TheStar of David isthe universal symbol of JudaismTheStar of David appearsonsynagogues, thestateflag of Israel, and JewishritaulobjectsThestarismade of twotrianglesAppearedearly as the 960’s BCDuringtheHolocaustallJewishpeoplehadtoweartheStar of David ontheirarmto show thattheywereJewishTheHebrewtermfortheStar of David isMagen David
The mainstream Jewish view is that God will reward those who observe His commandments and punish those who intentionally transgress them. once one learned Torah properly, one could then learn the higher truths one can attain closeness to God even in this world through moral and spiritual perfection.As a matter of practice Orthodox Judaism lays stress on the performance of the actual commandments.
Catacomb of Priscilla
Relief from the Arch of Titus, detail showing the Spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem Exhibited in Rome, ca. 81 C.E.
Good Shepherd, ca. 300. Marble
Gregory the Great and Three Scribes, West Germany or Lorraine, 10th century. Ivory relief,
Before Christianity was legalized in 313 c.e. , visual symbols served the practical function of identifying the converts to the faith among themselves. Followers of Jesus adopted the sign of the fish (ichthys)because the Greek word for fish is an acrostic (written lines containing word) combination of the first letters of the Greek words ”Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savoir.” They also used the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet alpha omega to designate Christ’s presence at the beginning and the end of time. Roman converts to Christianity saw in the Latin word for peace, pax, a symbolic reference to Christ , since the last and first letters could also be read as chi and rho, the first two letters in the Greek word Christos. Pax was emblazoned on the banner under with the emperor Constantine was said to have defeated his enemies. Such symbols soon found their way into Christian art.
The mosaics on either side of the altar show Justinian and his consort Theodora, each carrying offerings to Christ. The iconography of the Justinian representation illustrates the bond between Church and state that characterized Byzantine history: Justinian is flanked by twelve companions, an allusion to Christ and the apostles. On the right are his soldiers, the defenders of Christ (note the chi and rho emblazoned on the shield), while on his left are representatives of the clergy, who bear the instruments of the liturgy: crucifix, book, and incense vessel. Crowned by a solar disk or halo – a device often used in Persian and late Roman art to indicate divine status – Justinian assumes the sacred authority of Christ on earth, thus uniting temporal and spiritual power in the person of the emperor.
Over the center of this enormous church, a large and imposing dome rises 41 feet higher than the Pantheon in Rome. Light filtering through the forty closely set windows at the base of the dome works to give the illusion that the great canopy is floating miraculously above the massive substructure.
Princely Hindu familyAt 19 married his cousin and fathered a son.
Shaven head, yellow robe, begging bowl he followed the way of the Hindu ascetic.After 6 years he came to reject the life of self-denial.Turning inward he began the work of meditation that would bring him to inner illumination
Buddha's hands form one of many mudras (Hand gestures)that make reference to his teachings
Samsara is the wheel of rebirth which means the soul is reborn from one life form to another.People may be reincarnated at a higher or lower level of existence depending on their karma from their present life.People may be reborn as plants or animals or they may be elevated to a higher caste as a human.Death is not final for Hindus as they expect to be reborn many times.Karma & DharmaKarma: “action” or “deeds” Every action produces a Justified effect based on its moral worthiness.Karma determines all the particular circumstances and Situations of one’s life.Dharma: ethical duty based on the divine order of reality. The word is the closest equivalent to “religion.”
The Ganges River - Falling from its source of Vishnu’s feet onto Shiva’s head and out from his hair, the water of the Ganges is sacred enough to purify all sins
Lacking the hallmarks of civilization: urban settlements, monumental architecture, art and writing. 378 c.e. – Romans saw them as “ barbarians”. The Visigoths defeated the “invincible” Roman army. So they swept across the Roman border, raiding the cites of the declining West, including Rome itself in 410 c.e. (East Goths (Ostrogoths), West Goths (Visigoths), Franks, Vandals, Burgundians, Angles, and Saxons – to name a few Germanic language family, dialects of which differed from tribe to tribe.
