Renaissance means re-birth, between 1300-1600 was a revival of the culture of Greco-Roman civilization spread from its birthplace in Italy to all parts of the western Europe. Individualism and an optimistic view of the human potential for knowledge and pleasure here on earth cultivated a spirit of humanism that left the world many of its most distinctive landmarks.
Betrayed by her supporters in 1431 she was condemned as a heretic and burned at the stake.
Her feminism is all the more significant because it occurred at a time in which men were making systematic efforts to restrict female inheritance of land and female membership in the guilds. Some say that many women are deceitful, Wily, false, of little worth: Others that too many are liars, fickle, flighty , and inconstant; Still others accuse them of great vices, blaming them much, excusing them of them nothing, thus do clerics, night and day, First in French verse, then in Latin, based on who knows what books That tell more lies than drunkards do.
Humanism Humanism was the basic concept of the Italian Renaissance. It is the term used to define that philosophical movement in Italy at the end of the 14th century and during the 15th and 16th centuries which asserted the right of the individual to the use of his own reason and belief, and stressed the importance and potential of man as an individual. This concept can be identified with a belief in the power of learning and science to produce &quot;the complete man&quot;. This rational and scientific conception of the world is the basis of our modern civilization. Modern Humanism originated in the Renaissance when scholars, writers, poets, artists, philosophers and scientists sought regeneration in the freer intellectual spirit of Classical times. The Humanists saw no conflict between the New Learning--the newly rediscovered wisdom of the ancient world--and the authority of the Church. They felt that the study of the ancient great writers of Greece and Rome was a tool for the understanding of true Christian doctrine, and that Platonic philosophy (the belief in the ideal of physical beauty as the mani-festation of God, the One Supreme Being) could only illumi-nate, never undermine, theology.Petrarch – “Father of Humanism” (1304-1374) the most famous of the early Florentine humanists/poet. Literary Landmark- Canzoniere (songbook) (1350) The object of his affecton and the inspiration for the Canzoniere was a married Florentine woman named Laura de Sade. The classical revival of the 14 th to 16 th century Generated new and more all-embracing attitudes toward Greco-Roman antiquity than any that had preceded it. Most were Catholics Life on earth was not a vale of tears but, rather, an extended occasion during which human beings might cultivate their unique talents and abilities saw no conflicts between humanism and religious belief One imprisons me, who neither frees nor jails me, nor keeps me to herself nor slips the noose: and Love does not destroy me, and does not loose me, wishes me not to live, but does not remove my bar. I see without eyes, and have no tongue, but cry: and long to perish, yet I beg for aid: and hold myself in hate, and love another. I feed on sadness, laughing weep: death and life displease me equally: and I am in this state, lady, because of you.
The Scrovegni Chapel, Padua Giotto is considered to be the most influential artist on Renaissance painting. Father of the Renaissance Giotto’s dignified figures seemed to displace space, to stand upon the ground with real substance and weight. Florentine painter and architect. Outstanding as a painter, sculptor, and architect, Giotto was recognized as the first genius of art in the Italian Renaissance. Giotto lived and worked at a time when people's minds and talents were first being freed from the shackles of medieval restraint. He dealt largely in the traditional religious subjects, but he gave these subjects an earthly, full-blooded life and force. Giotto is considered to be the most influential artist on Renaissance painting. Father of the Renaissance Giotto’s dignified figures seemed to displace space, to stand upon the ground with real substance and weight. The figures seem to extend both backward, into the picture, and forward, toward the spectator’s space. Florentine painter and architect. Outstanding as a painter, sculptor, and architect, Giotto was recognized as the first genius of art in the Italian Renaissance. Giotto lived and worked at a time when people's minds and talents were first being freed from the shackles of medieval restraint. He dealt largely in the traditional religious subjects, but he gave these subjects an earthly, full-blooded life and force.
Giotto represents a transition from medieval to renaissance art . Giotto is recognized as the first genius of Renaissance art. He lacked the knowledge of human anatomy, but made up for it in human emotional expression. Giotto is the single most important person in bringing about emotion in Renaissance art. He knew what was significant in life, and showed that through stress, desire, and suffering in his art. Giotto is regarded as the founder of the central tradition of Western painting because his artwork went away from the Byzantine art style, introducing new ideals of naturalism and creating a convincing sense of pictorial space. Giotto left a profound impression on artists such as Michelangelo.
Giotto represents a transition from medieval to renaissance art. Giotto is recognized as the first genius of Renaissance art. He lacked the knowledge of human anatomy, but made up for it in human emotional expression. Giotto is the single most important person in bringing about emotion in Renaissance art. He knew what was significant in life, and showed that through stress, desire, and suffering in his art. Giotto is regarded as the founder of the central tradition of Western painting because his artwork went away from the Byzantine art style, introducing new ideals of naturalism and creating a convincing sense of pictorial space. Giotto left a profound impression on artists such as Michelangelo.
