Chapter 6 the medieval churchPresentation Transcript
Formed the bedrock of medieval European culture.
Great power and authority as a religious force and political institution.
1022 founded the College of Cardinals as the sole body responsible for the election of the Pope.
Excommunication- exclusion from the sacraments
Interdict – the excommunication of the entire city or state – used to dissuade secular rulers from opposing papal policy
In 1233 pope established the Inquisition.
A special court designed to stamp out heresy.
They brought to trial individuals whom local townspeople denounced as heretics.
Physical torture might be used to obtain a confession.
If they failed they might impose exile or excommunication
or turned over to the state to be hanged or burned at the stake.
Enforcing periods of no war.
Assumed moral and financial responsibility for the poor, the sick, and the homeless.
Organized hosp itals, refugees and orphanages.
A set of sacred acts that impart grace. (the free and unearned favor of God)
Since only church officials could administer the sacraments, the clergy held a “monopoly” on personal salvation.
Raphael, Disputation over the Sacrament , 1509-1511. Fresco, 26' x 18'.
Not until the 16 th century would European West acknowledge a clear separation.
Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
Landmark treatise Scivias.
She recounts ecstatic visions filled with vivid images that came to her in a “voice from Heaven.”
All world religions have produced mystics
Individuals inspired to reveal truths that lie beyond human understanding
Dancing Dervishes, from a manuscript of the Diwan (Book of Poems) of Hafiz, Herat School, Persia, ca. 1490. Colors and gilt on paper, 11 3/4 x 7 3/8 in.
Roman Catholic Church’s worldliness inspired movements of reform devoted to reviving the early Christian ideals of poverty , chastity , and humility.
He came to be known as a missionary to all of God’s creatures
He was canonized in 1228
Giotto, Legend of St Francis: Sermon to the Birds, 1297-99
The rise of towns in a period following the first Crusade (1095) was one of the landmark developments of this time.
Mystery Play-biblical history
Morality Play-struggle of good and evil
Everyman (death has come to take everyman)
Miracle Play-the life of Christ
A favorite stage device for the Mystery Play, was the hell’s mouth
Florentine poet Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
An adventure packed journey through the realm of the dead.
Every aspect of Dante’s Commedia caries symbolic meaning.
With grim moral logic, the sinners are each assigned to one of the nine rings in hell.
Italian illuminated manuscript
Middle of the 15 th century
Priamo della Quercia executed the illuminations for the Inferno and Purgatorio and all three historiated initials, Giovanni di Paolo those for Paradiso.
His illustrations of the Paradiso are greatly admired for their visual interpretation of the poem: the artist doesn't just transcribe Dante's words but seeks to render their meaning.
Blake's 102 drawings illustrating Dante's Divine Comedy commissioned by John Linnell
British poet, painter, visionary mystic, and engraver, who illustrated and printed his own books .
1824-27 (1757-1827) London
As we generally find with Blake's illustrations to the works of other writers, he has paid close attention to the details of Dante's poem . From his early years, he experienced visions of angels and ghostly monks, he saw and conversed with the angel Gabriel, the Virgin Mary, and various historical figures.
In Greek myth Cerberus was a horrific dog who stood watch at the gates of Hades, the world of the dead.
Agnolo Brunelleschi was a thief whose punishment was to be attacked for all eternity by a serpent. Their two bodies merge into one another, so that Brunelleschi’s appearance befits his sin. Blake shows the moment at which the serpent begins to inhabit Brunelleschi’s body, as its jaws engulf his head and it sinks its claws into his skin.
Mosca de’ Lamberti , who through endorsing Buondelmonte’s murder was at the root of the factional strife in Florence. So Dante brings together sowers of discord in religious history,
12 th century
Education shifted from monastic and parish settings to cathedral schools located in the new urban centers of western Europe.
Remains of saints and martyrs brought increased mobility and economic revitalization
This life-sized reliquary held the cranium of the child martyr and favorite local saint of Conques.