Germanic traditions, including those of personal valor and heroism associated with a warring culture, are reflected in the epic poems of the early Middle Ages. These epic poems were transmitted orally for hundreds of years before they were written down sometime between the 10th and 13th centuries. Beowolf - Beowulf describes the adventures of a great Scandinavian warrior of the sixth century. -a fierce battle ensues that leads to Beowolf's entering the watery lair of Grendel's mother, where a devil's bargain awaits. Beowulf returns to Herot, the castle, and becomes king. Jump ahead many years, and the sins of the father are visited upon Beowulf and his kingdom.The Song of the Nibelung-A tale of the cycle of betrayal and revenge in the cursed Burgundian royal family. Song of Roland – It is based on an event that took place in 778 C.E. – the ambush at the “Gate of Spain,” a narrow pass in the Pyrenees, of Charlemagne’s rear guard, led by Charlemagne’s nephew Roland as they returned from an expedition against the Muslims.
His holy wars – the Christian equivalent of the Muslim Jihad – resulted in the forcible conversion of the Saxons east of the Rhine River, the Lombards of northern Italy, and the Slavic peoples along the Danube. His campaigns also pushed the Muslims back beyond the Pyrenees into Spain. In the year 800 c.e. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne “emperor of the Romans”, establishing a firm relationship between church and state. Charlemagne (768-814 C.E.)
The heart of Charlemagne’s educational revival was the monastic complex. During his reign he authorized the construction of numerous Benedictine monasteries, or abbeys – communities for prayer and the preservation of Christian and classical learning. Central to each religious sanctuary was a church the served as a place of worship and as a shrine that housed the sacred relics – a bone, skull, or a shank of hair exhumed from the Roman catacombs – of Christian saints and martyrs.
Carolingian Empire (800–888) is a term which has been used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. Charlemagne could barely read and write – his sword hand was, so callused that he had great difficulty forming letters. Bestiary - a medieval book containing pictures and moralizing stories about real and imaginary animals.The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name "Carolingian", Medieval Latinkarolingi, an altered form of an unattested Old High German *karling, kerling (meaning "descendant of Charles", cf. MHGkerlinc), derives from the Latinised name of Charles Martel: Carolus. The family consolidated its power in the late 7th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princepsFrancorum hereditary and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the throne. By 751, the Merovingian dynasty which until then had ruled the Franks by right was deprived of this right with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy and a Carolingian, Pepin the Short, was crowned King of the Franks.
Laypeople – most of whom could not read or write. The middle Ages was the great era of book production. Medieval bibles and liturgical manuscripts were lavishly ornamented, as befitting their sacred character; often sheathed in costly materials, such as ivory, tooled leather, and precious metals.
The short lived unity he had brought to Western Europe died with him. Although he had turned the Frankish kingdom into an empire, he failed to establish any legal and administrative machinery comparable with that of imperial Rome. There was no standing army , no system of taxation, and no single code of law to unify the widely diverse population. Following his death the fragile stability of the empire was shattered by Scandinavian seafarers known as Vikings. The fragmentation of the empire and the insecurity generated by the Viking invasions caused people at all social levels to attach themselves to members of a military nobility who were capable of providing protection.
So how will we be protected?
Sewn into the linen cloth are lively pictorial representations of the incidents leading up to and including the Battle Hastings
The brilliance of the Normans’ achievements on architecture, apparent in their fortresses and in some of the earliest Romanesque churches lies in the use of stone to replace earlier timber fortifications and in the clarity with which the form of the building reflects its function.
(and as the Normans and other marauders began to settle down) Aside from such economic advantages as those enjoyed by individual Crusaders and the Italian city-states, the gains made by the Crusades were slight. In the first of the four major expeditions, the Crusaders did retake some important cities, including Jerusalem. But by 1291, all recaptured lands were lost again to the Muslims. In over 200 years of fighting the Crusaders did not secure any territory permanently, nor did they stop the westward advance of the Turks. Constantinople finally fell in 1453 to a later wave of Muslim Turks.
Usually men and women of noble birth, poems were accompanied themselves on a lyre or lute. Their art was influenced by Arabic traditions. Their songs often focused on passionate affection and physical pleasure.
Her achievement is all the more remarkable in that she – like every Japanese female – was excluded from the opportunity of a scholarly education and, from training in written Chinese, the literary language of Japan. Nevertheless, using a system of phonetic symbols derived from Chinese characters, Murasaki left a record of her culture, both in her Diary and in her novel.