Florentine architect and engineer First to carry out a series of optical experiments that led to a mathematical theory of perspective. His method of perspective had a dramatic impact on the depiction of 3-dimensional space in the arts
Linear Perspective Linear perspective, or one point perspective is a system for drawing objects that use lines and a vanishing point to determine how much an object’s apparent size changes with space. So Why Is Perspective Important? Perspective helps artists accurately recreate a three-dimensional physical space like a building, in a two dimensional space like a piece of paper. Overall this system, called “perspective,” produces a greater sense of “realism,” and a correspondence between the physical reality of nature and the representational reality created by the artist. This was all made possible through advancements in mathematics and its inventor, Filippo Brunelleschi. Brunelleschi and Perspective The Florentine architect and engineer Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was the first to carry out a series of experiments leading to a mathematical theory of perspective. In one of his experiments he used a clever technique to paint a picture of an hexagonal-shaped building in Florence named the Baptistery. He wanted what today we would produce with a camera, an exact replica of the baptistery that would fool your eye. To make sure that his painting was exact, he set up a series of mirrors so he could compare his painting with the actual building to make sure all the lines of his picture matched up precisely with the actual building. The reflected image in the mirror was painted onto a wooden tablet in which a small hole had been drilled. Unfortunately, the painted panel has not survived. New rules of proportions and symmetry were created from Brunelleshi’s work and also led to other explorations in art perspective.
New sense of naturalism in sculpture Use of classical contrapposto stance (relaxed not rigid) Statue of David considered first full scale nude since ancient times Name at birth: Donato di Niccolô di Betto Bardi: A towering figure in the history of western art, Donatello was an Italian sculptor of the Early Renaissance whose work is seen as a bridge from classic to modern art. He trained in Florence with Lorenzo Ghiberti and began working on his own in 1408. A student of antiquity and master craftsman, Donatello is considered one of the founders of modern sculpture because of he created realistic human expressions and stressed action and character. He is famous for his use of perspectives, including physical distortions for dramatic effect, and was a master craftsman with a flair for invention. He is known to have visited Rome (1403 and 1433), and for a time he had a workshop in Padua (1443-53), but he spent most of his life in Florence. His works there include St. George , John the Evangelist and Magdalen . He is considered the first sculptor since antiquity to create free-standing statues (separate from an architectural framework), and his life-size bronze equestrian portrait of Gattamelata (the popular name of commander Erasmo da Narni) is said to be the first since ancient Rome. His other famous works are the monument to the antipope John XXIII and his bronze statue of David . Other Renaissance artists include Leonardo da Vinci , Michelangelo and Raphael .
First artist to paint a full-length female nude In Birth of Venus the figure occupies the center of the work which was traditionally reserved for the Virgin. This work is possibly the most pagan image of the entire Renaissance.
Lorenzo Ghiberti From Wikipedia( View original Wikipedia Article ) Last modified on 23 May 2011, at 06:07 From Wikipedia Jump to: navigation , search Lorenzo Ghiberti Lorenzo Ghiberti on Gates of Paradise , Baptistery, Florence Birth name Lorenzo di Bartolo Born 1378 (1378) Florence , Italy Died December 1, 1455 (aged 76â€“77) Florence , Italy Nationality Italian Field Sculpture Movement Early Renaissance Works Gates of Paradise, Florence Baptistery Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 â€“ 1 December 1455), born Lorenzo di Bartolo , was an Italian artist of the early Renaissance best known for works in sculpture and metalworking . Table of Contents 1 Life 1.1 Early life 1.2 Career 1.3 End of life 2 Renaissance Perspective 3 Gallery 4 References 5 External links Life Early life Ghiberti was born in Pelago (Florence). His father was Bartoluccio Ghiberti, a trained artist and goldsmith, who trained his son in the gold trade. Lorenzo Ghiberti then went to work in the workshop of Bartoluccio de Michele , where Brunelleschi also got his training. When the bubonic plague struck Florence in 1400, Ghiberti emigrated to Rimini , where he assisted in the completion of wall frescoes of the castle of [[Carlo I Malatesta Career Ghiberti first became famous when he won the 1401 competition for the first set of bronze doors for the Baptistery of the cathedral in Florence. Brunelleschi was the runner up. The original plan was for the doors to depict scenes from the Old Testament , and the trial piece was the sacrifice of Isaac . However, the plan was changed to depict scenes from the New Testament , instead. To carry out this commission, he set up a large workshop in which many artists trained, including Donatello , Masolino , Michelozzo , Uccello , and Antonio Pollaiuolo . Ghiberti had re-invented the lost-wax casting ( cire perdute ) of bronze-casting as it was used by the ancient Romans. This made his workshop so special to young artists. When his first set of twenty-eight panels was complete, Ghiberti was commissioned to produce a second set for another doorway in the church, this time with scenes from the Old Testament, as originally intended for his first set. Instead of twenty-eight scenes, he produced ten rectangular scenes in a completely different style. They were more naturalistic, with perspective and a greater idealization of the subject. Michelangelo dubbed these scenes the &quot;Gates of Paradise.&quot; &quot;The Gates of Paradise&quot; is known to be a monument to the age of humanism. He was then commissioned to execute monumental gilded bronze statues to be placed within select niches of the Orsanmichele in Florence , one of Saint John the Baptist for the Arte di Calimala (Wool Merchants' Guild) and one of St. Matthew for the Arte di Cambio (Bankers' Guild). Finally, he also produced a bronze figure of St. Stephen for the Arte della Lana (Wool Manufacturers' Guild). End of life He was also a collector of classical artifacts and a historian. He was actively involved in the spreading of humanist ideas. His unfinished Commentarii are a valuable source of information about Renaissance art and contain an autobiography, the first of an artist. This work was a major source for Vasari 's Vite . Ghiberti died in Florence at the age of seventy-seven. [
Leonardo da Vinci is best remembered as the painter of the Mona Lisa (1503-1506) and The Last Supper (1495). But he's almost equally famous for his astonishing multiplicity of talents: he dabbled in architecture, sculpture, engineering, geology, hydraulics and the military arts, all with success, and in his spare time doodled parachutes and flying machines that resembled inventions of the 19th and 20th centuries. He made detailed drawings of human anatomy which are still highly regarded today. Leonardo also was quirky enough to write notebook entries in mirror (backwards) script, a trick which kept many of his observations from being widely known until decades after his death.
