The mannerist passion for pictorial intensity was most vividly realized by El Greco.
El Greco (1541–1614), The Agony in the Garden , ca. 1585-1586. Oil on canvas, 6 ft. 1 in. Gre x 9 ft. 1 in. Courtesy of the Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio. Purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey.
:David with the Head of Goliath-Caravaggio (c.1606-7).
Caravaggio Title: Bacchus Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 37 X 33½" (94 X 85.1 cm) Date: 1595–96 Source/ Museum: Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Caravaggio, The Calling of Saint Matthew, Oil on canvas, 10'7½" X 11'2“, 1599–1600 Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
Artemisia Gentileschi Title: Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 6'½" X 4'7" (1.84 X 1.41 m) Date: 1625 Source/ Museum: The Detroit Institute of Arts. Gift of Leslie H. Green (52.253)
The daughter of a highly esteemed painter, himself a follower of Caravaggio.
Artemisia Gentileschi Title: Judith and Holofernes Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 6'½" X 4'7“ Date: 1614-1620 Source/ Museum:
Made the walls above to appear to open up, so that the viewers gazes “through” the roof into the heavens.
Andrea Pozzo,(1642–1709), Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius, 1691. Fresco. Scala, Florence.
The King James Bible- “authorized” English-language edition of the Old and New Testaments
committee of 54 scholars recruited by James I of England (1566-1625)
John Milton (1608-1674)
Protestant: the meaning of evil in a universe created by a benevolent God. (describes the fall of Adam and Eve) Paradise Lost (1667)
Following the 1666 fire, Wren played a leading role as an architect.
Christopher Wren Title: Saint Paul’s Cathedral, London Date: Designed 1673, built 1675–1710
Was one of many Dutch still-life painters.
She brought a naturalist’s passion for detail to every object in her landmark Still Life of 1668.
Maria van Oosterwyck (1630-1693), Vanitas Still Life , 1668. Oil on canvas, 29 x 35 in. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
Typical paintings have light coming from source on left side, uses yellows and blues, subjects tended to be women
Girl with the Pearl Earring, Oil on canvas
Jan Vermeer, View of Delft ,Oil on canvas, 38 ½ X 46¼”, c. 1662
Jan Vermeer Title: Woman Holding a Balance Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 15 ⅞ X 14" (39 X 35 cm) Date: c. 1664 Source/ Museum: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Widener Collection (1942.9.97)
Jan Vermeer (1632-1675), The Milkmaid , c. 1658-1660. Oil on canvas, 17 7/8 in x 16 1/8 in. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. The Bridgeman Art Library.
Johann Vermeer. The Lace Maker , c.1669-1671. Oil on canvas, 9 5/8" x 8 1/4". Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
Based in Amsterdam (1606-1669). – most renowned portrait artist
Painter and master printmaker.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669), Self-portrait as Saint Paul (aged fifty-five) , 1661. Oil on canvas, 35 7/8" x 30 3/8". Rijksmuseum Foundation, Amsterdam.
Was well-established in creating group portraiture (“The Night Watch”)
Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering His Company (The Night Watch) Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 11'11" X 14'4" (3.63 X 4.37 m) (Cut down from the original size) Date: 1642 Source/ Museum: Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn; Rembrandt Christ Preaching ("The Hundred-Guilder Print") , ca. 1648-1650. Etching, 11 x 15 1/2 in. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Three Crosses (First State) Medium: Drypoint and etching Size: 15 1⁄6 X 17¾“,1653, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Three Crosses (Fourth State) Medium: Drypoint and etching Size: 15 1⁄6 X 17¾" (38.5 X 45 cm) Date: 1653,
Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Self-Portrait Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 52 ⅝ X 40 ⅞ " (133.6 X 103.8 cm) Date: 1658 Source/ Museum: The Frick Collection, New York
Judith Leyster (1609 – 1660) Dutch painter. Was one of the few painters who primarily painted only men.
Self-portrait . Oil on canvas, 1630, 746 x 653 mm (29 3/8 x 25 3/4"). National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C
Two Musicians The young Musician
Louis XIV (1661-1715) defined his era
At 63, most famous portrait not just for the opulence of his position, but also the vanity of his legs!
Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, Oil on canvas, 9'2" X 7'10¾“,1701, Musée du Louvre, Paris
Oversaw the construction of Versailles – palace and gardens were unfortified
Style emphasized glory; lavish and luxurious
Central Block of the Garden Façade
In order to exercise greater control over the French nobility, Louis moved his capital from Paris to Versailles.
Hall of Mirrors, Palais de Versailles
A neoclassicists - Greco-Roman mythology and Christian legend.
Wrote an influential treatise formalizing the rules of “the Academy”; he also practiced them faithfully.
On the evidence of mathematical calculations, he had discarded the traditional geocentric (earth centered) model of the universe in favor to the heliocentric (sun centered).
Heliocentric (A) and Geocentric (B) models of the universe. Science Photo Library. Geocentric model of the universe. Photo: Sheila Terry / Science Photo Library
The earth’s gravity attracts all objects- regardless of shape, size or density- at the same rate of acceleration.
Perfected the telescope.
Brought to Rome (catholic Church) on charges of heresy.
condemned to reside under “house arrest”.
astronomer and mathematician
His monumental treatise, Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles) linked terrestrial and celestial physic under a single set of laws: the laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation (by which every particle of matter attracts every other particle of matter).
François Dequevauviller after N. Lavréince (1745–1807), Assembly in a Salon , 1745-1807. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
Philosophes – Intellectuals rather than philosophers in the strict sense of the word, they dominated the intellectual activity of the Enlightenment.
Jean-Antoine Houdon, Thomas Jefferson , 1789. Marble, 21 1/2" high. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 , 1776, the American Declaration of Independence echoes John Locke’s ideology of revolt as well as his view that governments derive their just powers form the consent of the governed.
A. Denis Diderot - The Encyclopedia - a compilation of all knowledge! (1751-1772)
The Encyclopedia “ [Our aim] is to collect all the knowledge scattered over the face of the earth, … and to transmit this to those who will come after us.... It could only belong to a philosophical age to attempt an encyclopedia; … All things must be examined, debated, and investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings…. We have for quite some time needed a reasoning age.” “ It is impious to want to impose laws upon man’s conscience; this is a universal rule of conduct. People must be enlightened and not constrained.” “ War is the fruit of man’s depravity; it is a convulsive and violent sickness of the body politic … If reason governed men and had the influence over the heads of nations that it deserves, we would never see them inconsiderately surrender themselves to the fury of war; they would not show that ferocity that characterizes wild beasts.”
The Encyclopedia “ No man has received from nature the right to command others.... The government, although hereditary in a family…, is not private property, but public property that consequently can never be taken from the people, to whom it belongs exclusively…. It is not the state that belongs to the prince, it is the prince who belongs to the state.” “ It is of the greatest importance to conserve this practice [the free press] in all states founded on liberty.” “ The buying of Negroes, to reduce them to slavery, is one business that violates religion, morality, natural laws, and all the rights of human nature.”
Sample Pages of the Encyclopedia Shoes Button-making
Sample Pages of the Encyclopedia
Sample Pages of the Encyclopedia
D. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (later Enlightenment)
Society is artificial and corrupt - state of nature is better – education
Valued impulse and emotion more than reason
Believed in contract government and individual freedom
“ General Will” - republic as ideal government
Wrote : The Social Contract, Emile , 1762
freedom of thought and religion ~ toleration
ridiculed the clergy for their bigotry, intolerance, and superstition
Admired Louis XIV and Frederick the Great - thought people unable to govern themselves
The Wit and Wisdom of Voltaire “ I have never made but one prayer to God, a very short one: ‘Oh Lord, make my enemies ridiculous.’ And God granted it.” “ Almost everything that goes beyond the adoration of a Supreme Being and submission of the heart to his orders is superstition. One of the most dangerous is to believe that certain ceremonies entail the forgiveness of crimes. Do you believe that God will forget a murder you have committed if you bathe in a certain river, sacrifice a black sheep…? … Do better miserable humans, have neither murders nor sacrifices of black sheep.” God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) This self-educated British intellectual applied Enlightenment principles of natural law, Liberty, and equality to forge a radical rethinking of the roles and responsibilities of women in Western society
In 1776, North America’s thirteen colonies rebelled against the British government, claiming it had made unreasonable demands for revenues that threatened colonial liberty .
