THE 20th CENTURY Edvard MUNCH The Scream 1893 fin de siecle "end of the century”
He proposed a radically new approach to the concepts of time, space , and motion.
Energy=Mass x speed of Light 2
Describes energy as a form of matter .
Sigmund FREUD (1856-1939) • father of PSYCHOANALYSIS • investigations into the SUBCONSCIOUS MIND
Edweard MUYBRIDGE Photographic Studies of Movement Palo Alto 1878-79
Étienne-Jules MAREY Photographic Studies of Movement late 1880’s
POST IMPRESSIONISTS (1880’s - early 1900’s) sought to use color and line to describe their emotional responses to the scene before them VAN GOGH 1853-1890 CEZANNE 1839-1906 GAUGUIN 1848-1903 THE FOUNDATIONS OF 20th CENTURY PAINTING Between 1901-06, several comprehensive van Gogh, Gauguin & Cezanne exhibitions held in Paris and Germany
Henri ROUSSEAU Sleeping Gypsy 1897 • self taught painter, admired by PICASSO THE TURN OF THE CENTURY • a preview of the coming century
Fauvism ( wild beasts ) was an art movement that used intense sometimes clashing or unnatural colors and bold brush strokes as seen in Joy of Life (1905) and Harmony in Red (1908) by Henri Matisse, The Blue House (1906) by Maurice de Vlaminck, and St. Paul’s Cathedral seen from the Thames (1906) by André Derain.
LES FAUVES Henri MATISSE THE WILD BEASTS 20th CENTURY EXPRESSIONISM • leader of this loosely knit group • experimentation and exploration
Andre DERAIN LES FAUVES - FAUVISM THE WILD BEASTS 20th CENTURY EXPRESSIONISM • wild “VIOLENT” colors • distortion of forms and perspective
LES FAUVES - FAUVISM THE WILD BEASTS VLAMNICK 20th CENTURY EXPRESSIONISM
EXPRESSIONISM • emotional • unrestrained color • bold distortions • takes root in GERMANY Wassily KANDINSKY Ernst Ludwig KIRCHNER • URBAN ANGST • PURE PAINTING
Cubism is a movement in art, characterized by subjects reduced to geometric shapes such as cubes, shows different views and angles of an object that couldn’t be seen normally like a 3-D picture flattened out as seen in The Three Musicians (1921) and Guernica (1937) by Pablo Picasso,Bottle and Fishes (1910) and Man and a Guitar (1911) by George Braque
Pablo PICASSO ABSTRACTION CUBISM Les Demoiselles d’Avignon 1906 • deconstruction of the notion of beauty • fractured & redefined pictorial space • redefined painting: rejects the idea of BEAUTY as the goal of art THE 20TH CENTURY
GIRL BEFORE A MIRROR - 1932 BUST OF WOMAN WITH A HAT - 1962 BABY IN POLKA DOT ROBE - 1947
NAKED WOMAN UNDER A PINE TREE - 1959 RAPE OF THE SABINE WOMEN - 1963 YOUNG GIRL - 1970
THE BULLFIGHT - 1934
Pablo PICASSO Georges BRAQUE MORE CONCEPTUAL THAN PERCEPTUAL ANALYTIC CUBISM • a cerebral interpretation of nature • an analytical abstraction ABSTRACTION THE 20TH CENTURY
Synthetic Cubism Collage of elements Picasso Braque THE 20TH CENTURY • abstraction through synthesis of elements ABSTRACTION
CUBISM … an evolution of a style Juan GRIS Robert DELAUNAY Sonya DELAUNAY THE 20TH CENTURY • widespread influence of CUBISM • evolves into many variations • introduction of strong color ABSTRACTION
Futurism is an Italian art movement celebrating noise, technology, machines, war, photography and movement, characterized by contrast, speed, and restlessness of modern life as seen in Street Light, Study of Light (1909) and Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash (1912) by Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Soccer Player (1913) by Umberto Boccioni, and Armoured Train (1915) by Gino Severini.
