Protestants began to lure increasing numbers of Christians away from roman Catholicism ,
Parmigianino, (1503-1540) The religious zeal of the Catholic reformers inspired a tremendous surge of artistic activity, especially in Italy and Spain. The spatial clarity, symmetry, and decorum of High Renaissance painting gave way to mannerism. Their paintings mirrored the self-conscious spirituality and the profound insecurities of an age of religious wars and political rivalry.
(The Greek) because of his Greek origins -A master painter who worked in Italy and Spain in the service of the church and the devout Phillip II. He produced visionary canvases marked by bold distortions of form, dissonant colors, and daring handling of space. His flamelike figures, often highlighted by ghostly whites and yellow-grays, seem to radiate halos of light-auras that symbolizes the luminous power of divine revelation.
A child prodigy, a favorite of the pope Deemed the “Michelangelo” of his generation (many ducked when seeing the statue for the first time)
The altarpiece illustrates an episode drawn from the autobiography of the Spanish Carmelite nun and mystic Teresa of Avila (1515-1562)the moment in which she is united with God. With dazzling artistry, Bernini brings to life her divine seduction. He depicts the saint with her head back sunk back and eyes half closed, swooning with ecstatic surrender on a marble cloud that floats in heavenly space. A smiling angel gently lifts Teresa’s bodice to insert or remove the flaming arrow of divine love.
Four bronze spiral columns recall Temple of Solomon, are 95’ high – bronze stripped from the Pantheon
Used naturalism but instead did not idealize the narratives. Strong personality, thrived in Roman underground scene. Liked to party and was in trouble with the law for murder.
Born in Rome. Artemisia was trained by her father but soon outstripped him in technical proficiency and imagination. When she was 18 she was Raped by her art instructor. She was also tortured to try to get her to say it didn’t happen. The violence she brought to these depictions may be said to reflect her profound sense of victimization.
Illustrates the decapitation of an Assyrian general and enemy of Israel at the hands of a clever Hebrew widow. She brought to this representation the dramatic techniques of Caravaggio, she brings the viewer close to the event, -the foreshortened body of the victim and foreground pattern of human limbs force the eye to focus on the gruesome action of the swordblade as it severs head from neck in a shower of blood.
Trompe l veil vision of saint Ignatius apotheosis – his elevation to divine status. A master of the techniques of linear perspective and dramatic foreshortening, the Jesuit architect and sculptor Pozzo made the walls appear to open up, so that the viewer gazes through the roof into the heavens that receive the levitation body of the saint.
The Rise of the English Commonwealth Following the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, England experienced a period of political and social turbulence that culminated in the emergence of true constitutional monarchy. Drawing on a number of 16 th century English translations of Scripture, a committee of 54 scholars recruited by James I of England (1566-1625) produced an “authorized” English-language edition of the Old and New Testaments.
In 1666, a devastating fire tore through London and destroyed three-quarters of the city. there was an upsurge of large-scale building activity and a general effort to modernize London.
Drawing on the tradition of exacting realism initiated by Jan van Eyck.
Not much is known about his life, but he is considered one of the Dutch masters. Believed to have used the camera obscura , an instrument that created an image through a hole set inside a dark box
also was a master of etching and used drypoint technique later. Based in Amsterdam (1606-1669), the financial center of Europe
She largely gave up painting after her marriage, which produced five children.
When Louis XIV took over in France in 1661, everything changed He reigned for 54 years, established France as the leading superpower From 1661-1789 French art took prominence All life “revolved” around him, he envisioned himself as Apollo.
Almost half the size of Paris, the new complex at Versailles was connected to the old capital by a grand boulevard that ran from the King’s bedroom to the center of state business in Paris.
A neoclassicists he shared Raphael’s esteem for lofty subjects drawn from Greco-Roman mythology and Christian legend.
