenth century Renaissance oil painter from Venice and one of the most influential artists in the history of western art. Although his early years are difficult to pin down, it's known that he studied in Venice with the popular painter Giovanni Bellini and his younger contemporary, Giorgio da Castelfranco (known as Giorgione). By 1516 both Bellini and Giorgione were dead, and for the next sixty years Titian was the recognized master of Venetian painters, as influential as Florentine wizard Leonardo and more financially successful than Michelangelo . Titian's vibrant oils depicted classical ideals as well as romantic Christian themes, and his patrons were European nobles and royals, including Charles V and Philip II. A master realist and astute businessman, Titian was famous and venerated throughout Europe during his lifetime. His most famous paintings include The Assumption of the Virgin (1518), Bacchus and Ariadne (1523), Venus of Urbino (1538), Ecce Homo (1543) and The Rape of Europa (1562). Early biographies of Titian cite his birth year as 1477, but modern scholarship holds he was born around 1485
  • The Venus of Urbino is a 1538 oil painting by the Italian master Titian . (PRIVATE ENJOYMENT)It depicts a nude young woman, identified with the goddess Venus , reclining on a couch or bed in the sumptuous surroundings of a Renaissance palace. It hangs in the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence . The figure's pose is based on Giorgione 's Sleeping Venus (c. 1510), which Titian completed. In this depiction, Titian has domesticated Venus by moving her to an indoor setting, engaging her with the viewer, and making her sensuality explicit. Devoid as it is of any classical or allegorical trappings -Venus displays none of the attributes of the goddess she is supposed to represent- the painting is unapologetically erotic. The frankness of Venus's expression is often noted; she stares straight at the viewer, unconcerned with her nudity . In her right hand she holds a posy of roses whilst her left covers her groin, provocatively placed in the centre of the composition. In the near background is a dog, often a symbol of either fidelity or sexual profligacy; that the animal is asleep hints that the woman portrayed is unfaithful. Édouard Manet's Olympia , 1863 The painting was commissioned by Guidobaldo II della Rovere , the Duke of Urbino , possibly to celebrate his 1534 marriage. It would originally have decorated a cassone , a chest traditionally given in Italy as a wedding present. The maids in the background are shown rummaging through a similar chest, apparently in search of Venus's clothes. Curiously, given its overtly erotic content, the painting was intended as an instructive "model" for Giulia Varano, the Duke's extremely young bride. The argument for the painting's didacticism was made by the late art historian Rona Goffen in 1997's “Sex, Space, and Social History in Titian’s Venus of Urbino". Titian contrasts the straight lines of the architecture with the curves of the female form, and the screen behind Venus bisects the painting, a large-scale division that is mitigated by unifying elements such as the use of colour and the floral patterns of the couch, cassoni , and background tapestries. In his 1880 travelogue A Tramp Abroad , Mark Twain called the Venus of Urbino "the foulest, the vilest, the obscenest picture the world possesses". He proposed that "it was painted for a bagnio , and it was probably refused because it was a trifle too strong", adding humorously that "in truth, it is a trifle too strong for any place but a public art gallery". Venus of Urbino inspired Édouard Manet 's 1863 Olympia in which the figure of Venus is replaced with the model Victorine Meure
  • Deutsch: Schlummernde Venus Date ca. between 1508(1508) and 1510(1510) Medium Oil on canvas Dimensions 108 × 175 cm (42.52 × 68.9 in) Current location Deutsch: Gemäldegalerie Deutsch: Dresden Notes Deutsch: Auf dem Gemälde befand sich urspr. ein von Tizian gemalter Cupido, der im 18. Jh. übermalt wurde English: This painting was done by Giorgione in approx. 1509 c. It was unfinished at the time of his death and the sky was later finished by Titian. (Titian also painted a similar Venus, but it was not as agitated and unsettled as Giorgione's nude.) Obviously a painting with underlying erotic implications, this can be seen by the Venus' raised arm (the exposed arm pit a symbol of sexuality) and also the blatant placement of her left hand. The sheets are a silver colour (a cold colour rather than a more commonly used warm tone) and they are very rigid looking (in comparison to Titian's or Velzquez's Venus'). The landscape mimicks the curves of the nude and this in turn relates the human body back to natural, organic object.
