The Peloponnesian War The Golden Age of Greece was short lived. Athens and Sparta were both powerful poli, and each wanted to spread their way of life. Sparta attacked Athens in 431BC, beginning the brutal 27-year-long Peloponnesian War. One out four people in Athens died shortly after the war began, but not because they were defeated in battle. When Sparta attacked, the Athenian people crowded behind the walls of the city. The cramped and dirty living conditions were an easy target for disease. A plague, or great sickness, spread through the city. Sickness claimed the life of Pericles, the leader of Athens. Once Pericles died, the people began to listen to demagogues. Demagogues were bad leaders who appealed to people’s emotions rather than logic. Sparta eventually defeated Athens by building blockade around the walls of the city. This is called a siege. The people of Athens could not leave to get supplies or food from the countryside. Faced with starvation, Athens surrendered to Sparta in 404BC. The Peloponnesian robbed Athens of its Golden Age. Great thinkers and teachers lived in Athens during and after the war but the era of support for new ideas and the spirit of democracy had passed.
The foundation of classicism were laid in the Aegean civilizations of the Bronze Age. But it was not until the fifth century B.C.E that the Greek city of Athens enshrined classicism as the expression of a Golden Age in the arts.
Ancient Greek Civilization
The small statue of a bare-breasted female brandishing snakes (ancient symbol of rebirth) may represent a popular fertility goddess; or it may depict a priestess performing specific cult rites.
Probably associated with the cult of the bull- ancient symbol of virility- the ritual game prefigures the modern bullfight, the “rules” of which were codified in Roman times by Julius Caesar.
Aegean Civilization (Minoans) (ca. 3000-1200 B.C.E.) This maritime civilization flourished when it seems to have been absorbed or destroyed by the Mycenaeans. Mycenaean Civilization (ca. 1600-1200 B.C.E) By contrast with the Minoans, the Mycenaeans were a militant and aggressive people .
A gold death mask that once covered the face of the deceased, Schliemann identified as belonging to Agamemnon, the legendary king who led the ancient Greeks against the city of Troy. This tale is immortalized in the first of the Greek epic poems, the Iliad.
The Heroic Age (ca. 1200-750 B.C.E) A more powerful, iron-bearing tribes of Dorians, a Greek-speaking people from the north, destroyed Mycenaean civilization. Storytellers kept alive the history of early Greece, the adventures of the Mycenaeans, and the Trojan War, passing them orally from generation to generation.
The legendary warrior and Trojan ally, Sarpedon, was killed by Patroclus in the course of the war. He is shown being carried from the battlefield by the winged figures of Hypnos (sleep) and Thanatos (Death). Central to the lyrically balanced composition is the figure of Hermes, messenger of the gods, who guides the dead to the underworld. Although immortal, the Greek gods were much like the human beings who worshipped them: The were amorous, capricious, and quarrelsome. They lived not in some remote heaven, but (conveniently enough) atop a mountain in northern Greece – that is, among the Greeks themselves. From their home on Mount Olympus, the gods might take sides in human combat (as they regularly do in the Iliad), seduce mortal women, and meddle in the lives of ordinary people. The Greek gods were not always benevolent or just. Thy set forth no clear principles of moral conduct and no guidelines for religious worship.
The defeat of Persia inspired a mood of confidence and a spirit of vigorous chauvinism. Pericles – An aristocrat by birth, he was a democrat at heart. In the interest of broadening the democratic system, he initiated some of Athens’ most sweeping domestic reforms, such as payment for holding public office and a system of public audit in which the finance of outgoing magistrates were subject to critical scrutiny.
The ancient Greeks were the first masters in the art of drama, the literary genre that tells a story through the imitation of action, recitation and chant, music, dance, and mime animated the enactment of myths that celebrated rites of passage of marked seasonal change.