Excelled at modeling forms so that they conveyed the powerful presence of real objects in atmospheric space
In this painting he depicted himself at the easel, alongside the members of the royal court . Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), Oil on canvas, 10'5&quot; X 9'½“, 1656, Museo del Prado, Madrid. In this painting, Velazquez depicted himself at his easel, alongside the members of the royal court : the infant ( the five year old daughter of the King) , her maids of honor, her dwarf, a mastiff hound, and the royal escorts. In the background is a mirror that reflects the images of the king and queen of Spain –
trained in Antwerp and studied in Rome, Became synonymous with Flemish Baroque, Unified the styles of northern and southern Europe, Upon his return to Antwerp, built a house with a large studio that allowed his workshop to crank out works
Painterly in technique and dynamic in composition. Depicts the abduction of two mortal women by the Roman heroes Castor and Pollux. He portrayal of the classical story explodes with vigor and imagination: Pressing against the picture plane are the fleshy bodies of the nude maidens their limbs arranged in the pattern of a slowly revolving pinwheel . Probably commissioned to commemorate the double marriage of Louis XIII of France to a Spanish princess and Philip Iv of spain to a French princess. to celebrate the diplomatic alliance of France and Spain, the panting carries a subtext of (male) power over (female) privilege.
and one of the most influential composers of his time
Monteverdi - Served the court of Mantua until he became Chapel master of Saint Mark’s in Venice in 1621, a post he held for the rest of his life. Bach – he composed music for the Sunday servives and for holy days.
18 th Century – revolutions erupted in France and America – ( French, American and Industrial Revolution in England all happened at the same time) Social and economic life dissolved. The Enlightment was a new way to think critically about the world. To think independent of religion, myth and tradition. Questioning theories, God, and now experimenting with science. Voltaire and his writings were very important
His inquiries into motion and gravity resulted in his formulation of the law of falling bodies, which proclaims that the earth’s gravity attracts all objects- regardless of shape, size or density- at the same rate of acceleration. Perfected a telescope that literally revealed new celestial objects. His efforts aroused opposition form the church, but it was not until his publication of an inflammatory tract that poked fun at outmoded theories of astronomy that he brought to Rome on charges of heresy. In 1633 he was forced to admit his “errors” condemned to reside under “house arrest” in a villa near Florence.
“ I have seen further,” “it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” Astronomer and mathematician represents a practical synthesis of 17 th century physics and mathematics and the union of the inductive and deductive methods. His monumental treatise, Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles) linked terrestrial and celestial physic under a single set of laws: the laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation(by which every particle of matter attracts every other particle of matter).
Members of the nobility and the middle class, they came together in gatherings organized by socially ambitious noblewomen, many of whom championed a freer and more public role for their gender. In the elegant salons of Paris, these thinkers and writers met to exchange views on morality, politics, science, and religion and to voice opinions on everything ranging from diet to the latest fashions in theater and dress .
men of letters who wrote for public consumption, using humor, wit, satire
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Attacked the persistence of the female stereotype (docile, domestic, and childlike) as formulated by misguided and tyrannical males.
The American and French revolutions drew inspiration from the Enlightenment faith in the reforming power of reason.
A compelling literary genre based more in fact than in fiction made its appearance in the 18 th century: Slave Narratives constitute a body of prose literature written by Africans who suffered the cruelties of the transatlantic slave trade.
Decorative finale of the baroque era, flourished (ironically) during the Enlightenment. The room is airy and fragile; brilliant white walls, accented with pastel tones of rose, blue, and lime are ornamented with gilded tendrils , playful cupid, and floral garlands.
The group of fashionable men and women at a dete galante (elegant entertainment ) on the island of Cythera, the legendary birth place of Venus.
Many Flowers and figures dominate the setting Colors are not thick or richly painted made for private display
Belonged to a tradition that stretched from the Renaissance through the age of Louis XIV
Rose to fame with his polished depictions of classical history and mythology and with his accomplished portraits of middle and upper-class patrons.
Protestants began to lure increasing numbers of Christians away from roman Catholicism , The Catholic Reformation - The church undertook a program of internal reform and reorganization known as the catholic Reformation. By the 1540s, in an effort to win back Christians, the church launched the evangelical campaign known as the Counter-Reformation.
John Donne (1571-1631) A poet who was one of the most eloquent voices of religious devotionalism in the Protestant North
Chapter 10 11 baroque and enlightenment
<ul><li>1650-1750 </li></ul><ul><li>The word “Baroque” describes a style of extravagant ornamental decoration. </li></ul><ul><li>An artistic style dominated by emotionalism and theatrical display, embellishment and florid ornamentation. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Mannerism – a style marked by spatial complexity, artificiality, and affectation. (behavior intended to impress) </li></ul><ul><li>Parmigianino (1503-1540) mannerist style - Madonna of the Long Neck </li></ul>Parmigianino. Madonna and Child with Angels (Madonna of the Long Neck) , c. 1535. Oil on panel, approx. 7' 1" x 4' 4". Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
<ul><li>The mannerist passion for pictorial intensity was most vividly realized by El Greco. </li></ul>El Greco (1541–1614), The Agony in the Garden , ca. 1585-1586. Oil on canvas, 6 ft. 1 in. Gre x 9 ft. 1 in. Courtesy of the Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio. Purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey.