This Japanese classic tells the story of a young Heian prince and his life and loves at court, but also describes his moods, his tastes, and his desires. Here Murasaki wrote the world’s first psychological novel, but in addition as she painted a detailed picture of daily life among the Heian aristocrats with their elegant silk robes, refined manners, affection for music ,and poetic versatility – features that prefigure by 500 years those of the Renaissance West.The Tale of Genjiwas written shortly after the year 1000 in Japan's Heian era, when the capital was situated at Heian-kyo (present-day Kyoto). Genji, the hero of the Tale, is the son of the emperor and his favorite concubine, Kiritsubo. A Korean sage predicts a brilliant future for Genji but his mother suffers the jealousy of rivals at court, becomes ill and dies. The distraught emperor becomes obsessed with the tragic story of Yang Kwei-fei, but eventually finds another concubine, Fujitsubo, who reminds him of his former love. Since Genji lacks backing at court, the emperor makes him a commoner, assigning him membership of the non-royal Genji clan. The eldest son of the emperor and Lady Kokiden is made crown prince. Genji becomes an uncommonly handsome and gifted young man, admired by all but feared by Lady Kokiden and her family. The first part of the Tale follows his amorous exploits with a variety of ladies in and around Heian-kyo, his friendship with To no Chujo and arranged marriage to To no Chujo's sister Aoi, the birth of his son and his budding relationship with the young Murasaki. Meanwhile, the old emperor dies and is succeeded by Lady Kokiden's son. Genji's amorous intrigues cause a scandal at court and he is forced to leave the capital and live in Suma for several years. During this second part of the Tale, Genji meets the ex-Governor of Harima and his daughter The Akashi Lady. Genji returns to the capital and the emperor abdicates in favour of Fujitsubo's (and secretly Genji's) son. Genji's position at court is restored and the Akashi Lady has a baby girl. Genji then goes on a pilgrimage to the Sumiyoshi Shrine to give thanks to the deity for protecting him during the storm at Suma. After his return to the capital he settles down with Murasaki and several other ladies at his Rokujo Mansion. During this long section of the Tale, Genji's influence at court increases steadily and he is preoccupied with the advancement of his children and grandchildren at court. Genji is persuaded to marry the Third Princess, who gives birth to a son and soon after becomes a Buddhist nun.
The Ark of the Covenant<br />This decorative mosaic pictures the curtained Ark <br />that sheltered the Torah with sacramental <br />Objects - menorah (seven-branched candelabrum) and the<br />shofar or Ram’s horn, which is used to call the faithful to prayer. <br />The Ark of the Covenant and sanctuary implements, <br />Hammath near Tiberias, fourth century. Mosaic. Zev Radovan.<br />
Ten Commandments<br />Yahweh revealed to Moses the essence of the covenant in a set of ten laws or commandments.<br />Defines the proper relationship between God and the faithful. <br />
Ethical monotheism<br />The belief that a single, benevolent, all-knowing God requires obedience to divine laws of right conduct, would become the fundamental tenet of three great world religions: Judaism,<br /> Christianity and <br /> Islam. <br />
Christianity<br />Mystery Cults<br />Mithraism <br />Strict initiation rites<br />Periods of fasting<br />Ritual baptism<br />Communal meal of bread and wine<br />Celebrated their god’s birth on 12/25 <br />Winter solstice that marked the sun’s rebirth <br />Christ, detail of a deësis mosaic, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul; <br />
Jesus<br /><ul><li>Born in Nazareth during the reign of the </li></ul>Roman Emperor Octavian<br /><ul><li>Messiah
Jesus’ resurrection </li></li></ul><li>Foundation of Christianity<br />What is Christianity based on ?<br />Jesus’ resurrection from death<br />Supporting material:<br />1Co 15:14: “And if Christ has not been raised, then our proclamation is worthless, and your faith is also worthless.” <br />
The Coming of Jesus<br /><ul><li>Sadducees, envisioned the messiah as a temporal leader who would rescue the Jews from political bondage to Rome.</li></ul>Others, whose beliefs<br /> reflected the religious<br /> traditions of the mystery<br /> cults looked forward to<br /> deliverance in the<br /> immoral soul from the<br /> earthly body.<br />
The Coming of Jesus<br />Pharisees, a scribal class of rabbis, anticipated the advent of a spiritual redeemer who would usher the righteous to eternal salvation and the wicked to damnation.<br />Catacomb of Priscilla <br />