and one of a few known female poets of the ancient world
Socrates Socrates was a Greek philosopher who taught by asking questions. When teachers ask questions that encourage students to draw conclusions, they are using the &quot;Socratic method&quot; of teaching. The oracle of the prominent polis of Delphi pronounced Socrates the wisest man in Greece. Socrates concluded that while others professed knowledge they did not have, he knew how little he knew. Socrates asked many questions, but he gave few answers. He often denied knowing the answers to the questions he asked. Socrates was a well-known teacher in Athens. He drifted around the city with his students, engaging many people in arguments about &quot;justice, bravery, and piety.&quot; What we know about Socrates comes from what others wrote about him. Socrates did not write any books because he believed in the superiority of argument over writing. Socrates' students wrote that he believed that evil is ignorance, and that virtue could be taught. According to this philosophy, all values are related to knowledge. Evil is ignorance, and virtue can be taught. Socrates regarded the tales of the gods as an invention of the poets. The leaders of Athens did not want a critic like Socrates in their city. They threatened to bring him to trial for neglecting the gods and for corrupting the youth of Athens by encouraging them to consider new ideas. The leaders expected the seventy-year-old Socrates to leave Athens before his arrest, but he remained in Athens, stood trial, and was found guilty. A friend tried to plan an escape from prison, but Socrates refused to participate. He believed that he must obey the law, even if his disagreed with it. His last day was spent with friends and admirers. At the end of the day, Socrates calmly drank from a cup of poison hemlock, the customary practice of execution at that time.
Plato Most of what we know about Socrates comes from Plato, his most famous student. Plato called Socrates “the best of all men I have ever known.” When his mentor was executed, Plato left Greece for more than a decade. He returned to start the Academy, a school that would operate for more than 900 years. Plato described his idea of an ideal society in his most famous book, the Republic. Plato did not believe in democracy. He argued in favor of an “aristocracy of merit,” rule by the best and the wisest people. Plato believed a small group of people intelligent and educated men and women should govern society. This small group would select the best and the brightest students to join them. Plato believed the government should rear all children so that everyone would have equal opportunities. Schools would test students on a regular basis. Those who did poorly would be sent to work, while those who did well would continue their studies. At the age of thirty-five, those persons who mastered their education would be sent to the workplace to apply their learning to the real world. After fifteen years, if the student succeeded, they would be admitted to the guardian class. Plato taught that the ideals of truth or justice cannot exist in the material world. Today we describe a &quot;platonic&quot; relationship as one in which people have mental and spiritual exchanges but refrain from physical intimacy.
Aristotle Aristotle was the greatest scientist of the ancient world. He is considered the father of the natural sciences. Aristotle believed in using logic and reason, rather than the anger or pleasure of gods, to explain events. Aristotle was born in Macedonia, a mountainous land north of the Greek peninsula. At that time, many Greeks believed Macedonia was a backward place with no culture. Aristotle moved to Athens and studied at Plato’s Academy. He remained at the school for more than twenty years until shortly after Plato died. Aristotle then returned to Macedonia, where King Philip hired him to prepare his thirteen-year-old son, Alexander, for his future role as a military leader. His student would one day be known as known as Alexander the Great, one of the greatest military conquerors of all time. Once Alexander became King of Macedonia, Aristotle returned to Athens and opened a school he called the Lyceum. For the next twelve years, Aristotle organized his school as a center of research on astronomy, zoology, geography, geology, physics, anatomy, and many other fields. Aristotle wrote 170 books, 47 of which still exist more than two thousand years later. Aristotle was also a philosopher who wrote about ethics, psychology, economics, theology, politics, and rhetoric. Later inventions like the telescope and microscope would prove many of Aristotle’s theories to be incorrect, but his ideas formed the basis of modern science.
The Greeks competed in the nude, so nude sculptures were considered normal.
6 th century B.C.E. the Persian Empire advanced westward, - Persia annexed Ionia, the Greek region on the coast of Asia Minor. A move that clearly threatened mainland Greece. Thus, when in 499 B.C.E. the Ionian cities revolted against Persian rule, their Greek neighbors came to their aid. In retaliation, the Persians sent military expeditions to punish the rebel cities of the Greek mainland. In 490 B.C.E., on the plain of Marathon, near a Athens, A Greek force of eleven thousand men met a Persian army with twice its numbers and defeated them, losing only 192 men. Persian casualties exceeded 6,000. the Greek warrior who brought new of the victory at Marathon to Athens died upon completing the 26-mile run. Hence the word ”marathon” has come to designate a long-distance endurance contest.
Tall and poised, with small breast and broad hips
Designed by the architects Ictinus and Kallicrates Sculpture by Phidias Commissioned by Pericles, who freely drew on (Delian League) funds to restore the wooden temples burned by the Persians during their attack on Athens in 480 b.c.e. Greek architects used no mortar. Rather they employed bronze clamps and dowels to fasten the individually cut marble segments.
Here is a drawing of what we think it would have looked like.
4 th cen. B.C.E. was a turbulent era marked by rivalry and warfare among the Greek city-states. The failure of the Greek city-states to live in peace would lead of the spread of Hellenic culture.
