Chapter 4 5 world religions, germanic tribesPresentation Transcript
Revelation The divine disclosure of sacred Knowledge. Abraham in Canaan Moses on Mount Sinai Jesus at the river Jordan Mohammad in the Deserts near Mecca
Judaism The Hebrew monotheism Yahweh or Jehovah The covenant (contract) This contract or covenant bound the Hebrews to God in return for God’s protection. Torah (Hebrew bible, “instructions”) 2000 B.C.E. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (now Istanbul), completed 537 C.E.
The Ark of the Covenant This decorative mosaic pictures the curtained Ark that sheltered the Torah with sacramental Objects - menorah (seven-branched candelabrum) and the shofar or Ram’s horn, which is used to call the faithful to prayer. The Ark of the Covenant and sanctuary implements, Hammath near Tiberias, fourth century. Mosaic. Zev Radovan.
Ten Commandments Yahweh revealed to Moses the essence of the covenant in a set of ten laws or commandments. Defines the proper relationship between God and the faithful.
Ethical monotheism The belief that a single, benevolent, all-knowing God requires obedience to divine laws of right conduct, would become the fundamental tenet of three great world religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Christianity Mystery Cults Mithraism Strict initiation rites Periods of fasting Ritual baptism Communal meal of bread and wine Celebrated their god’s birth on 12/25 Winter solstice that marked the sun’s rebirth Christ, detail of a deësis mosaic, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul;
Born in Nazareth during the reign of the
Roman Emperor Octavian
Jesus dies on the cross
Foundation of Christianity What is Christianity based on ? Jesus’ resurrection from death Supporting material: 1Co 15:14: “And if Christ has not been raised, then our proclamation is worthless, and your faith is also worthless.”
The Coming of Jesus
Sadducees, envisioned the messiah as a temporal leader who would rescue the Jews from political bondage to Rome.
Others, whose beliefs reflected the religious traditions of the mystery cults looked forward to deliverance in the immoral soul from the earthly body.
The Coming of Jesus Pharisees, a scribal class of rabbis, anticipated the advent of a spiritual redeemer who would usher the righteous to eternal salvation and the wicked to damnation. Catacomb of Priscilla
After Jesus death only about 10% - 15 % of the population
Paul (65 C.E.) carried on the teachings of Jesus and Preached to the Gentiles
Paul wrote down Jesus' sermons
Wrote 10-14 of the 27 books “New Testament”
Symbolism Christian monograms, symbols of the 4 evangelists and Latin and Greek crosses Description : (a) Christian monograms; (b) symbols of the four evangelists; (c) Latin and Greek crosses.
Emperor Justinian (481-565 c.e.) tried to restore the power and prestige of ancient Rome.
Islam The Qur’an Muhammad did not write down his teachings but his followers did.
Islam Prophet Muhammad 570 C.E. in the city of Mecca ( Saudi Arabia) Orphaned at the age of 6 Received little formal education Married a wealthy widow Long periods of solitary Meditation in the desert
Muhammad One night the angle Gabriel appeared to him to proclaim his role as the prophet of Allah (God). At 41 years of age he declared himself the final messenger.
Islam To the righteous, those who practice submission, humility, and reverence, it promises a here-after that resembles the garden of paradise, filled with cool rivers and luscious fruit trees. To the wicked and the infidels (nonbelievers), it promises the terrifying punishments of hell – as hot and dusty as the desert itself.
The five Pillars Confession of faith Recitation of prayer five times daily Charitable contribution to the welfare of the Islamic community Fasting from dawn to sunset during the sacred month of Ramadan. The hajj (pilgrimage) to the city of Mecca.
In Meccaduring the pilgrimage www.thefaithclub.com 28
Mohammed Ali mosque, Cairo, Egypt http://www.solarnavigator.net/geography/egypt.htm 31
Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Mosque), Istanbul Turkey 34 http://cs.ua.edu/~greg/personal.html
Interior of the Blue Mosque http://www.britannica.com 35
Dome of a mosque, Esfahan, Iran http://www.perceptivetravel.com/issues/1106/maclean.html 36
Mosque in Djenne, Mali (West Africa) http://www.travelblog.org/Photos/17028.html 38
Indonesian mosque http://www.richard-seaman.com/Travel/Brunei/index.html 40
North African mosque http://www.galenfrysinger.com/ tunis.htm 39
Stained glass windows in the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, Turkey http://www.geocities.com/mlafren/english/turk.html 48
Muslim profession of faith in the Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, Turkey http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-251804/Muhammad 47
Arabic calligraphy in secular art http://www.plumsite.com/ palace/arabic.html 49
Bitterness over Muslim leadership Sunni – consider themselves the orthodox of Islam. (“The tradition of the prophet”) 90 % of modern Muslim world They believe that religious rulers should be chosen by the faithful. Shiites – claim descent through Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law Ali. (“partisans of Ali” Iran, Iraq) Only direct descendants should rule.
buddhism Buddha - Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit “Enlighten One”) India 560-480 or 440-360 B.C.E. Devastated by his discovery of the three “truths” of existence- sickness, old age, and death.