Co-founder: Paul<br /><ul><li>After Jesus death only about 10% - 15 % of the population </li></ul>were Christians<br /><ul><li>Paul (65 C.E.) carried on the teachings of Jesus and Preached to the Gentiles
Wrote 10-14 of the 27 books “New Testament”</li></li></ul><li>Symbolism<br />Christian monograms, symbols of the 4 evangelists and Latin and Greek crosses<br />Description : (a) Christian monograms; (b) symbols of the four evangelists; (c) Latin and Greek crosses.<br />
Emperor Justinian (481-565 c.e.) tried to restore the power and prestige of ancient Rome.<br />
Islam<br />The Qur’an<br />Muhammad did not write down his teachings but his followers did.<br />
Islam<br />Prophet Muhammad <br />570 C.E. in the city of Mecca<br />( Saudi Arabia)<br />Orphaned at the age of 6<br />Received little formal education<br />Married a wealthy widow<br />Long periods of solitary Meditation in the desert<br />
Muhammad<br />One night the angle Gabriel appeared to him to proclaim his role as the prophet of Allah (God).<br />At 41 years of age he declared himself the final messenger.<br />
Islam<br />To the righteous, those who practice submission, humility, and reverence, it promises a here-after that resembles the garden of paradise, filled with cool rivers and luscious fruit trees.<br />To the wicked and the infidels (nonbelievers), it promises the terrifying punishments of hell – as hot and dusty as the desert itself.<br />
The five Pillars<br />Confession of faith<br />Recitation of prayer five times daily<br />Charitable contribution to the welfare of the Islamic community <br />Fasting from dawn to sunset during the sacred month of Ramadan.<br />The hajj (pilgrimage) to the city of Mecca.<br />
In Meccaduring the pilgrimage<br />www.thefaithclub.com<br />28<br />
Interior of the Blue Mosque<br />http://www.britannica.com<br />35<br />
Dome of a mosque, Esfahan, Iran<br />http://www.perceptivetravel.com/issues/1106/maclean.html<br />36<br />
Mosque in Djenne, Mali (West Africa)<br />http://www.travelblog.org/Photos/17028.html<br />38<br />
Indonesian mosque<br />http://www.richard-seaman.com/Travel/Brunei/index.html<br />40<br />
North African mosque<br />http://www.galenfrysinger.com/<br />tunis.htm 39 <br />
Stained glass windows in the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, Turkey<br />http://www.geocities.com/mlafren/english/turk.html<br />48<br />
Muslim profession of faith in the Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, Turkey<br />http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-251804/Muhammad<br />47<br />
Arabic calligraphy in secular art<br />http://www.plumsite.com/<br />palace/arabic.html<br />49<br />
Bitterness over Muslim leadership<br />Sunni – consider themselves the orthodox of Islam. (“The tradition of the prophet”)<br />90 % of modern Muslim world<br />They believe that religious rulers should be chosen by the faithful.<br />Shiites – claim descent through Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law Ali. (“partisans of Ali” Iran, Iraq)<br />Only direct descendants should rule.<br />
buddhism<br />Buddha - Siddhartha Gautama<br />(Sanskrit “Enlighten One”)<br />India<br />560-480 or 440-360 B.C.E.<br />Devastated by his discovery of the three “truths” of existence- sickness, old age, and death.<br />
Buddhism<br />At 29 he renounced his wealth.<br />Abandoned his family and took up the quest for enlightenment.<br />
buddhism<br />Sitting beneath a bo (fig) tree, he finally arrived at the full perception of reality that became the basis of his teachings. <br />
Buddhism<br />To arrive at a release from illusion and ultimately nirvana<br />To follow this path is the escape from the wheel of rebirth that binds all Hindus.<br />
buddhism<br />Four Noble Truths<br />One’s spiritual Journey must<br />lead to the awareness of <br />Four Noble Truths. <br />Pain is Universal<br />Desire causes pain<br />Ceasing to desire relieves pain<br />Right conduct provides escape from pain<br />
Personal faith<br />If you were to choose a personal faith, which of the religions discussed in this chapter is the one you would be most likely to follow? Why?<br />
Reincarnation<br /><ul><li>Samsara is the wheel of rebirth which means the soul is reborn from one life form to another.
People may be reincarnated at a higher or lower level of existence depending on their karma from their present life.
People may be reborn as plants or animals or they may be elevated to a higher caste as a human.
Death is not final for Hindus as they expect to be reborn many times.</li></li></ul><li> Karma & Dharma<br /><ul><li>Karma: “action” or “deeds”
Every action produces a Justified effect based on its moral worthiness.