here are two versions of the Virgin of the Rocks, one (the earlier) in the Louvre, Paris and another in the National Gallery, London. The first work that Leonardo executed in Milan is the so-called Virgin of the Rocks, which actually expresses the theme of the Immaculate Conception, the dogma that affirms Mary was conceived without original sin. The name of the picture reflects an iconographical peculiarity: the religious figures are depicted in a rocky grotto, in which they are sitting on a stone floor. The figures are subjected to a strict spatial arrangement called a pyramidal composition. The painting had a considerable influence on Leonardo's artistic colleagues in Lombardy. Virgin Mary is guiding John the Baptist (child with hands in prayer position) towards Jesus (the other child) who is blessing John . The angel Uriel (kneeling to the right of the child Jesus) is bearing witness to the event. There are two paintings by the same name and very similar to the another: The first was not painted with halo’s above the heads of the characters in the picture. The second has halo’s
Possibly his second painting done by himself. There two paintings by the same name and very similar to one another. Virgin Mary receives news from the archangel Gabriel that she will bear the immaculate conception of Jesus.
Firstly, because Leonardo became a master in more fields than any other since or before him. Most Geniuses such as Albert Einstein, William Shakespeare or Alfred Hitchcock were masters in just a single field. This simply isn’t the case with Leonardo. No subject matter was beyond his grasp, once he began meticulously dissecting it. This is partly because he more than anyone in his time, did not see subjects disjointed from one-another especially the way we tend to today. For him, art and science in its many forms were inseparable which any of his invention tends to show. The connection between Leonardo Da Vinci and science is also present in any of his painted masterpieces. As a result of his boundless nature, he explored and mastered subjects as diverse as surgical anatomy, cartography, archaeology and engineering to botany (to just name a few!) whilst also earning his main livelihood from creating painted masterpieces such as the Last Supper painting.
The complete working of the human body were of so much interest o him that he believed that there was d deeper connection between the construct of the Universe and the human being. This drawing above is considered the be the apex of this understanding and work. The golden ratio the quest of artist since Roman times to find the proportional equation of the body which relates to every human body, irrespective of their size.
By knowing what was going on underneath human skin, He could more correctly project the exterior anatomy of his art, In order to gain this knowledge he had to dissect dead bodies. He broke many religious laws, He put his life in risk by being put to death for Necromancy.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) wrote a treatise, the Codex on the Flight of Birds , which put forth the first scientific observations on the subject of flight. He discovered the vortices that are produced off the wings, and observed the alulae, or &quot;thumbs&quot; of the wings. He was concerned with the center of gravity, stability, and maneuverability. Leonardo sketched several types of flying machines: helical wing, beating wings, parachute , and bat's wings. Through real life trial and error Da Vinci learned the difficulty of realizing his great dream of flying in a machine powered by human propulsion, and turned his talents toward the problem of gliding flight. In the glider drawing below, the flyer's position is studied at the point where he is balanced through movements of the lower part of the body. The wings, modelled upon those of bats and birds of large wingspans, are fixed on the inboard portion (next to the flyer), and mobile at the external portion. This part of the wing in fact can be moved by the flyer by a control cable connected to handles. Leonardo arrived at this solution by studying the wing structure of birds and observing that the inboard part of their wings move more slowly than the outboard, and that therefore serve to thus sustain themselves and produce forward thrust.
In order to protect his ideas from them being stolen or abused by others, he lest out some information of his designs or put in misinformation. His notes are all also written in left-handed mirror written in order to better protect his ideas.
Commissioned to paint his Patron’s mistress, Ludovico Sforaz (duke of milan) The ermine which Cecilia is holding is the signature symbol of her lover.