Alexander the Great Alexander the Great became King of Macedonia when his father was assassinated in 336BC. King Philip had conquered most of the Greek peninsula. The Greeks believed they could free themselves of Macedonia rule, since the new king was a “mere boy.” Alexander proved them wrong by capturing the city of Thebes. He destroyed the entire city as a warning to the others. Alexander then conquered Persia, the longtime enemy of Greece, and the mightiest empire in the world. Alexander was a military genius, possibly the greatest warrior of all time. His troops were better trained and organized than the Persian army. His soldiers also admired Alexander because of his personal courage. Alexander led his soldiers in battle instead of remaining behind the lines. The troops saw that Alexander was sharing their danger, and was not asking them to take any risks he would not take himself. Once he conquered the Persians, Alexander quickly assembled a huge empire. In 332BC, he moved south to Egypt, where he rested his troops. The Egyptians welcomed Alexander as a hero because he freed them from harsh Persian rule. They crowned him Pharaoh and declared him a god. Alexander eventually created an empire that reached India. Aristotle taught him that the Greeks were the most advanced people in the world, and that all other cultures were barbarians. Once he defeated the Persians, he came to see them very differently. He saw that many Persians were intelligent people and were worthy of his respect. Alexander accepted many Persians into his army and married the daughter of a Persian king. In 323BC, when Alexander was only thirty-three years old, he fell ill from a fever and died a week later. Alexander had created a huge empire in less than thirteen years, but it quickly crumbled. Alexander’s mother, wives, and children were all killed in the struggle for power that followed his death. In the end, his empire was divided among his generals in three parts. Alexander changed the world, but not through his accomplishments on the battlefield. Alexander carried the ideas of the Greeks and their love of learning throughout his empire. He founded the great city of Alexandria, which became a center of learning and culture in Egypt. A library in Alexandria housed the accumulated knowledge of the Greeks. This would become very important in the centuries that followed because Greece and Rome would fall to barbarian tribes who could not read.
Rome’s influence on Western culture was felt long after Roman glory and might faded.
Rome’s early history, Rome’s origins are to be found among the tribes of Iron Age folk called the Latins. The Latins borrowed elements that would enhance their own history. From Etruscans, the Romans absorbed the fundamentals of urban planning, chariot racing, the toga, bronze and gold crafting, and the most ingenious structural principle of Mesopotamian architecture – the arch. The Etruscans provided their dead with tombs designed to resemble the lavish dwelling places of the deceased, On the lids of the sarcophagi (stone coffins) that held the remains of the dead, Etruscan artists carved their portraits, depicting husbands and wives relaxing and socializing on their dining couch, as if still enjoying a family banquet From the Greeks the Romans borrowed a pantheon of god and goddesses, linguistic and literary principles and the aesthetics of the classical style. As the Latins absorbed these cultures so they drew these and other peoples into what would become the most powerful world statein ancient history.
Plot Overview O n the Mediterranean Sea, Aeneas and his fellow Trojans flee from their home city of Troy, which has been destroyed by the Greeks. They sail for Italy, where Aeneas is destined to found Rome. As they near their destination, a fierce storm throws them off course and lands them in Carthage. Dido, Carthage’s founder and queen, welcomes them. Aeneas relates to Dido the long and painful story of his group’s travels thus far. Aeneas tells of the sack of Troy that ended the Trojan War after ten years of Greek siege. In the final campaign, the Trojans were tricked when they accepted into their city walls a wooden horse that, unbeknownst to them, harbored several Greek soldiers in its hollow belly. He tells how he escaped the burning city with his father, Anchises; his son, Ascanius; and the hearth gods that represent their fallen city. Assured by the gods that a glorious future awaited him in Italy, he set sail with a fleet containing the surviving citizens of Troy. Aeneas relates the ordeals they faced on their journey. Twice they attempted to build a new city, only to be driven away by bad omens and plagues. Harpies, creatures that are part woman and part bird, cursed them, but they also encountered friendly countrymen unexpectedly. Finally, after the loss of Anchises and a bout of terrible weather, they made their way to Carthage. Impressed by Aeneas’s exploits and sympathetic to his suffering, Dido, a Phoenician princess who fled her home and founded Carthage after her brother murdered her husband, falls in love with Aeneas. They live together as lovers for a period, until the gods remind Aeneas of his duty to found a new city. He determines to set sail once again. Dido is devastated by his departure, and kills herself