Karma determines all the particular circumstances and Situations of one’s life.
Dharma: ethical duty based on the divine order of reality. The word is the closest equivalent to “religion.”</li></li></ul><li>Banaras - Hindu’s Holy City<br /><ul><li>Pilgrims come from all over to bathe in the Ganges.
It has 1500 temples, most of them devoted to Shiva.
It is a gathering place for the religiously learned and their disciples.</li></li></ul><li>END<br />
Beliefs of theLaw<br />The mainstream Jewish view is that God will reward those who observe His commandments and punish those who intentionally transgress them.<br /> once one learned Torah properly, one could then learn the higher truths <br />one can attain closeness to God even in this world through moral and spiritual perfection.<br />As a matter of practice Orthodox Judaism lays stress on the performance of the actual commandments. <br />
Menorah<br />Itistheoldest symbol of theJewishfaith<br /> The Menorah has 7 branchestosymbolizethe 7 days of Hanukah<br /> The Menorahissaidtobethe symbol of Israel and ourmissiontobe “a light unto thenations”<br /> The lamp stands today in allsynagoguesaroundtheworld<br />Thereisalso 9 branchedMenorahs<br />usedforHanukah, itcelebratesthe<br />miraclethat a daysworth<br />of oil can last 8 days<br />
Introduction<br /><ul><li>Judaismbeganbeforehistory in theeasternMediterraneanwasevenwritten.
Judaismwasfoundedby Abraham around 1750 B.C.E.
AlthoughAbraham isseen as thefounder of Judaism, hisgrandson Jacob, who’snamechangedto Israel, wasthefather of 12 childrenwhobecameknown as the “children of Israel”, orIsraelites. Muchlater, theycametobeknown as theJewishpeople. So Jacob wasthegreat, great, great, grandfather of each and everyJew.</li></li></ul><li>Star of David <br />The Star of David isthe universal symbol of Judaism<br /> The Star of David appearsonsynagogues, thestateflag of Israel, and Jewishritaulobjects<br /> The starismade of twotriangles<br />Appearedearly as the 960’s BC<br />DuringtheHolocaustallJewishpeoplehad<br />toweartheStar of David ontheirarmto show thattheywereJewish<br /> The HebrewtermfortheStar of David is<br />Magen David <br />
Early middle ages<br />The Germanic Tribes<br />Germanic Culture differed dramatically from that of Rome.<br />Self-sufficient communities<br />Nomadic peoples, fighting was a way of life and a highly respected skill.<br />
Germanic Literature<br />Beowulf (ca.700 C.E.)<br />Anglo-Saxons, Old English<br />First monumental literary composition in a European vernacular language. <br />The Song of the Nibelung(ca. early 13th century) <br />Burgundian tribes, Old German<br />Song of Roland (ca. early 12th century)<br />Frankish, Old French <br />
The age of Charllemagne<br /><ul><li>In the 8th century, Charlemagne brought Europe together as a civilized continent.
Pursued the dream of restoring the Roman Empire under Christian leadership.
The Carolingian Renaissance - A passionate interest in education and the arts. </li></li></ul><li>The Empire of Charlemagne, 814.<br />
The Monastic ComplexReconstructed model of the monastery of Saint Gall, Switzerland<br />
The Carolingian Renaissance<br /><ul><li>A rebirth of learning and literacy.
