By contrast with the Minoans, the Mycenaeans were a militant and aggressive people . This maritime civilization flourished when it seems to have been absorbed or destroyed by the Mycenaeans. Mycenaean Civilization (ca. 1600-1200 B.C.E) Aegean Civilization (Minoans) (ca. 3000-1200 B.C.E.)
A minotaur – a monstrous half-man, half –bull hybrid born of the union on Minos’ queen and a sacred white bull.
What is a Myth?
Suggest the persistence of ancient fertility cults honoring gods associated with procreation.
Mycenae Lion Gate c. 1350-1200 B.C.E., constructed heavily fortified citadels and walls so Massive that later generations thought they had been built by a mythical race of giants known as the Cycops. I
The "Agamemnon" Mask from Tomb V at Mycenae 16c. B.C.E.
The Heroic Age (ca. 1200-750 B.C.E)
A more powerful, iron-bearing tribes of Dorians, a Greek-speaking people from the north, destroyed Mycenaean civilization.
It took three hundred years before they were written down. The Iliad and Odyssey became the “ national” poems of ancient Greece. Achilles bandages the arm of his friend Patroclus. (Homer gets credit) The adventures of the Mycenaeans and the Trojan War Iliad and Odyssey
Euphronios and Euxitheos, Death of Sarpedon , ca. 515 B. C. E. Greek Gods were envisioned as a family of immortals who intervened in the lives of human beings.
The Greek League was the alliance of the Greek city-states led by Athens, Corinth, and Sparta.
The Persian War played out
in three key battles after Marathon.
The victory for the Greeks set their tone of superiority in the world, especially the Athenians.
The Greek Golden Age was
one of the most creative in the
history of the world.
Pericles was the leading proponent of Athenian democracy who dominated the Board of Ten generals for more than thirty years.
Epidarus Greek Drama
Greek drama was a form of play that addressed the dynamic relationship between the individual, the community, and the gods.
Greeks were the first masters in the art of drama.
The individual and the community
pottery depicting drama
Great Greek lyrists
One of a few known female poets of the ancient world.
Settled on The island of Lesbos, where she led a group of young women dedicated to the cult of Aphrodite.
He was sentenced to death by drinking hemlock, a poisonous herb. Jacques-Louis David’s , The Death of Socrates, 1787
He founded the first school of philosophy, the Academy. He wrote some two dozen treaties most of which were cast in the dialogue of Socrates.
Plato’s student from Macedonian, whose contributions rivaled his teacher. Aristotle was the greatest scientist of the ancient world. He is considered the father of the natural sciences
Athenian high society
laws that banned women from studying.
she cut her hair and dressed like a man
attended classes of famous physician Herophilus.
The Analects is the original "Confucius says:"
The Analects are required reading for Chinese school children.
The Analects is a small but transcendental work put together by the disciples of Confucius.
Myron Discobolus ca. 450 B.C.E. The Olympic Games ( 776 B.C.E .)
All city-states of Greece participated
Honor Greek Gods
Midsummer every four years
Winners received garlands of
wild olive, or laurel leaves, olive oil
and the acclaim of Greek painters and poets
Where did the name Marathon
Greek Painting Archaic period
(ca. 1000-700 B.C.E.)
Flat, angular figures and complex patterns
Figures painted in black or brown
Funerary Krater ca. 750 B.C.E., terra-cotta
Niobid Krater Greek Painting Classical period
Artist replace the black-figured style with one in which the human body was left the color of the clay and the ground was painted black
Classical: Head of Blond Youth Archaic: 700 - 480 B.C.E. Classical: 480 - 323 B.C.E. Hellenistic: 323 - 30 B.C.E
Archaic: Kouros c. 650 B.C.E. The Archaic Period (700 B.C.E. - 480 B.C.E .)
and block like
to the gods
Kouros – male youth
Kore – female youth
Archaic Period Influence: Ancient Egypt c. 2600 B.C.E.
Archaic Period Influence:Mesopotamia c. 2700 B.C.E.
Archaic: Kore & Kouros
Archaic: Kore from Acropolis and Painted Kore
Early Classical Kritios Boy , c. 480 B.C.E. and Blond Boy , c. 480 B.C.E.
Classical: Polycleitus, Doryphorus (spear-bearer) The Classical Period (480 B.C.E. - 323 B.C.E.)
More natural positioning
opposition that is natural and graceful
Doryphorus is considered the canon of ideal proportions.
Praxiteles – Aphrodite of Knidos ac. 350 B.C.E. (Roman Copy)
Established a model for the ideal female nude.
Regarded by the Romans as the finest statue in the world.
What do you think?
Classical: Zeus 440 B.C.E.
Phidias Man with Helmet
Parthenon replica - Nashville Greek Architecture: The Parthenon (448 to 432 B.C.E.)
Landmark architectural achievement
of Golden Age Athens
Temple dedicated to Athena (the goddess of war and of wisdom, and the patron of the arts and crafts.