  • In the course of a century, the Ottoman had created one of the most powerful empires in the Near East, disrupting east-west overland trade and establishing a pattern of theocratic (governed by God) Muslim rule that would persist in parts of Asia until the early 20 th centuryCentral Asian clan of Muslim Turks known as Ottoman swept westward, threatening Byzantine lands.
  • Decameron was created because of the Plague, eager to escape contamination 7 young women and 3 young men retreat to a villa in the suburbs of Florence, where to pass the time each tells a story on each of the 10 days .
  • Ficino: The Platonic Academy Pico della Mirandola: The Dignity of Man Ficino’s translations and the founding of the Platonic Academy in Florence launched a reappraisal of Plato and the Neo-Platonist that had major consequences in the domains of art and literature. Mirandola – undertook the translation of various ancient literary works in Hebrew, Arabic, Latin, and Greek. Humanist , poet and theologian, Pico sought not only to bring to light the entire history of human thought, but to prove that all intellectual expression shared the same divine purpose and design. Castiglione – concerns the qualifications of the ideal Renaissance man and woman.

Chapter 7 renaissance Chapter 7 renaissance Presentation Transcript

  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452?1519), Vitruvian Man, c. 1485-1490. Pen and ink, 13 1/2" x 9 5/8". Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice late 14 th -16 th centuries
  • Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1498?1543), Dance of Death, ca. 1490. Woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C .
    • Bubonic Plague, 1347 destroyed 1/3 to 1/2 of its population within less than a century.
  • Joan of Arc, from Antoine Dufour's Lives of Famous Women, 1504. French manuscript. Musée Dobrée, Nantes, France
    • 100 year war (1337-1453)
    • 17 year old Peasant
    • Heard voices of the Christian saints who had directed her to expel the English.
    • World’s first feminist writer
    • occurred at a time in which men were making efforts to restrict female inheritance of land.
    • Book of the City of Ladies (1405)
    • The Magna Carta was significant in the rise of constitutional monarchy in England.
    • The Magna Carta became the basis for English citizen's rights.
    • A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements, and capabilities of humans.
    • saw no conflicts between humanism and religious belief
    Andrea del Verrocchio, Lorenzo de’ Medici, 1478, Terra Cotta
    • Petrarch ‘s Canzoniere (songbook) (1350)
    • Sonnet No.134
    • I find no peace, and yet I make no war:
    • and fear, and hope: and burn, and I am ice:
    • and fly above the sky, and fall to earth,
    • and clutch at nothing, and embrace the world.
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    • The Aldine Press in Venice
    • The Courtier , edition of more than 1,000 copies.
    • The humanist ideas was greatly aided by the printing press.
    • Machiavelli , The Prince , a political treatise that called for the unification of Italy under a powerful and courageous leader.
    • Wrote romances and love poetry.
    • First biographer of Dante
    • His landmark work is the celebrated collection of short stories known as the Decameron. (1351)
    A tale from The Decameron , by John William Waterhouse .
    • “ Father of the Renaissance”
    • New sense of realism by using light and shading.
    • Re-inventor of “naturalistic” painting.
    Sermon to the Birds St Francis Illuminated Manuscript Image c 1270, Ghent, Belgium
  • The Scrovegni Chapel, Padua Giotto (1267 – 1337) Father of the Renaissance
  • Legend of St Francis: Sermon to the Birds, 1297-99 His frescoes are considered innovative landmarks for their use of light and shade to model form.
  • Baptism of Christ 1304-06
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    • Florentine architect and engineer
    Dome of the Cathedral 1420-36 Duomo, Florence First dome since Roman times!
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  •  
    • Pierro della Francesca
    • “ View of an Ideal City”
    First to carry out a series of optical experiments that led to a mathematical theory of perspective.
  • His method of perspective had a dramatic impact on the depiction of 3-dimensional space in the arts
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    • Goldsmith and Sculptor
    • He made use of one – point perspective in a manner that would profoundly influence Renaissance art for the next hundred years
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  • Sacrifice of Isaac 1401 Bronze relief Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455)
    • New sense of naturalism in sculpture
    • Use of classical contrapposto stance (relaxed not rigid)
  • David, 1425-1430
    • Donatello (1386-1466)
    • Statue of David - first full scale nude
    • since ancient times
  • St Mary Magdalen c. 1457 Wood, height: 188 cm Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence Donatello
    • First artist to paint a full-length female nude.
    • In Birth of Venus is possibly the most pagan image of the entire Renaissance.