In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary </li></li></ul><li>
The Medieval Book<br />Carolingian books were prepared for and by monks and clerics rather than for laypeople. <br />
Page of text from a Carolingian Gospel Book written in Carolingian minuscule. <br />
Geometric and abstract designs <br /><ul><li>Monks in secluded monasteries decorated </li></ul>pages of Scripture and other writings with infinite detail.<br />X-P page<br />From the Lindisfarne Gospel Book<br />
The Lindisfarne Gospels:<br />Gospel of St John the<br />Evangelist, initial page, <br />late 7th or early 8th century.<br />
A page from the Book of Kells<br />Celtic-Germanic art combined ornamental interlacing patterns<br />with the animal style<br />
Art of the Middle Ages<br />Celtic-Germanic art combined ornamental interlacing patterns with animal style<br />
Lock for a purse makes use of garnets, glass, enamel,<br /> and gold and was mounted on a slab of ivory.<br />
Wood, stone were also used in Celtic animal style<br />
Feudal Society<br />After Charlemagne‘s death in 814 C.E.<br />Fear caused people to attach themselves to members of a military Nobility who provided protection.<br />Matthew Paris (c. 1200-1259), Vassal Paying Homage to his Lord, <br />from the Westminster Psalter, ca. 1250. <br />.<br />
No Strong Central Govt.<br />Lack of central government for protection leads to rise of Feudalism<br />
What is Feudalism?<br />Feudalism: “loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord.”<br />
Feudalism (political system)So who is in charge?<br />Higher lords<br />Each person had rights and responsibilities<br />
Manor LifeSo where do the people live?<br />In Medieval Europe, people lived on manors<br />self-sufficient communities consisting of a castle, church, village and surrounding farmlands.<br />Serfs work land and give part of their crops to the local (land) lord, for letting them farm the land.<br />
William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) takes over.</li></li></ul><li>William of Normandy helped make England what it is today and codified feudalism (gave it the force of law).<br />
French was spoken in the English court for the next 200 years.<br />1066 – William creates Domesday Book for purposes of fair tax collection.<br />William of Normandy<br />Norman ship<br />
Bayeaux Tapestry (11 century)<br />The Bayeaux Tapestry was stitched to commemorate the Battle of Hastings<br />It measures 230 feet long (70 meters) and 20 inches wide. It was made to hang around the wall of a cathedral or castle.<br />
An unusual visual record of the conquest of England by William of Normandy.<br />11 century<br />
Named for the city in northwestern France where it was made it is still there today.<br />
626 figures<br />190 horses<br />Over 500 other animals<br />
The Crusades<br />The Normans effectively pushed the Muslims out of the Mediterranean Sea. <br />Europeans enjoyed a greater degree of security.<br />French knights under Louis IX besieging Damietta, Egypt, 7th Crusade<br />
Feudal-Age Literature<br />The Song of Roland<br />The ideals of the fighting in a feudal age are best captured in the oldest and greatest French epic poem.<br />The Poetry of the Troubadours<br /> Compose and performed poems devoted to courtly love, chivalry, religion and politics. <br />
Beyond the West: Japan<br />The Birth of the Novel<br />8th century<br />MurasakiShikibu (978-1016)<br />The author of the world’s first novel, was one of a group of female writers.<br />The Tale of Genji<br />
Niou serenades Nakanokimi (detail from the 12th century GenjiMonogatariEmaki scroll). <br />
Beyond the West: China<br />Tang (618-907 C.E.) and Song (960-1279) Dynasty<br />Boasted a sophisticated urban culture with city population of one million.<br />
Standing Court Lady, Tang dynasty, mid-seventh century. Pottery with painted decoration, height 15 1/8 in. <br />Tang Dynasty<br />
Horse and Rider, Tang dynasty, early eighth century. Pottery with three-color glaze and painted decoration, height 15 in.<br />Tang dynasty <br />
Ru ware, bowl in the shape of a lotus, Northern Song dynasty, twelfth century. Porcelain, height 4 in. National Palace Museum, Taiwan. <br />Song Dynasty <br />Marvels of calculated simplicity<br />The intellectual elite of Tang and Song China were deeply influenced by<br />Confucian traditions.<br />
Ma Yuan (c. 11601225), Apricot Blossoms, Song dynasty. Fan mounted as an album leaf, ink and color on silk, 10 x 10 3/4 in.<br />Song Dynasty<br />
Chinese Landscape Painting<br /><ul><li>The Tang and Song eras were a Golden Age of landscape painting.
Chinese landscapes offer a holistic and contemplative view of nature, a feature they share with Daoism and Buddhism.</li></ul>A Solitary Temple Amid Clearing Peaks, <br />Northern Song Dynasty<br />Li Cheng (attrib.) (919-967), c. 940-967. <br />Hanging scroll, ink and slight color on silk,<br /> ivory roller, 44 x 22". <br />
Early Medieval Music<br />Gregorian Chant : Anon., “Alleluya, vidimusstellam”, in DulciJubilo, Alberto Turco, conductor. In you books pg. 108.<br />Islamic Call To Prayer: Islamic Call to Prayer (Adhan), pg 116<br />Troubadour Song: Ventadorn, “Quanvei la lauzeta mover,” Unicorn Ensemble, Michel Posch, conductor pg 135<br />