Name at birth: Michelangelo Buonarroti Perhaps the greatest influence on western art in the last five centuries, Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, architect, painter and poet in the period known as the High Renaissance. His great works were almost entirely in the service of the Catholic Church, and include a huge statue of the biblical hero David (over 14 feet tall) in Florence, sculpted between 1501 and 1504, and the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome (commissioned by Pope Julius II ), painted between 1508 and 1512. After 1519 Michelangelo was increasingly active in architecture; he designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica, completed after his death. Along with contemporaries Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael , he is considered one of the great masters of European art. Extra credit : Michelangelo's David was sculpted during almost the same years that da Vinci was painting the Mona Lisa . Four Good Links Michelangelo Buonarroti Pretty biography and links to more, from the website design firm Michelangelo.com Renaissance Art and Architecture Encarta's detailed backgrounder; includes a link to a fine bio of MIchelangelo WebMuseum: Michelangelo Basic information and examples of his most famous works Virtual Tour of the Sistine Chapel From the Vatican Museum, a high-tech tour of Michelangelo's work Vital Stats Birth 6 March 1475 Birthplace Caprese , Italy Death 18 February 1564 (age 88) Best Known As Master sculptor of The David Something in Common with Michelangelo Born on 6 March Born in 1475 Born in Italy Born in Caprese, Italy Pisces Models & Artists Last sketch found On December 7, 2007, Michelangelo's red chalk sketch for the dome of St Peter's Basilica, his last before his 1564 death, was discovered in the Vatican archives. It is extremely rare, since he destroyed his designs later in life. The sketch is a partial plan for one of the radial columns of the cupola drum of Saint Peter's.
The picture (1)shows the Ignudo at the lower left corner of the Separation of the Earth from the Waters (above the Persian Sibyl). The poses of the pairs of ignudi become gradually more dynamic and agitated. The two above the Persian Sibyl (at the left) bend backward in opposite directions, while one of those above the prophet Daniel (at right) bends forward, casting an apprehensive glance at the viewer, and the other raises his arm in a movement reminiscent of Hellenistic sculptures of dancing fauns. The picture (2) shows the Ignudo at the upper left corner of the Drunkenness of Noah (above the prophet Joel). The figures of ignudi in this group bear garlands of oak leaves and acorns - allusions to the Della Rovere family - and ribbons passing through the frames of the large gilded medallions.
His great works were almost entirely in the service of the Catholic Church, and include a huge statue of the biblical hero David (over 14 feet tall) in Florence, sculpted between 1501 and 1504,
In the Pietà, Michelangelo approached a subject which until then had been given form mostly north of the Alps, where the portrayal of pain had always been connected with the idea of redemption: it was called the &quot;Vesperbild&quot; and represented the seated Madonna holding Christ's body in her arms. But now the twenty-three year-old artist presents us with an image of the Madonna with Christ's body never attempted before. Her face is youthful, yet beyond time; her head leans only slightly over the lifeless body of her son lying in her lap. &quot;The body of the dead Christ exhibits the very perfection of research in every muscle, vein, and nerve. No corpse could more completely resemble the dead than does this. There is a most exquisite expression in the countenance. The veins and pulses, moreover, are indicated with so much exactitude, that one cannot but marvel how the hand of the artist should in a short time have produced such a divine work.&quot; One must take these words of Vasari about the &quot;divine beauty&quot; of the work in the most literal sense, in order to understand the meaning of this composition. Michelangelo convinces both himself and us of the divine quality and the significance of these figures by means of earthly beauty, perfect by human standards and therefore divine. We are here face to face not only with pain as a condition of redemption, but rather with absolute beauty as one of its consequences.
First of all, you’ll see that Moses is not just sitting down; his left leg is pulled back to the side of his chair as though he is about to rise. And because this leg is pulled back, his hips also face left. Michelangelo, to create an interesting, energetic figure where the forces of life are pulsing throughout the body, pulls the torso in the opposite direction. And so his torso faces to his right. And because the torso faces to the right, Moses turns his head to the left, and then pulls his beard to the right. So, what Michelangelo has done is create a figure where one part of the body turns in the opposite direction from another part. This creates a dynamic figure – we have a clear sense of the prophet and his duty to fulfill God's wishes.You have probably noticed that Moses has horns. This comes from a mistranslation of a Hebrew word that described Moses as having rays of light coming from his head. Venetian Renaissance More Giovanni Bellini and Titian Feast of the Gods Titian Bacchus and Ariadne Portrait of a Man Mannerism More Bronzino Portraits Cellini Perseus with the Head of Medusa Parmigianino Madonna of the Long Neck Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror Pontormo Entombment El Greco Adoration of the Shepherds Northern Renaissance More Gerard David Virgin and Child with Angels Holbein The Ambassadors Portrait of Henry VIII Dürer The Four Apostles Prints Self-portrait Cranach the Elder Wittenberg Altarpiece Adam and Eve Japan, Muromachi to Momoyama period More Negoro ware ewer Michelangelo's Moses Share this article Michelangelo, Moses , marble, ca. 1513-15 (San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris , Dr. Steven Zucker The Tomb of Pope Julius II When Michelangelo had finished sculpting David , it was clear that this was quite possibly the most beautiful figure ever created – exceeding the beauty even of Ancient Greek and Roman sculptures. Word of David reached Pope Julius II in Rome, and he asked Michelangelo to come to Rome to work for him. The first work Pope Julius II commissioned from Michelangelo was to sculpt his tomb (Pope Julius II's tomb that is). This may seem a bit strange to us today, but great rulers throughout history have planned fabulous tombs for themselves while they were still alive to ensure that they will be remembered forever (think of the Pharoahs in Egypt having the Pyramids built). When Michelangelo begins the tomb of Pope Julius II his ideas were quite ambitious. He planned a 2 story high structure that will be decorated with over 20 sculptures (each of these over life size - see the sketch above!). This was more than one person could do in a lifetime! Of course, Michelangelo was never able to finish the entire tomb. Not least because of Pope Julius himself, who asked Michelangelo to stop working on it and to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (but that’s another story). Michelangelo eventually completed a much scaled-down version of the tomb after trouble from the heirs of Pope Julius II (and this is what can be seen today in San Pietro in Vincoli, in Rome).