<ul><li>His David is hailed as the first Baroque sculpture – it depicts a dramatic moment and involves the audience </li></ul>Gianlorenzo Bernini, David ,1623,Marble, height 5'7“ ,Galleria Borghese, Rome
Bernini (1598–1680). Ecstasy of Saint Teresa , Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, 1645-1652. Marble, 11' 6" high. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
<ul><li>Bernini is named architect of St. Peter’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversees many projects for next 51 years </li></ul></ul>Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, Saint Peter’s Basilica, Vatican, Rome
Saint Peter’s Basilica and Piazza, Vatican, Rome Carlo Maderno, façade, 1607–26; Gianlorenzo Bernini, piazza design, c. 1656–57
<ul><li>:David with the Head of Goliath-Caravaggio (c.1606-7). </li></ul>
Caravaggio Title: Bacchus Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 37 X 33½" (94 X 85.1 cm) Date: 1595–96 Source/ Museum: Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Caravaggio, The Calling of Saint Matthew, Oil on canvas, 10'7½" X 11'2“, 1599–1600 Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
Artemisia Gentileschi Title: Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 6'½" X 4'7" (1.84 X 1.41 m) Date: 1625 Source/ Museum: The Detroit Institute of Arts. Gift of Leslie H. Green (52.253) <ul><li>The daughter of a highly esteemed painter, himself a follower of Caravaggio. </li></ul>
Artemisia Gentileschi Title: Judith and Holofernes Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 6'½" X 4'7“ Date: 1614-1620 Source/ Museum:
<ul><li>Made the walls above to appear to open up, so that the viewers gazes “through” the roof into the heavens. </li></ul>Andrea Pozzo,(1642–1709), Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius, 1691. Fresco. Scala, Florence.
<ul><li>The King James Bible- “authorized” English-language edition of the Old and New Testaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>committee of 54 scholars recruited by James I of England (1566-1625) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Milton (1608-1674) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant: the meaning of evil in a universe created by a benevolent God. (describes the fall of Adam and Eve) Paradise Lost (1667) </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Following the 1666 fire, Wren played a leading role as an architect. </li></ul>Christopher Wren Title: Saint Paul’s Cathedral, London Date: Designed 1673, built 1675–1710
<ul><li>Was one of many Dutch still-life painters. </li></ul><ul><li>She brought a naturalist’s passion for detail to every object in her landmark Still Life of 1668. </li></ul>Maria van Oosterwyck (1630-1693), Vanitas Still Life , 1668. Oil on canvas, 29 x 35 in. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
<ul><li>Typical paintings have light coming from source on left side, uses yellows and blues, subjects tended to be women </li></ul>Girl with the Pearl Earring, Oil on canvas
Jan Vermeer, View of Delft ,Oil on canvas, 38 ½ X 46¼”, c. 1662
Jan Vermeer Title: Woman Holding a Balance Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 15 ⅞ X 14" (39 X 35 cm) Date: c. 1664 Source/ Museum: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Widener Collection (1942.9.97)
Jan Vermeer (1632-1675), The Milkmaid , c. 1658-1660. Oil on canvas, 17 7/8 in x 16 1/8 in. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. The Bridgeman Art Library.
Johann Vermeer. The Lace Maker , c.1669-1671. Oil on canvas, 9 5/8" x 8 1/4". Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
<ul><li>Based in Amsterdam (1606-1669). – most renowned portrait artist </li></ul><ul><li>Painter and master printmaker. </li></ul>Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669), Self-portrait as Saint Paul (aged fifty-five) , 1661. Oil on canvas, 35 7/8" x 30 3/8". Rijksmuseum Foundation, Amsterdam.