by ordering a huge pyre to be built with Aeneas’s castaway possessions, climbing upon it, and stabbing herself with the sword Aeneas leaves behind. As the Trojans make for Italy, bad weather blows them to Sicily, where they hold funeral games for the dead Anchises. The women, tired of the voyage, begin to burn the ships, but a downpour puts the fires out. Some of the travel-weary stay behind, while Aeneas, reinvigorated after his father visits him in a dream, takes the rest on toward Italy. Once there, Aeneas descends into the underworld, guided by the Sibyl of Cumae, to visit his father. He is shown a pageant of the future history and heroes of Rome, which helps him to understand the importance of his mission. Aeneas returns from the underworld, and the Trojans continue up the coast to the region of Latium. The arrival of the Trojans in Italy begins peacefully. King Latinus, the Italian ruler, extends his hospitality, hoping that Aeneas will prove to be the foreigner whom, according to a prophecy, his daughter Lavinia is supposed to marry. But Latinus’s wife, Amata, has other ideas. She means for Lavinia to marry Turnus, a local suitor. Amata and Turnus cultivate enmity toward the newly arrived Trojans. Meanwhile, Ascanius hunts a stag that was a pet of the local herdsmen. A fight breaks out, and several people are killed. Turnus, riding this current of anger, begins a war. Aeneas, at the suggestion of the river god Tiberinus, sails north up the Tiber to seek military support among the neighboring tribes. During this voyage, his mother, Venus, descends to give him a new set of weapons, wrought by Vulcan. While the Trojan leader is away, Turnus attacks. Aeneas returns to find his countrymen embroiled in battle. Pallas, the son of Aeneas’s new ally Evander, is killed by Turnus. Aeneas flies into a violent fury, and many more are slain by the day’s end. The two sides agree to a truce so that they can bury the dead, and the Latin leaders discuss whether to continue the battle. They decide to spare any further unnecessary carnage by proposing a hand-to-hand duel between Aeneas and Turnus. When the two leaders face off, however, the other men begin to quarrel, and full-scale battle resumes. Aeneas is wounded in the thigh, but eventually the Trojans threaten the enemy city. Turnus rushes out to meet Aeneas, who wounds Turnus badly. Aeneas nearly spares Turnus but, remembering the slain Pallas, slays him instead.
Large numbers of citizens inspired the construction of tenements, meeting halls, baths, amphitheaters and aqueducts. They placed arches back to back to form a barrel vault. Or right angles to each other to form a cross or groined vault.
A temple whose structural majesty depends on the combination of Roman technical ingenuity and inventive spatial design. One of the few buildings from classical antiquity to have remained almost intact. The surrounding pavement over time covered the steps leading up to the Pantheon. (the steps are underground)
The lava preserved many homes and many mosaics survived to give us a glimpse into their lives. Mosaics are small pieces of stone or glass embedded into the cement.
Slow decline was likely caused by a combination of internal circumstances:
But they had many things in common. Qin created an empire by defeating all rival states and assuming absolute responsibility for maintaining order. Both brought political stability and cultural unity to vast reaches of territory. Both were profoundly secular in their approach to the world and to the conduct of human beings. Each inherited age-old practices in religion , law, literature, and the arts, which they self-consciously preserved and transmitted to future generations.
Large salaried bureaucracy. Ordered the first census. Standardized written Chinese. Divided china into provinces. Created a uniform coinage. Created a system of weights and measures. Standardized all axles on Chinese wagons so they would fit into excisting ruts. The silk industry brought wealth But the peasants were heavily taxed
Chapter 2 3 greekart
Greek and Romans <ul><li>Civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul>
Classicism Classicism describes a style of creative expression marked by clarity, simplicity, balance, and harmonious proportion – features associated with moderation, rationalism, and dignity.
Mycenaean Civilization (ca. 1600-1200 B.C.E) By contrast with the Minoans, the Mycenaeans were a militant and aggressive people . Aegean Civilization (Minoans) (ca. 3000-1200 B.C.E.) This maritime civilization flourished when it seems to have been absorbed or destroyed by the Mycenaeans.
Mycenae Lion Gate c. 1350-1200 B.C.E., constructed heavily fortified citadels and walls so Massive that later generations thought they had been built by a mythical race of giants known as the Cycops. I
The "Agamemnon" Mask from Tomb V at Mycenae 16c. B.C.E. I
It took three hundred years before they were written down. The Iliad and Odyssey became the “ national” poems of ancient Greece. Achilles bandages the arm of his friend Patroclus. (Homer gets credit) The adventures of the Mycenaeans and the Trojan War Iliad and Odyssey
Euphronios and Euxitheos, Death of Sarpedon , ca. 515 B. C. E. The Greek Gods were envisioned as a family of immortals who intervened in the lives of human beings.