Assassinated 2 years later, his 20 yr old son Alexander-the-Great assumed the throne.
He was a student of Aristotle.
Alexander was a military genius, possibly the greatest warrior of all time.
Belvedere Apollo (Roman copy) Vatican Museum- late fourth century B.C.E. Hellenistic Art
Notable for its sensuous male/female
Apollo Belvedere, A landmark example of the new sensuousness.
Laocoon and his sons c. 175-150 B.C.E. Vatican Museum
Hellenistic: Venus of Melos (Milo) c. 100 B.C.E.
Empire: The Power and Glory of Rome (ca.500 B.C.E.-500 C.E.)
The word “Empire” derives from the Latin imperium, the absolute authority held by the rulers of ancient Rome.
By sheer military force, Rome’s rulers created the West’s largest and long-lasting
An army commander who in 46 B.C.E. Triumphantly entered the city of Rome and established a dictatorship.
Veni, vidi, vici
(“I came, I saw, I conquered”)
Assassinated by Brutus
A struggle of power with Mark Anthony and Egyptian Queen Cleopatra.
Octavian gained approval of the Senate to rule for life.
Rome enjoyed a Golden Age of Latin literature whose most notable representative was Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.)
He wrote the Aeneid a
semi legendary epic that
immortalized Rome's destiny
as world ruler .
On Duty (44b.c.e) essay evaluates the benefits of diplomacy versus war
Served Rome as consul, statesman and orator
Roman Engineers built 50 thousand miles of paved roads.
Superb Engineers, they employed the structural advantages of the arch.
Pont du Gard, near Nimes, France, ca. 20-10 b.c.e. - 25 mile long aqueduct that brought fresh water to the city. Built of 6-ton stones and assembled without mortar, the bottom row supporting a bridge and the top water ran by gravity.
Colosseum (70-82 B.C.E.)
Covered 6 acres
Accommodated 50 thousand
Chariot races, mock sea
battles, gladiatorial contests,
and a variety of brutal
Romans innovated the use of cement , which made large-scale architectural constructions much cheaper to build.
The Pantheon Ca. 118-125B.C.E.
Dedicated to the seven planetary deities.
Pantheon boasts a 19 foot-thick rotunda that is capped by a solid dome consisting of 5000 tons of concrete.
The interior of the dome, is pierced by a 30 ft wide oculus , or “eye,” that admits light and air.
Trajan’s Victory Column Rome (113 C.E.)
100 ft tall marble column erected by Emperor Trajan.
To celebrate his victory over the Dacians.
Includes 2500 figures
Roman Painting and Mosaic Mosaic portrait of a women, pompeii, 1 st cen C.E.
Pompeii and Herculaneum remain the showcases of Roman suburban life.
Both cities were destroyed by volcanic eruption from Mt. Vesuvius.
What caused the fall of the Roman empire?
The Fall of the Roman Empire Alexander-the-Great, Pompeii
The difficulties of governing so huge an empire, the decline of the slave trade, and an increasing gap between the rich and the poor.
1/3 to 1/2 of the population of Rome received some form of public welfare.
And repeated barbarian attacks on Rome’s borders.
The Qin Dynasty (221-210 B.C.E.)
Rome and China traded overland, by way of Asian intermediaries, but neither reflects the direct influence of the other.
“ First Emperor” Shih Huang Di tomb
It took 700,000 workers to build.
8,000 life-size terra-cotta armed soldiers, with horse drawn chariots.
“ First Emperor” Shih Huang Di (259-210 B.C.E.)
The Great Wall of China
Began 3 rd cen. B.C.E.
1500 miles long
Could not stop foot soldiers, but slowed down horse drawn wagons and men on horse back.
The Heroic Age (ca. 1200-750 B.C.E) A more powerful, iron-bearing tribes of Dorians, a Greek-speaking people from the north, destroyed Mycenaean civilization. Storytellers kept alive the history of early Greece, the adventures of the Mycenaeans, and the Trojan War, passing them orally from generation to generation. It took three hundred years before they were written down. The Iliad and Odyssey became the “ national” poems of ancient Greece.
Early Classical Aristodikos Kouros, c. 500-490 B.C.E. Periods
Early Classical: Warrior from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina
Early Classical Fallen Warrior from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina
Early Classical Archers from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina.
Classical - The Charioteer of Delphi , Delphi c. 470 B.C.E.
Classical: Polyclitus and Praxiteles Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus
Classicism describes a style of creative expression marked by clarity, simplicity, balance, and harmonious proportion – features associated with moderation, rationalism, and dignity.
Sappho’s He is more than a hero
He is more than a hero he is a god in my eyes-- the man who is allowed to sit beside you -- he who listens intimately to the sweet murmur of your voice, the enticing laughter that makes my own heart beat fast. If I meet you suddenly, I can'
speak -- my tongue is broken; a thin flame runs under my skin; seeing nothing, hearing only my own ears drumming, I drip with sweat; trembling shakes my body and I turn paler than dry grass. At such times death isn't far from me