<ul><li>Was well-established in creating group portraiture (“The Night Watch”) </li></ul>Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering His Company (The Night Watch) Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 11'11" X 14'4" (3.63 X 4.37 m) (Cut down from the original size) Date: 1642 Source/ Museum: Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn; Rembrandt Christ Preaching ("The Hundred-Guilder Print") , ca. 1648-1650. Etching, 11 x 15 1/2 in. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Three Crosses (First State) Medium: Drypoint and etching Size: 15 1⁄6 X 17¾“,1653, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Three Crosses (Fourth State) Medium: Drypoint and etching Size: 15 1⁄6 X 17¾" (38.5 X 45 cm) Date: 1653,
Rembrandt van Rijn Title: Self-Portrait Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 52 ⅝ X 40 ⅞ " (133.6 X 103.8 cm) Date: 1658 Source/ Museum: The Frick Collection, New York
<ul><li>Judith Leyster (1609 – 1660) Dutch painter. Was one of the few painters who primarily painted only men. </li></ul>Self-portrait . Oil on canvas, 1630, 746 x 653 mm (29 3/8 x 25 3/4"). National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C
<ul><li>Two Musicians The young Musician </li></ul>
<ul><li>Louis XIV (1661-1715) defined his era </li></ul><ul><li>At 63, most famous portrait not just for the opulence of his position, but also the vanity of his legs! </li></ul>Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, Oil on canvas, 9'2" X 7'10¾“,1701, Musée du Louvre, Paris
<ul><li>Oversaw the construction of Versailles – palace and gardens were unfortified </li></ul><ul><li>Style emphasized glory; lavish and luxurious </li></ul>
Central Block of the Garden Façade <ul><li>In order to exercise greater control over the French nobility, Louis moved his capital from Paris to Versailles. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Court painter to King Phillip IV (Spain) (1605-1665), became that country’s most prestigious artist. </li></ul>Diego Velázquez, Water Carrier of Seville , Oil on canvas, 41½ X 31½“, c. 1619 Victoria & Albert Museum, London
<ul><li>Landmark painting was the informal group portrait known as Las Meninas (The Maid of Honor) </li></ul>
<ul><li>(1577-1640) German </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Michelangelo and Caravaggio </li></ul><ul><li>Combined portraiture and historical narrative for 21 paintings dedicated to Marie de’Medici </li></ul>
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus , ca. 1618. Oil on canvas, 7 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 10 in. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, Oil on canvas, center panel 15'1 ⅞ " X 11'1½“, each wing 15'1 ⅞ " X 4'11" , 610–11
Peter Paul Rubens, G arden of Love, O il on canvas, 6'6" X 9'3½“, 1630–32, Museo del Prado, Madrid
<ul><li>Gabrieli (1555-1612) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal organist at saint Mark’s Cathedral in Venice, ushered in a new and dramatic style of polychoral and instrumental religious music. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Birth of Opera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerged out of renaissance efforts to revive the music-drama of ancient Greek theater. </li></ul></ul>Pietro Domenico Olivier, The Teatro Regio, Turin , painting of the opening night, December 26, 1740. Oil on canvas,
<ul><li>Monteverdi (1567-1643) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapel master of Saint Mark’s in Venice in 1621. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bach(1685-1750) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ Master and choir director of the Church of Saint Thomas in, Leipzig (Germany). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vivaldi (1678-1741) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master of the concerto form. </li></ul></ul>Elias Gottlob Haussmann (1695–1774), Johann Sebastian Bach , 1746. Oil on canvas. William H. Scheide Library, Princeton University.