    • The Birth of Venus
    • ca. 1485
    • Tempera on canvas,
    • 172.5 x 278.5 cm
    • Galleria degli Uffizi,
    • Florence
  • The Birth of Venus c. 1485 Tempera on canvas, 172.5 x 278.5 cm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence Sandra Botticelli (1445-1510) (possibly the most pagan image of the entire Renaissance) Reflects the revival of classical themes in European art.
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  • Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510), Primavera , c. 1482. Tempera on panel, 6' 8"" x 10' 4"". Galleria degli Uffizi Florence, Italy
  • Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510), Mars and Venus , c. 1475. Tempera on panel, 27 1/4" x 68 1/4". © The National Gallery, London
  • The Adoration of the Magi (detail) c. 1475 Tempera on panel Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence Botticelli
  • The detail shows the assumed self-portrait of the artist. Botticelli
    • Equestrian - scientific naturalism and attention to anatomical detail
    • Ran a large workshop that trained many artist including Leonardo
    • "Renaissance Man“
    • superb master of line, pioneer of sfumato , inventor, naturalist, and painter of the soul’s intent .
    • Art and science are two means to the same end: knowledge.
    Leonardo da Vinci, 1452 - 1519
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519). Mona Lisa , c. 1503-1505. Oil on wood, 30 1/4" x 21". Louvre, Paris. Leonardo’s Mona Lisa is unusual in that the sitter appears in a landscape setting .
  • Madonna and Child with Flowers 1478: possibly his first painting completed by himself. (age 26)
  • The annunciation, 1481 (age 29) Leonardo da Vinci
  • Virgin of the Rocks 1483-86 Oil on panel, 199 x 122 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris Leonardo da Vinci
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519). Madonna and Child with Saint Anne , c. 1503-1506. Oil on wood, 5' 6 1/8" x 3' 8". Louvre, Paris
  • Lady with an Ermine 1483-1490 Oil on wood 53.4 x 39.3 cm (21 x 15 1/2 in.) Czartoryski Museum, Cracow Leonardo da Vinci
  • The Last Supper (with names of Apostles labelled) after cleaning 1498 Tempera on plaster 460 x 880 cm (15 x 29 ft.) Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie (Refectory), Milan Leonardo da Vinci
  • Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper (detail of Jesus, under restoration), c. 1495-97. Fresco, 15' 1 1/8" x 28' 10 1/2". Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
  • Vitruvian Man 1492 Pen, ink, watercolor and metalpoint on paper, 343 x 245 mm Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice Leonardo da Vinci
  • Anatomical studies of the shoulder 1510-11 Black chalk, pen and ink on paper, 289 x 199 mm Royal Library, Windsor Leonardo da Vinci
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452?1519), Embryo in the Womb, ca. 1510. Pen and brown ink, 11 3/4 x 8 1/2 in. He examined the anatomical and organic functions of plants animals and human beings Leonardo da Vinci
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), Wing Construction for a Flying Machine , ca. 1500. Pen and brown ink. Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Leonardo da Vinci. Church resembling the Holy Sepulcher in Milan, Leonardo’s drawing of a Fierce Dragon .
    • Always thought himself a sculptor, not a painter
    • A contender for Renaissance Man
    • master of sculpture, also excellent painter and architect.
    Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475 - 1564
  • Michelangelo (1475-1564), Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome (after cleaning), 1508-1512. During the High Renaissance, the center of artistic productivity shifted from Florence to Rome.
  • Michelangelo (1475-1564), Creation of Adam , c. 1510. Sistine Chapel, Rome. Vatican Museums
  • Ignudo Fresco Cappella Sistina, Vatican
  • David 1504 Marble, height 434 cm Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
  • Ancient Greek Sculpture Renaissance Sculpture
  • Pietà 1499 Marble, height 174 cm, width at the base 195 cm Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican Pieta Works in which the Virgin is supporting and mourning the death of Jesus.
  • MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Moses , from the tomb of Pope Julius II, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1515 Marble, 7’ 8 1/2” high. San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome. The Horns comes from a mistranslation of a Hebrew word that described Moses as having rays of light coming from his head.