1500 – 1600End of the Renaissance and the Reformation High Renaissance More Verocchio Baptism of Christ Leonardo Notebooks Virgin of the Rocks The Last Supper Burlington House Cartoon Mona Lisa Michelangelo Pietà David Moses Sistine Chapel Ceiling The Last Judgment Raphael Alba Madonna Portrait of Pope Julius II School of Athens Bramante, etc. Saint Peter's Basilica Galileo The Art of Renaissance Science The Interaction of Artists and Scientists in the Renaissance Venetian Renaissance More Giovanni Bellini and Titian Feast of the Gods Titian Bacchus and Ariadne Portrait of a Man Mannerism More Bronzino Portraits Cellini Perseus with the Head of Medusa Parmigianino Madonna of the Long Neck Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror Pontormo Entombment El Greco Adoration of the Shepherds Northern Renaissance More Gerard David Virgin and Child with Angels Holbein The Ambassadors Portrait of Henry VIII Dürer The Four Apostles Prints Self-portrait Cranach the Elder Wittenberg Altarpiece Adam and Eve Japan, Muromachi to Momoyama period More Negoro ware ewer Michelangelo's Moses Share this article Michelangelo, Moses , marble, ca. 1513-15 (San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris , Dr. Steven Zucker The Tomb of Pope Julius II When Michelangelo had finished sculpting David , it was clear that this was quite possibly the most beautiful figure ever created – exceeding the beauty even of Ancient Greek and Roman sculptures. Word of David reached Pope Julius II in Rome, and he asked Michelangelo to come to Rome to work for him. The first work Pope Julius II commissioned from Michelangelo was to sculpt his tomb (Pope Julius II's tomb that is). This may seem a bit strange to us today, but great rulers throughout history have planned fabulous tombs for themselves while they were still alive to ensure that they will be remembered forever (think of the Pharoahs in Egypt having the Pyramids built). When Michelangelo begins the tomb of Pope Julius II his ideas were quite ambitious. He planned a 2 story high structure that will be decorated with over 20 sculptures (each of these over life size - see the sketch above!). This was more than one person could do in a lifetime! Of course, Michelangelo was never able to finish the entire tomb. Not least because of Pope Julius himself, who asked Michelangelo to stop working on it and to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (but that’s another story). Michelangelo eventually completed a much scaled-down version of the tomb after trouble from the heirs of Pope Julius II (and this is what can be seen today in San Pietro in Vincoli, in Rome). Michelangelo, Moses , marble, 1515 (San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome) Moses is an imposing figure – he is nearly eight feet high sitting down! He has enormous muscular arms and an angry, intense look in his eyes. Under his arms he carries the tablets of the law – the stones inscribed with the Ten Commandments that he has just received from God on Mt. Sinai. In this story from the Old Testament book of Exodus, Moses leaves the Israelites (who he has just delivered from slavery in Egypt) to go to the top of Mt. Sinai. When he returns he finds that they have constructed a golden calf to worship and make sacrifices to – they have, in other words, been acting like the Egyptians and worshipping a pagan idol. One of the commandments is “Thou shalt not make any graven images,” and so when Moses sees the Israelites worshipping this idol, and betraying the one and only God who has, after all, just delivered them from slavery, he throws down the tablets and breaks them.Here is the passage from the Old Testament: 15 Then Moses turned and went down the mountain. He held in his hands the two stone tablets inscribed with the terms of the covenant. They were inscribed on both sides, front and back. 16 These stone tablets were God's work; the words on them were written by God himself. 17 When Joshua heard the noise of the people shouting below them, he exclaimed to Moses, &quot;It sounds as if there is a war in the camp!&quot; 18 But Moses replied, &quot;No, it's neither a cry of victory nor a cry of defeat. It is the sound of a celebration.&quot; 19 When they came near the camp, Moses saw the calf and the dancing. In terrible anger, he threw the stone tablets to the ground, smashing them at the foot of the mountain.
ichelangelo' last sculptures were two (or three if the Pietà Palestrina is his work) Pietàs. Some of them were probably planned to decorate his tomb. According to Vasari, the artist's wish was to be buried in Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, at the feet of the Pietà on which he had worked between 1547 and 1553; this was before he smashed it in 1555, because one leg had broken off and because the block of marble was defective. This is the Pietà, which is now in Florence Cathedral Museum. After having broken the statue, he let his servant take the pieces. Later the servant sold them and the new owner had it reconstructed following Michelangelo's models, so that the work has been preserved.