On feast days, the image, sheathed in thin
sheets of gold
stones, was carried
through the streets
in sacred procession.
Romanesque and Gothic Sites in Western Europe, ca. 1000-1300
11 th and 12 th century
A uniform system of stone vaults in the upper zones of the nave and side – aisles.
Floor plans followed the
Latin Cross design
St. Sernin, Toulouse 1080-1121
Romanesque - Aerial view of Sainte-Foy, Conques, Auvergne, France. c. 1050-1120.
Vezelay, exterior tympanum (Mission of the Apostles) Sculpture used to teach religion to people since most could not read. This type of sculpture is called architectonic since it is part of the architecture.
Gothic Art is the style of art produced in Northern Europe from the middle ages up until the beginning of the Renaissance. Typically rooted in religious devotion, it is especially known for the distinctive arched design of its churches, its stained glass, and its illuminated manuscripts. People moved from the countryside into towns.
Represented a clear break with the classical past
Developed in northern France
12 th century
Housed the tunic that the Virgin Mary was said to have worn at the birth of Jesus.
Surpasses all others in the art of stained glass
Tympanum, lintel, and archivolts of the central portal, west façade, Chartres Cathedral, c. 1145-1170 .
There are several features that Characterize Gothic construction. There is an overall feeling of verticality as architects tried to make the interiors as high as possible, as if reaching toward heaven. Chartres Cathedral
South wall of Chartres Cathedral, 13th century.
Chartres Cathedral, Nave with Labyrinth, 1194-1260
Chartres, flying buttresses
Saints Theodore, Stephen, Clement, and Lawrence , door jamb statues, south transept, Chartres Cathedral, 13th century .
Annunciation and Visitation , door jamb statues, Reims Cathedral, c. 1225-1245
Sainte Chapelle, Paris, from the southwest, 1245-1248.
Fan Vaulting broke the vaulting into many umbrella spokes and also lightened the pressure of the ceiling
Gargoyles: a protecting ornament on a building carved in the shape of a fantastic animal or grotesque creature; meant to look like spirits fleeing or being driven from the holy building, could also have been to entice non-believers to enter the cathedral.
Grotesques and a gargoyle waterspout on a tower terrace of Notre Dame, Paris, as restored in the nineteenth century.
Sculptors and Masons at Work window, Chartres Cathedral, ca. 1220
Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral13th cent.
Charlemagne panels; stained glass from Chartres ca. 1220-1225
Visual illustrations for medieval manuscripts
Walls or panels paintings that were assembled as church altarpieces
Simone Martini (c. 1284-1344), Saint Louis Altarpiece , c. 1317. Tempera on panel, main panel 78' 3/4" x 54' 1/4 ".
Duccio (c. 1255-1319), Maestà , from Siena Cathedral, 1308-1311. Tempera and gold on panel, 7' x 13' 6 1/4".
Mukteshvar temple of Shiva, Bhubaneshvar, Orissa, India, c. 950.
Vishnu Dreaming the Universe or Vishnu Sleeping on Ananta , relief panel, south side of Temple of Vishnu, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, early 6th century.
11 th century, Hindu, encircled by a celestial ring of fire the four – armed deity holding symbols of creation and destruction is one of medieval India’s most famous bronze icons .
Shiva Nataraja, India, 10th century C.E. Bronze
China, most revered of sculptured images
Beings who have postponed entrance into nirvana in order to assist others in attaining enlightenment
Guanyin, tenth to early twelfth century. Wood with painted decoration
Musical notation was invented in the monasteries
Polyphony – music consisting of two or more lines of melody
Lady Musica and Musicians . From Boethius, De Arithmetica .
Dies Irae – (Day of Wrath) reflected the new spirit of dramatic expression in medieval Christendom. – 57 line hymn
Motet – a short polyphonic choral composition based on a sacred text
Lady Musica and Musicians . From Boethius, De Arithmetica . Naples