Athens and the Golden Age (ca. 480-430 B.C.E.) The Greek Golden Age was one of the most creative in the history of the world. Pericles was the leading proponent of Athenian democracy who dominated the Board of Ten generals for more than thirty years.
Epidarus Greek Drama <ul><li>Twice annually </li></ul><ul><li>Greek drama was a form of play that addressed the dynamic relationship between the individual, the community, and the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks were the first masters in the art of drama . </li></ul>
Sappho ca. 630 B.C.E. <ul><li>Great Greek lyrists </li></ul><ul><li>She was an aristocrat who married a prosperous merchant. Her wealth afforded her with the opportunity to live her life as she chose, and she chose to spend it studying the arts on the isle of Lesbos. </li></ul>Pg. 40
Socrates and the Quest for Virtue (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) Socrates won as many enemies as he won friends. He was brought to trail for subversive behavior, impiety, and atheism. He was sentenced to death by drinking hemlock, a poisonous herb. Jacques-Louis David’s , The Death of Socrates, 1787
Socrates Insisting on the absolute nature of truth and justice, he described the ethical life as belonging to a larger set of universal truths and an unchanging moral order.
Plato He founded the first school of philosophy, the Academy. He wrote some two dozen treaties most of which were cast in the dialogue of Socrates.
Aristotle Plato’s student from Macedonian, whose contributions rivaled his teacher. Aristotle was the greatest scientist of the ancient world. He is considered the father of the natural sciences
Myron Discobolus ca. 450 B.C.E. Sculpture The Olympic Games ( 776 B.C.E .) <ul><li>All city-states of Greece participated </li></ul><ul><li>at Olympia </li></ul><ul><li>Honor Greek Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Midsummer every four years </li></ul><ul><li>Winners received garlands of </li></ul><ul><li>wild olive, or laurel leaves, olive oil </li></ul><ul><li>and the acclaim of Greek painters and poets </li></ul>
<ul><li>Where did the name Marathon </li></ul><ul><li>come from? </li></ul>
Greek Painting Archaic period <ul><li>Geometric painting </li></ul><ul><li>(ca. 1000-700 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat, angular figures and complex patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Figures painted in black or brown </li></ul>Funerary Krater ca. 750 B.C.E., terra-cotta
Niobid Krater Painting Greek Painting Classical period <ul><li>480-323 B.C.E </li></ul><ul><li>Artist replace the black-figured style with one in which the human body was left the color of the clay and the ground was painted black </li></ul>
Archaic: Kouros c. 650 B.C.E. Periods The Archaic Period (700 B.C.E. - 480 B.C.E .) <ul><li>Egyptian and </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamian influence </li></ul><ul><li>Freestanding, rigid </li></ul><ul><li>and block like </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetual homage </li></ul><ul><li>to the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Kouros – male youth </li></ul><ul><li>Kore – female youth </li></ul>
Archaic Period Influence: Ancient Egypt c. 2600 B.C.E. Periods
Archaic Period Influence:Mesopotamia c. 2700 B.C.E. Periods
Classical: Polycleitus, Doryphorus (spear-bearer) The Classical Period (480 B.C.E. - 323 B.C.E.) <ul><li>More natural positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Greater weight on the left leg </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced opposition that is natural and graceful </li></ul><ul><li>Doryphorus is considered the canon of ideal proportions. </li></ul>
Praxiteles – Aphrodite of Knidos ac. 350 B.C.E. (Roman Copy) <ul><li>Established a model for the ideal female nude. </li></ul><ul><li>Regarded by the Romans as the finest statue in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think? </li></ul>
Classical: Zeus and Polyclitus Doryphoros (Spear carrier) 440 B.C.E.
Early Classical Kritios Boy , c. 480 B.C.E. and Blond Boy , c. 480 B.C.E.
Parthenon replica - Nashville I Greek Architecture: The Parthenon (448 to 432 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Landmark architectural achievement </li></ul><ul><li>of Golden Age Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Temple dedicated to Athena (the goddess of war and of wisdom, and the patron of the arts and crafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Pericles </li></ul>
Sculpture of the Parthenon <ul><li>Phidias and his members </li></ul><ul><li>of his workshop </li></ul><ul><li>448 and 432 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Homage to the patron </li></ul><ul><li>deity of Athens: Athena </li></ul>
The Hellenistic Age (323-30 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Philip of Macedonia defeated the Greeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated 2 years later, his 20 yr old son </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander-the-Great assumed the throne. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a student of Aristotle. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a military genius: Within 12 years, </li></ul><ul><li>he created an empire that stretched Greece to borders of modern India. </li></ul>
Alexander was a military genius, possibly the greatest warrior of all time.