<ul><li>Wealthy middle class continues to pursue strong patronage of arts </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings, painting, sculpture continue to be adapted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still lifes and genre paintings (everyday life) emerge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Science begins to challenge religion, Earth is not center of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops begin to churn out copies of popular themes </li></ul><ul><li>Value on the original work is a modern notion </li></ul>
<ul><li>Art produced from the end of the 16 th to early 18 th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses emotional, rather than intellectual responses; likes drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grew out of the tug-of-war between Protestant Reformation (Northern Europe) and Counter Reformation (Italy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artists tried to persuade to the faithful through dramatic works </li></ul><ul><li>Used by “absolute” rulers (popes and kings) to overwhelm and awe </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Rise of the English Commonwealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, England experienced a period of political and social turbulence that culminated in the emergence of true constitutional monarchy. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>On the evidence of mathematical calculations, he had discarded the traditional geocentric (earth centered) model of the universe in favor to the heliocentric (sun centered). </li></ul>Heliocentric (A) and Geocentric (B) models of the universe. Science Photo Library. Geocentric model of the universe. Photo: Sheila Terry / Science Photo Library
<ul><li>The earth’s gravity attracts all objects- regardless of shape, size or density- at the same rate of acceleration. </li></ul><ul><li>Perfected the telescope. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought to Rome (catholic Church) on charges of heresy. </li></ul><ul><li>condemned to reside under “house arrest”. </li></ul>
<ul><li>astronomer and mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>His monumental treatise, Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles) linked terrestrial and celestial physic under a single set of laws: the laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation (by which every particle of matter attracts every other particle of matter). </li></ul>
François Dequevauviller after N. Lavréince (1745–1807), Assembly in a Salon , 1745-1807. Scala/Art Resource, NY. <ul><li>Philosophes – Intellectuals rather than philosophers in the strict sense of the word, they dominated the intellectual activity of the Enlightenment. </li></ul>
Jean-Antoine Houdon, Thomas Jefferson , 1789. Marble, 21 1/2" high. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 , 1776, the American Declaration of Independence echoes John Locke’s ideology of revolt as well as his view that governments derive their just powers form the consent of the governed. </li></ul>
A. Denis Diderot - The Encyclopedia - a compilation of all knowledge! (1751-1772)
The Encyclopedia “ [Our aim] is to collect all the knowledge scattered over the face of the earth, … and to transmit this to those who will come after us.... It could only belong to a philosophical age to attempt an encyclopedia; … All things must be examined, debated, and investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings…. We have for quite some time needed a reasoning age.” “ It is impious to want to impose laws upon man’s conscience; this is a universal rule of conduct. People must be enlightened and not constrained.” “ War is the fruit of man’s depravity; it is a convulsive and violent sickness of the body politic … If reason governed men and had the influence over the heads of nations that it deserves, we would never see them inconsiderately surrender themselves to the fury of war; they would not show that ferocity that characterizes wild beasts.”
The Encyclopedia “ No man has received from nature the right to command others.... The government, although hereditary in a family…, is not private property, but public property that consequently can never be taken from the people, to whom it belongs exclusively…. It is not the state that belongs to the prince, it is the prince who belongs to the state.” “ It is of the greatest importance to conserve this practice [the free press] in all states founded on liberty.” “ The buying of Negroes, to reduce them to slavery, is one business that violates religion, morality, natural laws, and all the rights of human nature.”
Sample Pages of the Encyclopedia Shoes Button-making
<ul><li>D. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (later Enlightenment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Society is artificial and corrupt - state of nature is better – education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valued impulse and emotion more than reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in contract government and individual freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ General Will” - republic as ideal government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote : The Social Contract, Emile , 1762 </li></ul></ul>The Philosophes
<ul><li>C. Voltaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>freedom of thought and religion ~ toleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ridiculed the clergy for their bigotry, intolerance, and superstition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admired Louis XIV and Frederick the Great - thought people unable to govern themselves </li></ul></ul>The Philosophes
The Wit and Wisdom of Voltaire “ I have never made but one prayer to God, a very short one: ‘Oh Lord, make my enemies ridiculous.’ And God granted it.” “ Almost everything that goes beyond the adoration of a Supreme Being and submission of the heart to his orders is superstition. One of the most dangerous is to believe that certain ceremonies entail the forgiveness of crimes. Do you believe that God will forget a murder you have committed if you bathe in a certain river, sacrifice a black sheep…? … Do better miserable humans, have neither murders nor sacrifices of black sheep.” God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.
<ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) This self-educated British intellectual applied Enlightenment principles of natural law, Liberty, and equality to forge a radical rethinking of the roles and responsibilities of women in Western society </li></ul>
<ul><li>In 1776, North America’s thirteen colonies rebelled against the British government, claiming it had made unreasonable demands for revenues that threatened colonial liberty . </li></ul>Briffault de la Charprais and Mme. Esclapart, The Siege of the Bastille, July 14, 1789 , 1791-1796. Engraving, 12 x 18 1/4 in. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Bequest of Gordon N. Ray, GNR 78 (plate #16). Art Resource, New York.