Marcel DUCHAMP Nude Descending a Staircase Futurism - Movement - Speed Futurist Manifesto 1909 - Anarchy, Violence THE 20TH CENTURY ABSTRACTION
FUTURISM Umberto BOCCIONI • frenzied, frenetic, fractured • celebrates industrialized urban life THE 20TH CENTURY ABSTRACTION • revels in the promise of industry & technology • incorporates CUBISM
Futurism Ferdinand LEGER • the new urban WORLD • industrial UTOPIA THE 20TH CENTURY • optimism and faith in a better future through technology ABSTRACTION FUTURISM glorifies and celebrates:
Orphism is an art movement sometimes called Orphic Cubism, characterized by use of circles, and overlapping planes of bright, contrasting colors as seen in Simultaneous Contrasts: Sun and Moon (1912) and Carousel with Pigs (1922) by Robert Delaunay and Rythme Couleur (1958) Electric Prisms (1914) by his wife Sonia Delaunay
WORLD WAR I 1914 - 1917 THE MACHINE GUN THE 20TH CENTURY
WORLD WAR I • THE GREAT WAR “ The war to end all wars” … the dreams & promises of an industrialized UTOPIA are shattered … a glimpse of the future THE 20TH CENTURY
20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I FRANCE (PARIS), ITALY - DADA, SURREALISM GERMANY (BERLIN) - GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM RUSSIA - SUPREMATISM, CONSTRUCTIVISM HOLLAND - DE STIJL (The STYLE) GERMANY - the BAUHAUS
da da DA DA da AFTER THE GREAT WAR…
• DA: YES in RUMANIAN • the French word for “HOBBY HORSE” • a child’s first few words DADA 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
Hugo BALL Dada Poem 1917 MAN RAY Cadeau (the Gift) 1958 (replica of 1921 original) Francis Picabia Portrait of Cezanne 1920 • a subversive movement: ANTI -EVERYTHING • attacked the notions held by BOURGEOIS society • celebrates & elevates absurdity da da
DADA Raoul HAUSMANN The Art Critic 1919-20 COLLAGE • favorite of the DADAISTS • cut outs from mass media: newspapers & magazines 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
Marcel DUCHAMP The Fountain 1917 (aka: R. Mutt) 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I “ READYMADES” ...SHOCK, PUZZLE & TEASE da da
da da 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I DUCHAMP’S “READYMADES” Bicycle wheel 1913 In Advance of a Broken Arm 1915 challenges every artistic notion of the value of artistic skill L.H.O.O.Q. 1919
Surrealism is a form of art characterized by a dreamlike quality, confusing images, strange combinations of objects and shapes as seen in Constellations (1940+) by Joan Miro’ (Sp.), The Persistence of Memory (1933) by Salvador Dali (Sp.), The Son of Man (1964) by Rene’ Magritte (Bel.), and I and the Village (1911) by Marc Chagall (Russ.)
SURREALISM 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • DADA falls apart • an outgrowth of DADA • fantastic landscapes and environments of the mind Giorgio de CHIRICO
Rene MAGRITTE SURREALISM 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • new visions of the “INTERNAL WORLD” • dream - like images • explorations into the UNCONSCIOUS MIND
SURREALISM Salvador DALI 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • nightmarish visions • consummate technician
Expressionism is an art movement characterized by human feelings like fear, showing tragedy like the horrors of war, darker colors, and angry strokes, as seen in Scream (1893) and The Dead Mother (1897) by Edvard Munch, Christ’s Entry into Brussels (1889) and Skeletons Warming Themselves at a Stove (1889) by James Ensor.
GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I Ernst Ludwig KIRCHNER URBAN ANGST • GERMANY: 1920’s -30’s (between WWI & WWII) • GERMANY in turmoil • bankrupt economy • chaos & anarchy
GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM Max BECKMAN 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • an angry, cruel world
GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM Max BECKMAN 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • bold colors, crude, angular strokes • content is pessimistic, chaotic, angry • crowded, jumbled, confused
Kasimir MALEVICH … BEFORE the RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I • influenced by CUBISM & FUTURISM
the RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 1917 “ BREAD, PEACE and LAND” The FALL of the LAST MAJOR AUTOCRATIC MONARCHY in EUROPE THE RISE OF SOCIALISM 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
SOCIALISM so cial•ism, n. 1. The theory or system of the ownership and operation of the means of production and distribution by the society or community rather than by private individuals, with all the members of the society or community sharing the work and the products
COMMUNISM com mu•nism, n. (Fr. communisme, from L. communis , common) 1. An economic theory or system of the ownership of all the property by the community of society sharing in the work and the products
20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I Vladimir Illyich LENIN U.S.S.R. U nited S oviet S ocialist R epublic 1917
SUPREMATISM ABSTRACTION THE 20TH CENTURY
20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I SUPREMATISM … a new art for the new WORKER’S UTOPIA • LINE, SHAPE and COLOR distilled to its PURE essence Kasimir MALEVICH • rejects all the “OLD” / creation of a NEW AESTHETIC
SUPREMATISM MALEVICH 1915 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I RUSSIA
CONSTRUCTIVISM ABSTRACTION THE 20TH CENTURY
20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I CONSTRUCTIVISM • incorporates MALEVICH’S ideas - PROMOTION of SOCIALLIST VALUES • visual foundation of today’s GRAPHIC DESIGN Lazar Markovich LISSITZKY 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I Alexander RODCHENKO Novyi Lef (Left Front of the Arts) Poster of LENIN: BREAD, PEACE , LAND CONSTRUCTIVISM
Abstractionism is an art movement from the early to mid 1900’s, which is characterized by non-representational 2 dimensional forms, simple shapes and lines, not a lot of blending, and pure colors as seen in White Center by Mark Rothko, Broadway Boogie Woogie by Piet Mondrian, Red Canna by Georgia O’Keeffe (1924), and Composition #4 by Wassily Kandinsky (1911).
DE STIJL Piet MONDRIAN (The STYLE) … after WORLD WAR I 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
DE STIJL (The STYLE) Theo van DOESBURG Piet MONDRIAN 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I
BAUHAUS 1919-1933 20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I The ART SCHOOL of MODERNIST TRENDS
20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I THE BAUHAUS
20TH CENTURY …after WORLD WAR I into WORLD WAR II 1938
WORLD WAR II Guernica, Picasso 1937
April 26, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War, a joint assault on the town of Guernica was carried out by the German Luftwaffe and Spanish Nationalists under General Francisco Franco- on the Spanish Basques The airstrike came in 2 stages. The first stage was to bomb all the roads and bridges out of Guernica. The second stage was to carpet bomb the entire town of Basques. This strike killed approx 1,600 civilians and a small Basque light army.
Two years before-hand, Picasso was hired by the Spanish government to make a mural for the World’s fair in Paris. Picasso also preferred keep his art out of political matters. Until bombing of Guernica. Picasso became a staunch supporter of the Basques and their ideal of a unified Spanish Republic.
When pressed to explain them in Guernica , Picasso said, "...this bull is a bull and this horse is a horse... If you give a meaning to certain things in my paintings it may be very true, but it is not my idea to give this meaning. What ideas and conclusions you have got I obtained too, but instinctively, unconsciously. I make the painting for the painting. I paint the objects for what they are." 
Lets interpret it anyway! Give the painting a good look over.
2. The duck
In most traditions, birds have a predominantly positive connotation. They represent the human desire to escape gravity, to reach the level of the angel. The bird is often the disembodied human soul, free of its physical constrictions.
4. The dead soldier looks to the sky, underneath the horse, on his deathbed.
6. The light is shaped like an eye. Light means truth, goodness, purity, wisdom and intellect.
8. This women is mesmerized by the light.
10. An open door. Western hemisphere paintings are read from left to right. The last part of the painting to be read is an open door symbolizing hope for the future .