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  • Model for the dome 1560 Wood Musei Vaticani, Rome
  • Dome of St Peter's 1564 - Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican
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  • Pope Benedict XVI, Easter Mass 2007
  • Last Judgment 1537-41 Fresco, 1370 x 1220 cm Cappella Sistina, Vatican
  • The Last Judgment Detail Michelangelo’s Self Portrait
  • Pietà c. 1550 Marble, height: 226 cm Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence
  • Michelangelo. Rondanini Pietà , c. 1555-1564. Marble, 6' 5 1/2" high. Castello Sforzesco, Milan
    • “ The Prince of Painters"
    • younger master painter who incorporated elements of Leonardo and Michelangelo in to his own unique style.
    • artwork - harmony and balance of composition
    Raphael Sanzio 1483 - 1520
  • Raphael (1483-1520), The Alba Madonna, ca. 1510. Oil on wood transferred to canvas, diameter 37 1/4 in. © 2009 Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C
  • Raphael, Madonna of the Chair , c. 1515. Oil on panel, diameter 2' 5".
  • Raphael Portrait of Julius II 1511-12 Oil on wood, 108 x 80,7 cm National Gallery, London … a portrait "so animated and true to life that it was frightening to behold, as though it were actually alive" (Vasari).
  • The School of Athens 1510-11 Fresco Vatican, Stanza della Segnatura
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  • Raphael's Tomb Pantheon, Rome
    • Greatest of the Venetian School
    • Most versatile: portrait, landscape, mythological, & religious paintings.
    • consistent interest in use of color
    Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) 1485 - 1576
  • Titian. Venus of Urbino , c. 1538. Oil on canvas, 3' 11" x 5' 5". Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. ( FOR PRIVATE ENJOYMENT)
  • Giorgione 1509
  • Assumption of the Virgin 1516-18 Oil on wood, 690 x 360 cm Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice
  • Titian (1488/90-1576). The Annunciation , c. 1560. Oil on canvas, 13' 2 5/8" x 7' 8 1/2". Chiesa di San Salvador, Venice
  • Bacchus and Ariadne 1520-22 Oil on canvas, 175 x 190 cm - National Gallery, London
  • Portrait of Philip II in Armour 1550-51 Oil on canvas, 193 x 111 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
    • Ars nova is the name given to the expressive new musical style of the fourteenth century.
    • Madrigal – a composition for three to six unaccompanied voices.
    • Renaissance Dance – first efforts to establish dance as a independent discipline.
    • 14 th century
    • theocratic (governed by God) Muslim rule
    Sinan the Great (c.1490-1588), Mosque of Suleyman I, Istanbul, Turkey, begun 1550.
    • Ars nova is the name given to the expressive new musical style of the fourteenth century.
    • Josquin des Prez
      • A master of Masses, motets, and secular songs, he earned international recognition as “the prince of music.”
    • Madrigal – a composition for three to six unaccompanied voices.
    • Instrumental Music – 16 th century made considerable advances in the development of instrumental music.
    • Renaissance Dance – first efforts to establish dance as a independent discipline.
    • Prolific writer of Italian prose romances and love poetry.
    • First biographer of Dante
    • His landmark work is the celebrated collection of short stories known as the Decameron. (1351)
    • The classical revival of the 14 th to 16 th century
    • Generated new and more all-embracing attitudes toward Greco-Roman antiquity than any that had preceded it.
    • Most were Catholics
    • Life on earth was not a vale of tears but, rather, an extended occasion during which human beings might cultivate their unique talents and abilities
    • saw no conflicts between humanism and religious belief
    • Frescoes - art created on damp plaster
    • Oil paints (a technique from the north)
    • Realistic portrayal of human nature
    • Chiaroscuro - use of shadows to show balance of light and dark
    • Science -particularly in anatomy
    • Linear perspective - allowed artist to represent objects in relative sizes
    • Castiglino: The Well-Rounded Person
    Raphael, Baldassare Castiglione , 1514. Oil on canvas, 32 1/4" x 26 1/2".
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455)
    • First artist to paint a full-length female nude
    • In Birth of Venus the figure occupies the center of the work which was traditionally reserved for the Virgin. This work is possibly the most pagan image of the entire Renaissance.
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  • Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510), Mystical Nativity , 1501. Oil on canvas, 42 3/4" x 29 1/2". © The National Gallery, London.
    • Human beings are
    • Some say that many women are deceitful, Wily, false, of little worth: Others that too many are liars, fickle, flighty , and inconstant; Still others accuse them of great vices, blaming them much, excusing them of them nothing, thus do clerics, night and day, First in French verse, then in Latin, based on who knows what books That tell more lies than drunkards do.
  • one – point perspective Ghiberti