In the decades after 1850, the industrial technologies of steam power, coal, and iron brought the west into a position of dominance over the less industrialized parts of the world.
Two major art movements realism and Impressionism.
Beginning in 1848, the lower classes protested against bad conditions with sporadic urban revolts.
This painting presents a somewhat romanticized view of the laboring classes.
Jean-François Millet, Gleaners , 1857. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 9" x 3' 8". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC REALITIES
Käthe Kollwitz (1867-–1945)
She was a social realist and a feminist whose early prints illustrate peasant rebellions and mass protests.
Between 1855-1861, there were almost 500 peasant uprisings across Europe.
Among these movements for economic and social reform, one of the most idealistic was socialism .
Käthe Kollwitz (1867–1945), Death and the Mother , 1934. Lithograph, 20 1/8" x 14 5/8"
Joseph Paxton (1803–1865), Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London, 1851. Cast iron, wrought iron, and glass. Destroyed by fire in 1936. Contemporary lithograph by Joseph Nash, Alexandre-Gustav Eiffel (1832–1923), Eiffel Tower, 1889. Iron on a reinforced concrete base, height 934'. Paris.
Eiffel Tower , 1887-1889, Gustave Eiffel
19th Century more skeletal architecture.
Land values soared, so buildings went UP (skyscrapers, etc.)
Eiffel specialized in railway bridges
Centerpiece of 1889 Paris Universal Exposition
Innovative elevator swings up diagonally
Also helped with Statue of Liberty and Panama Canal!
Realism in the Visual Arts The Birth of Photography
Mathew B. Brady, (1861-1865) eyewitness photographs for the American civil war.
His staff testify to the importance of the photographer as a chronicler of human life.
Mathew B. Brady or staff, Dead Confederate Soldier with Gun, Petersburg, Virginia, 1865. Photograph. The Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
French Realism - Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)
Outspoken socialist, “A painter should paint only what he can see.”
Minimizes any display of pomp and ceremony. He banished from his view all sentimentality and artifice.
Gustave Courbet. Burial at Ornans , 1849. Oil on canvas, 10' 4" x 21' 11". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
Oliver twist (slums and orphanages) 1838, Nickolas Nickleby (rural schools) 1839, David Copperfield (debtor’s prison) 1850
Mark Twain ( 1835-1910) (Longhorn Clemens)
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (rural farmlands/ Mississippi river) 1884, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (boy and runaway slave/American south just prior to the Civil War) 1876
Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)
Renounced his wealth and property and
went to live and work among the peasants.
War and Peace (1869)
Traces the progress of five families whose destinies unroll against the back ground of Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812.
Impressionism Forerunner… Édouard Manet
After rejection by salon, set up his own exhibitions
Early work was before Impressionists
fully supported their aims
worked closely w/ Monet
The Scandalous Realism of Manet Luncheon on the Grass , Edouard Manet
Napoleon III authorized Exhibition of refused artists from the Salon, such as Manet and Monet
This painting was found scandalous…
Figures are not modeled. Very flat, not relating with each other.
Édouard Manet (1832–1883). Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) , 1863. Oil on canvas, 7' x 9'. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
Pastoral Concert (Fête champêtre) 1508-09 Oil on canvas, 110 x 138 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris Édouard Manet (1832–1883). Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) , 1863. Oil on canvas, 7' x 9'. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
Olympia , Manet, 1863
courtesan stares out at us, not modeled figure.
Olympia confronts the viewer, she is powerful, NOT an accommodating female nude.
Édouard Manet. Olympia , 1863. Oil on canvas, 4' 3" x 6' 3". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
Olympia, Manet, 1868 Venus of Urbino, Titian, 1538
Bar at the Folies-Bergere, Manet, oil on canvas, 1882
Barmaid stares out at us.
What is the mirror reflecting?
More impressionistic than Manet’s early works.
Mystery of the Mirror in Manet’s painting It is the viewer of the painting (you)!
Realism in American Painting Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) , The Agnew Clinic , 1889. Oil on canvas, 6 ft. 2 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 10 1/2 in. University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine.
Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) , The Biglin Brothers Racing , 1873. Oil on canvas, 24 1/4" x 36 1/8". National Gallery of Art Thomas Eakins (1844-1916)
Winslow Homer (1836-1910)
While realistic in execution the painting may be interpreted as a romantic metaphor for the isolation and plight of black American in the decades following the Civil War.
Winslow Homer (1836-1910), The Gulf Stream , 1899. Oil on canvas, 28 1/8 in. x 4 ft. 1 1/8 in. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Impressionism The movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, Impression: Sunrise, which was singled out for criticism by Louis Leroy upon its exhibition. The hallmark of the style is the attempt to capture the subjective impression of light in a scene. The Impressionist style was probably the single most successful and identifiable "movement" ever, and is still widely practiced today.
Claude Monet Impressionism: Sunrise 1872
Leader of the Impressionists
Aesthetic aim : fleeting effects of light, shadow and atmosphere.
Application of paint : thick, heavy layers or strokes (impasto).