The picture shows the original wood model for the dome of St Peter's (left) and a section of it (right). In his eighty-fifth year or thereabouts, Michelangelo ordered a large wooden model of the dome. It has been preserved, and proves that his successors kept more or less closely to the original. Deviations are confined mainly to three particulars: instead of confining themselves to the proposed self-contained triangular window cornices, they alternate them with segment cornices. Between the ribs of the vaulting run three concentric and ascending groins to each section, breaking and enlivening the bare, vaulted surfaces. The handsome consoles of the attic above the tambour have been omitted.
This fresco was commissioned by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) shortly before his death. His successor, Paul III Farnese (1534-1549), forced Michelangelo to a rapid execution of this work, the largest single fresco of the century. The first impression we have when faced with the Last Judgment is that of a truly universal event, at the centre of which stands the powerful figure of Christ. His raised right hand compels the figures on the lefthand side, who are trying to ascend, to be plunged down towards Charon and Minos, the Judge of the Underworld; while his left hand is drawing up the chosen people on his right in an irresistible current of strength. Together with the planets and the sun, the saints surround the Judge, confined into vast spacial orbits around Him. For this work Michelangelo did not choose one set point from which it should be viewed. The proportions of the figures and the size of the groups are determined, as in the Middle Ages, by their single absolute importance and not by their relative significance. For this reason, each figure preserves its own individuality and both the single figures arid the groups need their own background.
At 17 sent to Perugia, dead by age 37 &quot;The young painter from Urbino thus adopted the artistic innovations of his elder colleagues, in particular those of Leonardo and Michelangelo, and synthesized them with his own aims.&quot; – Toman 1483 - 1520 Artist and Architect Italy One of the most important and talented artists of the Italian Renaissance, Raphael (or Raffaello Sanzio, or Rafael Sanzi or Santi) was born in Urbino and took his earliest lessons in art from his father. He was apprenticed to Perugino in Perugia, then moved on to Florence and Rome. Raphael is noted for his Madonnas, and is considered by many to have produced some of the world's most beautiful paintings. He was also an architect, designing the church of Sant' Eligio degli Orefici and working on the basilica of St. Peter's. Raphael was as handsome and charming as he was talented, and he became so popular that he acquired the nickname &quot;the prince of painters.&quot; He gained the respect and patronage of Pope Julius II and spent the last 12 years of his life in Rome. Among his prolific works were projects for the pontiff, including a cycle of frescoes for a suite in the pope's personal living quarters. Raphael lived life to the full, but died young, on his 37th birthday. His funeral mass was celebrated at the Vatican and he was buried in the Pantheon.
Raphael, like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci , is one of the most famous artists of Italy's High Renaissance and one of the greatest influences in the history of Western art. Immensely talented, he first studied with his father and then as an assistant to the great master Pietro Vannucci, known as Perugino. Raphael (also known as Raffaello Sanzio) worked in Florence (1504) and earned a reputation as a productive and much-admired painter before going to Rome sometime after 1508. In Rome he was commissioned by Pope Julius II to create the large-scale fresco The School of Athens , as well as other decorative work at the Vatican. Raphael also took over as architect of St. Peter's after the death of Donato Bramante (1514), contributed ten tapestries to the Sistine Chapel and painted some of the most prized and reproduced holy pictures of the era, including The Sistine Madonna and Transfiguration . His work is often cited for its harmony and balance of composition, and his early death (on his 37th birthday) is considered by many experts to be one of the great tragedies of art history.
The Pope who had commissioned the pictorial cycles and the works that had so contributed to the artist's fame, is depicted - according to historical sources, in the master's hand - in a portrait &quot;so animated and true to life that it was frightening to behold, as though it were actually alive&quot; (Vasari). The painting shows the Pope seated with the tiara on his head, dressed in a white surplice and a purple mantle. Here the simple but effective tonal contrast, first used in the Portrait of a Cardinal, reappears. The Pope, though old, still seems very vigorous and the Della Rovere energy is clearly visible in the hand that grasps the right arm of the chair with strength and pride. The two acorn-shaped knobs on the back of the chair recall the Pope's coat of arms. The intimacy of the image indicates that Raphael has progressed from the narrative compositions of the Vatican Stanze to the full dominance of individual subjectivity.