Buddhism At 29 he renounced his wealth. Abandoned his family and took up the quest for enlightenment.
buddhism Sitting beneath a bo (fig) tree, he finally arrived at the full perception of reality that became the basis of his teachings.
Buddhism To arrive at a release from illusion and ultimately nirvana To follow this path is the escape from the wheel of rebirth that binds all Hindus.
buddhism Four Noble Truths One’s spiritual Journey must lead to the awareness of Four Noble Truths. Pain is Universal Desire causes pain Ceasing to desire relieves pain Right conduct provides escape from pain
Goal of Hinduism
Moksha: “release or liberation
United forever with the divine
Infinite bliss and awareness
Rig Veda: Hinduism’s oldest text- nearly 4000 years.
BhagavadGita: Hinduism’s most popular sacred text
THE TWO MOST POPULAR GODS VISHNU SHIVA
Avatars of Vishnu Krishna Rama
Goddesses Lakshmi Saraswati
Personal faith If you were to choose a personal faith, which of the religions discussed in this chapter is the one you would be most likely to follow? Why?
Samsara is the wheel of rebirth which means the soul is reborn from one life form to another.
People may be reincarnated at a higher or lower level of existence depending on their karma from their present life.
People may be reborn as plants or animals or they may be elevated to a higher caste as a human.
Death is not final for Hindus as they expect to be reborn many times.
Karma & Dharma
Karma: “action” or “deeds”
Every action produces a Justified effect based on its moral worthiness.
Karma determines all the particular circumstances and Situations of one’s life.
Dharma: ethical duty based on the divine order of reality. The word is the closest equivalent to “religion.”
Banaras - Hindu’s Holy City
Pilgrims come from all over to bathe in the Ganges.
Countless Hindus come to Banaras to die.
It has 1500 temples, most of them devoted to Shiva.
It is a gathering place for the religiously learned and their disciples.
Beliefs of theLaw The mainstream Jewish view is that God will reward those who observe His commandments and punish those who intentionally transgress them. once one learned Torah properly, one could then learn the higher truths one can attain closeness to God even in this world through moral and spiritual perfection. As a matter of practice Orthodox Judaism lays stress on the performance of the actual commandments.
Menorah Itistheoldest symbol of theJewishfaith The Menorah has 7 branchestosymbolizethe 7 days of Hanukah The Menorahissaidtobethe symbol of Israel and ourmissiontobe “a light unto thenations” The lamp stands today in allsynagoguesaroundtheworld Thereisalso 9 branchedMenorahs usedforHanukah, itcelebratesthe miraclethat a daysworth of oil can last 8 days
Judaismbeganbeforehistory in theeasternMediterraneanwasevenwritten.
Judaismwasfoundedby Abraham around 1750 B.C.E.
AlthoughAbraham isseen as thefounder of Judaism, hisgrandson Jacob, who’snamechangedto Israel, wasthefather of 12 childrenwhobecameknown as the “children of Israel”, orIsraelites. Muchlater, theycametobeknown as theJewishpeople. So Jacob wasthegreat, great, great, grandfather of each and everyJew.
Star of David The Star of David isthe universal symbol of Judaism The Star of David appearsonsynagogues, thestateflag of Israel, and Jewishritaulobjects The starismade of twotriangles Appearedearly as the 960’s BC DuringtheHolocaustallJewishpeoplehad toweartheStar of David ontheirarmto show thattheywereJewish The HebrewtermfortheStar of David is Magen David
Early middle ages The Germanic Tribes Germanic Culture differed dramatically from that of Rome. Self-sufficient communities Nomadic peoples, fighting was a way of life and a highly respected skill.
Germanic Literature Beowulf (ca.700 C.E.) Anglo-Saxons, Old English First monumental literary composition in a European vernacular language. The Song of the Nibelung(ca. early 13th century) Burgundian tribes, Old German Song of Roland (ca. early 12th century) Frankish, Old French
The age of Charllemagne
In the 8th century, Charlemagne brought Europe together as a civilized continent.
Pursued the dream of restoring the Roman Empire under Christian leadership.
The Carolingian Renaissance - A passionate interest in education and the arts.
The Empire of Charlemagne, 814.
The Monastic ComplexReconstructed model of the monastery of Saint Gall, Switzerland
The Carolingian Renaissance
A rebirth of learning and literacy.