Belvedere Apollo (Roman copy) Vatican Museum- late fourth century B.C.E. Hellenistic Art <ul><li>New emphasis on personal emotion & </li></ul><ul><li>individuality gave rise to portraits that </li></ul><ul><li>were more intimate and less idealized. </li></ul><ul><li>Notable for its sensuous male/female </li></ul><ul><li>nudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo Belvedere, A landmark example </li></ul><ul><li>of the new sensuousness. </li></ul>
Laocoon and his sons c. 175-150 B.C.E. Vatican Museum
Hellenistic: Venus of Melos (Milo) c. 100 B.C.E. Sculpture
Empire: The Power and Glory of Rome (ca.500 B.C.E.-500 C.E.) <ul><li>The word “Empire” derives from the Latin imperium, the absolute authority held by the rulers of ancient Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>By sheer military force, Rome’s rulers created the West’s largest and long-lasting </li></ul><ul><li>empire. </li></ul>
Julius Caesar <ul><li>An army commander who in 46 B.C.E. Triumphantly entered the city of Rome and established a dictatorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Veni, vidi, vici </li></ul><ul><li>(“I came, I saw, I conquered”) </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated by Brutus </li></ul>
<ul><li>Octavian (Augustus) </li></ul><ul><li>A struggle of power with Mark Anthony and Egyptian Queen Cleopatra. </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian gained approval of the Senate to rule for life. </li></ul>
Epic Poetry <ul><li>Rome enjoyed a Golden Age of Latin literature whose most notable representative was Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote the Aeneid a </li></ul><ul><li>semi legendary epic that </li></ul><ul><li>immortalized Rome's destiny </li></ul><ul><li>as world ruler . </li></ul>
Roman Architecture <ul><li>Roman Engineers built 50 </li></ul><ul><li>thousand miles of paved roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Superb Engineers, they employed the structural advantages of the arch. </li></ul>
The Pantheon Ca. 118-125B.C.E. <ul><li>Dedicated to the seven planetary deities. </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheon boasts a 19 foot-thick rotunda that is capped by a solid dome consisting of 5000 tons of concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>The interior of the dome, is pierced by a 30 ft wide oculus , or “eye,” that admits light and air. </li></ul>
Trajan’s Victory Column Rome (113 C.E.) <ul><li>100 ft tall marble column erected by Emperor Trajan. </li></ul><ul><li>To celebrate his victory over the Dacians. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 2500 figures </li></ul>
Roman Painting and Mosaic Mosaic portrait of a women, pompeii, 1 st cen C.E. <ul><li>Pompeii and Herculaneum remain the showcases of Roman suburban life. </li></ul><ul><li>Both cities were destroyed by volcanic eruption from Mt. Vesuvius. </li></ul>
The Fall of the Roman Empire Alexander-the-Great, Pompeii <ul><li>The difficulties of governing so huge an empire, the decline of the slave trade, and an increasing gap between the rich and the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 to 1/2 of the population of Rome received some form of public welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>And repeated barbarian attacks on Rome’s borders. </li></ul>
The Qin Dynasty (221-210 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Rome and China traded overland, by way of Asian intermediaries, but neither reflects the direct influence of the other. </li></ul>
“ First Emperor” Shih Huang Di tomb <ul><li>It took 700,000 workers to build. </li></ul><ul><li>8,000 life-size terra-cotta armed soldiers, with horse drawn chariots. </li></ul>
“ First Emperor” Shih Huang Di (259-210 B.C.E.)
The Great Wall of China <ul><li>Began 3 rd cen. B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>1500 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>Could not stop foot soldiers, but slowed down horse drawn wagons and men on horse back. </li></ul>
The Heroic Age (ca. 1200-750 B.C.E) A more powerful, iron-bearing tribes of Dorians, a Greek-speaking people from the north, destroyed Mycenaean civilization. Storytellers kept alive the history of early Greece, the adventures of the Mycenaeans, and the Trojan War, passing them orally from generation to generation. It took three hundred years before they were written down. The Iliad and Odyssey became the “ national” poems of ancient Greece.
Early Classical Aristodikos Kouros, c. 500-490 B.C.E. Periods