Most versatile: portrait, landscape, mythological, & religious paintings. Manner & styles changed drastically throughout long life, but consistent interest in use of color Tiziano Vecellio -- Titian -- was a sixteenth century Renaissance oil painter from Venice and one of the most influential artists in the history of western art. Although his early years are difficult to pin down, it's known that he studied in Venice with the popular painter Giovanni Bellini and his younger contemporary, Giorgio da Castelfranco (known as Giorgione). By 1516 both Bellini and Giorgione were dead, and for the next sixty years Titian was the recognized master of Venetian painters, as influential as Florentine wizard Leonardo and more financially successful than Michelangelo . Titian's vibrant oils depicted classical ideals as well as romantic Christian themes, and his patrons were European nobles and royals, including Charles V and Philip II. A master realist and astute businessman, Titian was famous and venerated throughout Europe during his lifetime. His most famous paintings include The Assumption of the Virgin (1518), Bacchus and Ariadne (1523), Venus of Urbino (1538), Ecce Homo (1543) and The Rape of Europa (1562). Extra credit : Early biographies of Titian cite his birth year as 1477, but modern scholarship holds he was born around 1485
The Venus of Urbino is a 1538 oil painting by the Italian master Titian . It depicts a nude young woman, identified with the goddess Venus , reclining on a couch or bed in the sumptuous surroundings of a Renaissance palace. It hangs in the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence . The figure's pose is based on Giorgione 's Sleeping Venus (c. 1510), which Titian completed. In this depiction, Titian has domesticated Venus by moving her to an indoor setting, engaging her with the viewer, and making her sensuality explicit. Devoid as it is of any classical or allegorical trappings -Venus displays none of the attributes of the goddess she is supposed to represent- the painting is unapologetically erotic. The frankness of Venus's expression is often noted; she stares straight at the viewer, unconcerned with her nudity . In her right hand she holds a posy of roses whilst her left covers her groin, provocatively placed in the centre of the composition. In the near background is a dog, often a symbol of either fidelity or sexual profligacy; that the animal is asleep hints that the woman portrayed is unfaithful. Édouard Manet's Olympia , 1863 The painting was commissioned by Guidobaldo II della Rovere , the Duke of Urbino , possibly to celebrate his 1534 marriage. It would originally have decorated a cassone , a chest traditionally given in Italy as a wedding present. The maids in the background are shown rummaging through a similar chest, apparently in search of Venus's clothes. Curiously, given its overtly erotic content, the painting was intended as an instructive &quot;model&quot; for Giulia Varano, the Duke's extremely young bride. The argument for the painting's didacticism was made by the late art historian Rona Goffen in 1997's “Sex, Space, and Social History in Titian’s Venus of Urbino&quot;. Titian contrasts the straight lines of the architecture with the curves of the female form, and the screen behind Venus bisects the painting, a large-scale division that is mitigated by unifying elements such as the use of colour and the floral patterns of the couch, cassoni , and background tapestries. In his 1880 travelogue A Tramp Abroad , Mark Twain called the Venus of Urbino &quot;the foulest, the vilest, the obscenest picture the world possesses&quot;. He proposed that &quot;it was painted for a bagnio , and it was probably refused because it was a trifle too strong&quot;, adding humorously that &quot;in truth, it is a trifle too strong for any place but a public art gallery&quot;. Venus of Urbino inspired Édouard Manet 's 1863 Olympia in which the figure of Venus is replaced with the model Victorine Meure
Deutsch: Schlummernde Venus Date ca. between 1508(1508) and 1510(1510) Medium Oil on canvas Dimensions 108 × 175 cm (42.52 × 68.9 in) Current location Deutsch: Gemäldegalerie Deutsch: Dresden Notes Deutsch: Auf dem Gemälde befand sich urspr. ein von Tizian gemalter Cupido, der im 18. Jh. übermalt wurde English: This painting was done by Giorgione in approx. 1509 c. It was unfinished at the time of his death and the sky was later finished by Titian. (Titian also painted a similar Venus, but it was not as agitated and unsettled as Giorgione's nude.) Obviously a painting with underlying erotic implications, this can be seen by the Venus' raised arm (the exposed arm pit a symbol of sexuality) and also the blatant placement of her left hand. The sheets are a silver colour (a cold colour rather than a more commonly used warm tone) and they are very rigid looking (in comparison to Titian's or Velzquez's Venus'). The landscape mimicks the curves of the nude and this in turn relates the human body back to natural, organic object.
In the course of a century, the Ottoman had created one of the most powerful empires in the Near East, disrupting east-west overland trade and establishing a pattern of theocratic (governed by God) Muslim rule that would persist in parts of Asia until the early 20 th centuryCentral Asian clan of Muslim Turks known as Ottoman swept westward, threatening Byzantine lands.
Decameron was created because of the Plague, eager to escape contamination 7 young women and 3 young men retreat to a villa in the suburbs of Florence, where to pass the time each tells a story on each of the 10 days .
Ficino: The Platonic Academy Pico della Mirandola: The Dignity of Man Ficino’s translations and the founding of the Platonic Academy in Florence launched a reappraisal of Plato and the Neo-Platonist that had major consequences in the domains of art and literature. Mirandola – undertook the translation of various ancient literary works in Hebrew, Arabic, Latin, and Greek. Humanist , poet and theologian, Pico sought not only to bring to light the entire history of human thought, but to prove that all intellectual expression shared the same divine purpose and design. Castiglione – concerns the qualifications of the ideal Renaissance man and woman.