In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary
The Medieval Book Carolingian books were prepared for and by monks and clerics rather than for laypeople.
Page of text from a Carolingian Gospel Book written in Carolingian minuscule.
Geometric and abstract designs
Monks in secluded monasteries decorated
pages of Scripture and other writings with infinite detail. X-P page From the Lindisfarne Gospel Book
The Lindisfarne Gospels: Gospel of St John the Evangelist, initial page, late 7th or early 8th century.
A page from the Book of Kells Celtic-Germanic art combined ornamental interlacing patterns with the animal style
Art of the Middle Ages Celtic-Germanic art combined ornamental interlacing patterns with animal style
Lock for a purse makes use of garnets, glass, enamel, and gold and was mounted on a slab of ivory.
Wood, stone were also used in Celtic animal style
Feudal Society After Charlemagne‘s death in 814 C.E. Fear caused people to attach themselves to members of a military Nobility who provided protection. Matthew Paris (c. 1200-1259), Vassal Paying Homage to his Lord, from the Westminster Psalter, ca. 1250. .
Invaders and Raiders Vikings Vikings Huns Neighboring Tribes
No Strong Central Govt. Lack of central government for protection leads to rise of Feudalism
What is Feudalism? Feudalism: “loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord.”
Feudalism (political system)So who is in charge? Higher lords Each person had rights and responsibilities
Manor LifeSo where do the people live? In Medieval Europe, people lived on manors self-sufficient communities consisting of a castle, church, village and surrounding farmlands. Serfs work land and give part of their crops to the local (land) lord, for letting them farm the land.
Common Pasture (or "Green")
The Norman Conquest In 1066, England was invaded by Normans (Vikings from modern-day France)
The Battle of Hastings
Harold, King of England killed
William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) takes over.
William of Normandy helped make England what it is today and codified feudalism (gave it the force of law).
French was spoken in the English court for the next 200 years. 1066 – William creates Domesday Book for purposes of fair tax collection. William of Normandy Norman ship
Bayeaux Tapestry (11 century) The Bayeaux Tapestry was stitched to commemorate the Battle of Hastings It measures 230 feet long (70 meters) and 20 inches wide. It was made to hang around the wall of a cathedral or castle.
An unusual visual record of the conquest of England by William of Normandy. 11 century
Named for the city in northwestern France where it was made it is still there today.
The Crusades The Normans effectively pushed the Muslims out of the Mediterranean Sea. Europeans enjoyed a greater degree of security. French knights under Louis IX besieging Damietta, Egypt, 7th Crusade
Feudal-Age Literature The Song of Roland The ideals of the fighting in a feudal age are best captured in the oldest and greatest French epic poem. The Poetry of the Troubadours Compose and performed poems devoted to courtly love, chivalry, religion and politics.
Beyond the West: Japan The Birth of the Novel 8th century MurasakiShikibu (978-1016) The author of the world’s first novel, was one of a group of female writers. The Tale of Genji
Niou serenades Nakanokimi (detail from the 12th century GenjiMonogatariEmaki scroll).
Beyond the West: China Tang (618-907 C.E.) and Song (960-1279) Dynasty Boasted a sophisticated urban culture with city population of one million.
Standing Court Lady, Tang dynasty, mid-seventh century. Pottery with painted decoration, height 15 1/8 in. Tang Dynasty
Horse and Rider, Tang dynasty, early eighth century. Pottery with three-color glaze and painted decoration, height 15 in. Tang dynasty
Ru ware, bowl in the shape of a lotus, Northern Song dynasty, twelfth century. Porcelain, height 4 in. National Palace Museum, Taiwan. Song Dynasty Marvels of calculated simplicity The intellectual elite of Tang and Song China were deeply influenced by Confucian traditions.
Ma Yuan (c. 11601225), Apricot Blossoms, Song dynasty. Fan mounted as an album leaf, ink and color on silk, 10 x 10 3/4 in. Song Dynasty
Chinese Landscape Painting
The Tang and Song eras were a Golden Age of landscape painting.
Chinese landscapes offer a holistic and contemplative view of nature, a feature they share with Daoism and Buddhism.
A Solitary Temple Amid Clearing Peaks, Northern Song Dynasty Li Cheng (attrib.) (919-967), c. 940-967. Hanging scroll, ink and slight color on silk, ivory roller, 44 x 22".
Early Medieval Music Gregorian Chant : Anon., “Alleluya, vidimusstellam”, in DulciJubilo, Alberto Turco, conductor. In you books pg. 108. Islamic Call To Prayer: Islamic Call to Prayer (Adhan), pg 116 Troubadour Song: Ventadorn, “Quanvei la lauzeta mover,” Unicorn Ensemble, Michel Posch, conductor pg 135