Influenced by : Baroque “painterliness” (ex: Rubens)
Distinguished from Renaissance ideal that used flat, smooth paint surface
Monet’s Rouen Cathedral in sun , 1894, oil on canvas, 40” x 26” (and in sunset…)
Monet’s Water Lilies (c. 1900) Monet did a series of large canvases on water lilies. He frequently painted his house at Giverny with the gardens and Japanese bridge.
The Luncheon of the Boating Party 1881 Renoir
Narrative: photographic effect and aura of spontaneity.
Light and shadow : fleeting effects of sunlight falls in patches, dappling the surface
Handling of paint : loose and rapid thick “impasto”
Subjects : outdoor scenes leisure time & gaiety of middle-class Parisians
Renoir’s Moulin de la Galette, oil on canvas, 4 ft x 6’ approximately Dappling effect of fleeting light Photographic randomness of clipped figures
The Dance Class 1881 Degas
Pastels and Oil Paintings
Worked mostly indoors (not plein air) Asymmetrical compositions Feathery brushstrokes showing the dancers’ costumes Degas , Rehearsal on Stage , 1874, pastel drawing
Young Mother 1891 Mary Cassatt
Friend of Degas & Renoir
Naturalism, innocence of children
Influenced by Japanese prints. Pastel & Oil.
Subjects : Mothers and children, her sister
Breakfast in Bed, Mary Cassatt
Cassatt did a series of paintings and pastel drawings on the theme of mother and child.
Influential in bringing Impressionist paintings to US where they were a huge hit
Mary Cassatt Maternal Caress, woodblock print, Mary Cassatt was influenced by Japanese prints tilted style, outlining, pattern, and treatment of space.
Oil on canvas, 32” x 23” Shows her sister at the opera Again, women going about their daily activities Dazzling colors and brushwork Lydia in a Loge , Mary Cassatt, 1879
Berthe Morisot , Summer’s Day , oil on canvas, 1879
Sister in law of Manet and grandaughter of Fragonard
Sketchy, painterly brushwork
Middle class women
James Whistler’s Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket , 1875
Subtle harmonies of painting comparable to music
Japanese influence-Japanese signature
Atmospheric effect of fireworks, study in harmony of color, shape, light
Whistler successfully sued a critic over negative comments
Characteristics : bright color and visible, distinctive brushwork
Trends : more emphasis on composition and form and greater psychological depth.
Impact : set the stage for major directions of early 20th century art
Sunday Afternoon at the Park 1885
intellectual & scientific
uniformly sized dots
strongly based on system of rules
Seurat Style : Pointillism
Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire , 1887
Wanted to make objects geometric constructions with splashes of pure color
Solid and firmly constructed, not dappled momentary glimpse like the Impressionists did (Post Impressionism)
Used perspective by juxtaposing warm colors and receding cool colors
Tilted perspective Contrast of solid forms with flat surfaces Painterly brushstrokes
Color : vibrant
Forms : simplified and outlined in black contours.
Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear 1889
Brushwork : impasto
Vincent Van Gogh, Starry Night , 28” x 36”, 1889
Thick short brushstrokes, impasto paint
View from hospital room in St-Remy
Paul Gauguin , Manaha No Atua , (Day of the God), oil on canvas. Symbolism (post impressionism), 1894.
Gauguin traveled to Tahiti in search of paradise
Painted native peoples in geometric bright colors
Color to express emotion
1893, Art Nouveau style
Noted graphic designer (not called that then.. Poster designer)
Physically handicapped, short man
Influence of Degas
Influence of Japanese prints
Toulouse-Lautrec frequented the Moulin Rouge
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , Jane Avril , lithograph
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Auguste Rodin (1879-1889)
Global Dominion of the West
Provided the economic and military basis for the West’s rise to dominion over the rest of the world.
Colonialism and the New Imperialism
The history of European expansion into Asia, Africa, and other parts of the globe dates back at least to the Renaissance.
Marx and Engels
In the Communist Manifesto , Marx and Engels prophesized that a revolution would make the proletariat the new ruling class.
Nietzsche’s New Morality
Nietzsche called for a new morality that privileged the “superman.”
Post-Impressionism artists were dissatisfied with limitations of Impressionist style.
They were influenced by Impressionism but took their art in other directions, it is less idyllic and more emotionally charged than Impressionist work.
Analyzed structure, and solidity of forms.
Still strong influence of Japanese prints.
Marshall Field Wholesale Store , 1885, Chicago, Henry Hobson Richardson
Influence of Medici palaces from Renaissance
Heavy Romanesque arches
Iron columns for interior supports (Skeletal construction)
Interior arranged around a central court
Feminine department store + masculine warehouse look
Few historical illusions
Chicago School of architecture formed after Great Fire
Otis invented elevator, which allowed high buildings
Prototype of modern office building
Accent on horizontal thrust
Exterior: decorative terra cotta tiles
“ Form follows function” was his motto, now very famous in architecture
Wainwright Building, 1890 Louis Sullivan, Chicago School
Degas’ The Absinthe Drinkers (c. 1875)
The Bather ,1885 Cezanne Figure : non-formula Composition : tight, construction of upright & horizontal forms