Chapter 7 renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci (1452?1519), Vitruvian Man, c. 1485-1490. Pen and ink, 13 1/2" x 9 5/8". Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice
Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1498?1543), Dance of Death, ca. 1490. Woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C . <ul><li>Bubonic Plague, 1347 destroyed 1/3 to 1/2 of its population within less than a century. </li></ul>
Joan of Arc, from Antoine Dufour's Lives of Famous Women, 1504. French manuscript. Musée Dobrée, Nantes, France <ul><li>100 year war (1337-1453) </li></ul><ul><li>17 year old Peasant </li></ul><ul><li>Heard voices of the Christian saints who had directed her to expel the English . </li></ul>
<ul><li>World’s first feminist writer </li></ul><ul><li>occurred at a time in which men were making efforts to restrict female inheritance of land . </li></ul><ul><li>Book of the City of Ladies (1405) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Petrarch – “Father of Humanism” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1304-1374) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Petrarch ‘s Canzoniere (songbook) (1350) </li></ul><ul><li>Sonnet No.134 </li></ul><ul><li>I find no peace, and yet I make no war: </li></ul><ul><li>and fear, and hope: and burn, and I am ice: </li></ul><ul><li>and fly above the sky, and fall to earth, </li></ul><ul><li>and clutch at nothing, and embrace the world. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
The Scrovegni Chapel, Padua Giotto (1267 - 1337
Legend of St Francis: Sermon to the Birds, 1297-99
<ul><li>Equestrian displays an unprecedented degree of scientific naturalism and an obsessive attention to anatomical detail </li></ul><ul><li>Ran a large workshop that trained many artist including Leonardo </li></ul>
<ul><li>"Renaissance Man“ </li></ul><ul><li>"There are three classes of people. Those who see; those who see when they are shown; those who do not see." </li></ul><ul><li>Which was Leonardo? </li></ul>Leonardo da Vinci, 1452 - 1519
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519). Mona Lisa , c. 1503-1505. Oil on wood, 30 1/4" x 21". Louvre, Paris.
Virgin of the Rocks 1483-86 Oil on panel, 199 x 122 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
Madonna and Child with Flowers 1478: possibly his first painting completed by himself. (age 26)
Raphael, Madonna of the Chair , c. 1515. Oil on panel, diameter 2' 5".
Raphael Portrait of Julius II 1511-12 Oil on wood, 108 x 80,7 cm National Gallery, London … a portrait "so animated and true to life that it was frightening to behold, as though it were actually alive" (Vasari).
The School of Athens 1510-11 Fresco Vatican, Stanza della Segnatura
<ul><li>Greatest of the Venetian School </li></ul>Titian 1485 - 1576
Titian. Venus of Urbino , c. 1538. Oil on canvas, 3' 11" x 5' 5". Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
Assumption of the Virgin 1516-18 Oil on wood, 690 x 360 cm Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice
Titian (1488/90-1576). The Annunciation , c. 1560. Oil on canvas, 13' 2 5/8" x 7' 8 1/2". Chiesa di San Salvador, Venice
Bacchus and Ariadne 1520-22 Oil on canvas, 175 x 190 cm - National Gallery, London
Portrait of Philip II in Armour 1550-51 Oil on canvas, 193 x 111 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
<ul><li>14 th century </li></ul>Sinan the Great (c.1490-1588), Mosque of Suleyman I, Istanbul, Turkey, begun 1550.
<ul><li>Josquin des Prez </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A master of Masses, motets, and secular songs, he earned international recognition as “the prince of music.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Madrigal – a composition for three to six unaccompanied voices. </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental Music – 16 th century made considerable advances in the development of instrumental music. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Dance – first efforts to establish dance as a independent discipline. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Prolific writer of Italian prose romances and love poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>First biographer of Dante </li></ul><ul><li>His landmark work is the celebrated collection of short stories known as the Decameron. (1351) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Some say that many women are deceitful, Wily, false, of little worth: Others that too many are liars, fickle, flighty , and inconstant; Still others accuse them of great vices, blaming them much, excusing them of them nothing, thus do clerics, night and day, First in French verse, then in Latin, based on who knows what books That tell more lies than drunkards do. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The classical revival of the 14 th to 16 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Generated new and more all-embracing attitudes toward Greco-Roman antiquity than any that had preceded it. </li></ul><ul><li>Most were Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Life on earth was not a vale of tears but, rather, an extended occasion during which human beings might cultivate their unique talents and abilities </li></ul><ul><li>saw no conflicts between humanism and religious belief </li></ul>
<ul><li>Exiled from Florence upon the collapse of the republican government he had served from 1498- 1512, and eager to win favor with the Medici now that they had returned to power, Machiavelli penned The Prince , a political treatise that called for the unification of Italy under a powerful and courageous leader. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Frescoes - art created on damp plaster </li></ul><ul><li>Oil paints (a technique from the north) </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic portrayal of human nature </li></ul>
<ul><li>Chiaroscuro - use of shadows to show balance of light and dark </li></ul><ul><li>Science -particularly in anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Linear perspective - allowed artist to represent objects in relative sizes </li></ul>
<ul><li>Giotto is considered to be the most influential artist on Renaissance painting. </li></ul><ul><li>Father of the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Giotto’s dignified figures seemed to displace space, to stand upon the ground with real substance and weight. </li></ul>
<ul><li>New sense of naturalism in sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Use of classical contrapposto stance (relaxed not rigid) </li></ul><ul><li>Statue of David considered first full scale nude since ancient times </li></ul>
<ul><li>First artist to paint a full-length female nude </li></ul><ul><li>In Birth of Venus the figure occupies the center of the work which was traditionally reserved for the Virgin. This work is possibly the most pagan image of the entire Renaissance. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Castiglino: The Well-Rounded Person </li></ul>Raphael, Baldassare Castiglione , 1514. Oil on canvas, 32 1/4" x 26 1/2".