<ul><li>Olaudah Equiano (1745-1799) who was born in the West African kingdom of Benin and kidnapped and enslaved at the age of 11. He was freed in1766.Eventually he mastered the English language and became an outspoken abolitionist. </li></ul>Plan of the Brookes, a 320-ton British slave ship of the late eighteenth century. Library of Congress.
<ul><li>This style portrays the aristocrats in their leisurely pursuits. Paintings can be seductive </li></ul><ul><li>Lavish, no straight lines in the Rococo – sophisticated and elegantly refined. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In the Hotel do Soubise, the Salon de la princesse stands as a landmark of the Parisian rococo. </li></ul>Germain Boffrand. Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, c. 1740. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
<ul><li>Has walls that seem to disappear beneath a riot of stucco “frosting” as rich and sumptuous as any wedding cake. </li></ul>Johan Michael Fischer (1692–1766), interior, Benedictine abbey, Ottobeuren, Bavaria, 1736-1766. Painted and gilded wood and stucco. Vanni/Art Resource, New York.
<ul><li>Flemish born, paid tribute to the fleeting nature of love. </li></ul>Antoine Watteau (1684–1721). Pilgrimage to Cythera , 1717. Oil on canvas, 4' 3" x 6' 4 1/4". Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
<ul><li>The revival of Greco-Roman culture </li></ul><ul><li>Excavations at Pompeii and on mainland Greece and Asia Minor would follow. </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars assembled vast collection of Greek and Roman artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Louvre, Vatican </li></ul>
<ul><li>The painting was commissioned by the French King some four years before the outbreak of the Revolution; ironically, it became a symbol of the very spirit that would topple the royal crown. </li></ul>Jacques-Louis David (1748-–1825). Oath of the Horatii , 1784-1785. Oil on canvas, approx. 11' x 14'. Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
<ul><li>Student of David </li></ul><ul><li>Classical history </li></ul><ul><li>Mythology </li></ul><ul><li>Portraits of middle and upper-class </li></ul>Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, La Comtesse d'Haussonville . 1845. Oil on canvas, 51 7/8 x 36 3/16". The Frick Collection, New York.
<ul><li>Notice the elongation of body parts </li></ul>Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Grand Odalisque , 1814. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 11 1/4" x 5' 4 3/4". Louvre, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780–1867). Jupiter and Thetis , 1811. Oil on canvas, 10' 8 5/8" x 8' 6 5/16". Musée Granet, Aix-en-Provence. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.
<ul><li>Eighteenth-Century Classical Music </li></ul><ul><li>The Birth of the Symphony Orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Haydn </li></ul><ul><li>Mozart </li></ul>Louis Carmontelle (1717-1806), The Mozarts in Concert: Leopold, Wolfgang (age seven), and Nannerl, 1764. Engraving. Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum, London.
<ul><li>The Way of Tea and Zen </li></ul><ul><li>Among Zen Buddhists, the way of Tea coincided with a revival of Zen painting </li></ul><ul><li>Brush </li></ul>Hakuin Ekaku (1685–1768), Meditating Dharuma , Edo period, ca. 1765. Ink on paper Hakuin Ekaku (1685–1768 ), Two Blind Men Crossing a Log Bridge , Edo Period (1615-1868). Hanging scroll, ink on paper,
B. Montesquieu - separation and balance of powers; admired the British model of government. Wrote : The Spirit of the Laws, 1748 The Philosophes
<ul><li>18 th Century – revolutions erupted in France and America – ( French, American and Industrial Revolution in England all happened at the same time) </li></ul><ul><li>Social and economic life dissolved. </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightment was a new way to think critically about the world. To think independent of religion, myth and tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning theories, God, and now experimenting with science. Voltaire and his writings were very important </li></ul>
<ul><li>Voltaire believed that the salvation of humanity was in advancement of science and the improvement of society </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau said that the “arts” had corrupted humanity from its original condition. “ Nature alone must be our guide” </li></ul>
<ul><li>The church undertook a program of internal reform and reorganization known as the catholic Reformation. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1540s, in an effort to win back Christians, the church launched the evangelical campaign known as the Counter-Reformation. </li></ul>
<ul><li>John Milton (1608-1674) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Christian subject that allowed him to examine an issue particularly dear to his Protestant sensibilities: the meaning of evil in a universe created by a benevolent God. (describes the fall of Adam and Eve) Paradise Lost (1667) </li></ul></ul>
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