Briffault de la Charprais and Mme. Esclapart, The Siege of the Bastille, July 14, 1789 , 1791-1796. Engraving, 12 x 18 1/4 in. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Bequest of Gordon N. Ray, GNR 78 (plate #16). Art Resource, New York.
Olaudah Equiano (1745-1799) who was born in the West African kingdom of Benin and kidnapped and enslaved at the age of 11. He was freed in1766.Eventually he mastered the English language and became an outspoken abolitionist.
Plan of the Brookes, a 320-ton British slave ship of the late eighteenth century. Library of Congress.
This style portrays the aristocrats in their leisurely pursuits. Paintings can be seductive
Lavish, no straight lines in the Rococo – sophisticated and elegantly refined.
In the Hotel do Soubise, the Salon de la princesse stands as a landmark of the Parisian rococo.
Germain Boffrand. Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, c. 1740. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
Has walls that seem to disappear beneath a riot of stucco “frosting” as rich and sumptuous as any wedding cake.
Johan Michael Fischer (1692–1766), interior, Benedictine abbey, Ottobeuren, Bavaria, 1736-1766. Painted and gilded wood and stucco. Vanni/Art Resource, New York.
Flemish born, paid tribute to the fleeting nature of love.
Antoine Watteau (1684–1721). Pilgrimage to Cythera , 1717. Oil on canvas, 4' 3" x 6' 4 1/4". Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
Responded with humble representations that replaced the indulgent sensuality of the rococo with realistic scenes of everyday life.
The revival of Greco-Roman culture
Excavations at Pompeii and on mainland Greece and Asia Minor would follow.
Scholars assembled vast collection of Greek and Roman artifacts.
The painting was commissioned by the French King some four years before the outbreak of the Revolution; ironically, it became a symbol of the very spirit that would topple the royal crown.
Jacques-Louis David (1748-–1825). Oath of the Horatii , 1784-1785. Oil on canvas, approx. 11' x 14'. Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
Student of David
Portraits of middle and upper-class
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, La Comtesse d'Haussonville . 1845. Oil on canvas, 51 7/8 x 36 3/16". The Frick Collection, New York.
Notice the elongation of body parts
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Grand Odalisque , 1814. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 11 1/4" x 5' 4 3/4". Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780–1867). Jupiter and Thetis , 1811. Oil on canvas, 10' 8 5/8" x 8' 6 5/16". Musée Granet, Aix-en-Provence. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.
Eighteenth-Century Classical Music
The Birth of the Symphony Orchestra
Louis Carmontelle (1717-1806), The Mozarts in Concert: Leopold, Wolfgang (age seven), and Nannerl, 1764. Engraving. Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum, London.
The Way of Tea and Zen
Among Zen Buddhists, the way of Tea coincided with a revival of Zen painting
Hakuin Ekaku (1685–1768), Meditating Dharuma , Edo period, ca. 1765. Ink on paper Hakuin Ekaku (1685–1768 ), Two Blind Men Crossing a Log Bridge , Edo Period (1615-1868). Hanging scroll, ink on paper,
B. Montesquieu - separation and balance of powers; admired the British model of government. Wrote : The Spirit of the Laws, 1748 The Philosophes
18 th Century – revolutions erupted in France and America – ( French, American and Industrial Revolution in England all happened at the same time)
Social and economic life dissolved.
The Enlightment was a new way to think critically about the world. To think independent of religion, myth and tradition.
Questioning theories, God, and now experimenting with science. Voltaire and his writings were very important
Voltaire believed that the salvation of humanity was in advancement of science and the improvement of society
Rousseau said that the “arts” had corrupted humanity from its original condition. “ Nature alone must be our guide”
Chartres Cathedral St. Sernin, Toulouse 47.
David, Michelangelo David, Donatello
The church undertook a program of internal reform and reorganization known as the catholic Reformation.
By the 1540s, in an effort to win back Christians, the church launched the evangelical campaign known as the Counter-Reformation.
John Milton (1608-1674)
A Christian subject that allowed him to examine an issue particularly dear to his Protestant sensibilities: the meaning of evil in a universe created by a benevolent God. (describes the fall of Adam and Eve) Paradise Lost (1667)