A3 Management (Part 2 of 2)

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Recorded webinar: http://slidesha.re/1l6raT1

Recorded webinar: http://slidesha.re/1l6raT1

Part 1: http://slidesha.re/1glUCgV

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Karen’s Books: http://ksmartin.com/books

This is part 2 of a 2-part series and focuses on the Do, Study, Adjust stages of the Plan, Do, Study, Adjust (PDSA) cycle.

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  • 1. Company LOGO Lean Webinar Series A3 Management – Part II September 30, 2010 1
  • 2. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Your Instructor  Early career as a scientist; migrated to quality & operations design in the mid-80’s.  Launched Karen Martin & Associates in 1993.  Specialize in Lean transformations in non- manufacturing environments.  Co-author of The Kaizen Event Planner; co-developer of Metrics-Based Process Mapping: An Excel-Based Solution.  Instructor in University of California, San Diego’s Lean Enterprise program. 2 Karen Martin, Principal Karen Martin & Associates
  • 3. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Agenda Part I - Tuesday, September 28  A3 Overview  “Plan” stage of PDCA  Root cause analysis Part II - Thursday, September 30  “Do-Check-Act” stages of PDCA  How to accelerate building problem owners’ and coaches’ capabilities  Common problem-solving pitfalls 3
  • 4. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates PDCA: Plan Stage 4 Primary problem-solving role: Investigator
  • 5. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates PDCA: Do-Check-Act Stages 5 Primary problem-solving role: Director
  • 6. Common Components of the A3 Report Theme: ________________________________ Owner: ________________________________ Plan Do, Check, Act Background Current Condition Countermeasures / Implementation Plan Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions Target Condition / Measurable Objectives Root Cause & Gap Analysis
  • 7. Common Components of the A3 Report Theme: “What is our area of focus?” Owner: Person accountable for results. Plan Do, Check, Act Background Current Condition Countermeasures / Implementation Plan Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions • What? • Who? • When? • Where? (if relevant) Target Condition / Measurable Objectives • Diagram of desired state • Measurable targets – how will we know that the improvement has been successful? • Diagram of current situation or process • What about it is not ideal? • Extent of the problem (metrics) • Problem statement • Context - why is this a problem? Root Cause & Gap Analysis • Graphical depiction of the most likely direct (root) causes • What measurable results did the solution achieve (or will be measured to verify effectiveness)? • Who’s responsible for ongoing measurement? • Where else in the organization can this solution be applied? • How will the improved state be standardized and communicated?
  • 8. Building a Lean Enterprise Process Stabilization Tools
  • 9. Building a Lean Enterprise Flow-Enabling Tools
  • 10. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Once you know the root cause, brainstorm and prioritize solutions 1. List relevant countermeasures. 2. Eliminate those that aren’t possible.  Regulatory, budgetary, resource availability, system capability, etc. 3. Combine those that are similar. 4. Number the countermeasures sequentially. 5. Place countermeasures accordingly on the PACE Prioritization Grid.
  • 11. PACE Prioritization Grid High Low Anticipated Benefit EaseofImplementation DifficultEasy 20 7 5 13 4 23 1 228 9 2 10 16 11 6 12 14 19 15 17 3 21 18
  • 12. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates  Consider all options  Be innovate – be willing to challenge your paradigms & help others challenge theirs.  Make sure the countermeasure is directly very specifically to the root causes.  Make it clear exactly what will be done – by whom, by when, where, how, in what order, etc.  Aim for full implementation by a certain date.  The problem owner’s role shifts to advocate and project manager.  Cross-functional involvement & consensus is a key success factor. 12 Implementation / Countermeasures
  • 13. Sample Implementation Plan Task Type Accountable Implementation Schedule (weeks) Progress Date Complete1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Create visual board to track KPIs. KE Mary W. 100 25 75 50 Clearn up data base. Proj George S. 100 25 75 50 Create self-quality checklist. KE Sally R. 100 25 75 50 Create standard template. KE Sally R. 100 25 75 50 Modify weekly report. JDI Bruce M. 100 25 9/22/2010 75 50 100 25 75 50 100 25 75 50 100 25 75 50 100 25 75 50 100 25 75 50 Type: JDI = Just do it; KE = Kaizen Event; Proj = Project 13
  • 14. Sample A3 Countermeasures / Implementation Plan
  • 15. Common Components of the A3 Report Theme: “What is our area of focus?” Owner: Person accountable for results. Plan Do, Check, Act Background Current Condition Countermeasures / Implementation Plan Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions • What? • Who? • When? • Where? (if relevant) Target Condition / Measurable Objectives • Diagram of desired state • Measurable targets – how will we know that the improvement has been successful? • Diagram of current situation or process • What about it is not ideal? • Extent of the problem (metrics) • Problem statement • Context - why is this a problem? Root Cause & Gap Analysis • Graphical depiction of the most likely direct (root) causes • What measurable results did the solution achieve (or will be measured to verify effectiveness)? • Who’s responsible for ongoing measurement? • Where else in the organization can this solution be applied? • How will the improved state be standardized and communicated?
  • 16. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates The A3 Report: Effect Confirmation Tie confirmation directly to the target condition. Define 2-5 key performance indicators (KPIs). Determine ways to verify the effectiveness of the countermeasures, one by one if possible. Plan in advance for the data that will need to be collected. Identify who will help collect the data and how frequently.
  • 17. Common Components of the A3 Report Theme: “What is our area of focus?” Owner: Person accountable for results. Plan Do, Check, Act Background Current Condition Countermeasures / Implementation Plan Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions • What? • Who? • When? • Where? (if relevant) Target Condition / Measurable Objectives • Diagram of desired state • Measurable targets – how will we know that the improvement has been successful? • Diagram of current situation or process • What about it is not ideal? • Extent of the problem (metrics) • Problem statement • Context - why is this a problem? Root Cause & Gap Analysis • Graphical depiction of the most likely direct (root) causes • What measurable results did the solution achieve (or will be measured to verify effectiveness)? • Who’s responsible for ongoing measurement? • Where else in the organization can this solution be applied? • How will the improved state be standardized and communicated?
  • 18. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates The A3 Report: Follow-up Actions How will you communicate the new process? Who will monitor the process? Which metrics will be used to measure ongoing performance? Look for similar processes within the department and across the organization that can benefit from these countermeasures Ensure ongoing improvement – who will do this? Share the wealth!  Communicate results across the organization and teach others to problem-solve via the A3 process 18
  • 19. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Sample Effect Confirmation Option 19 Metric Current State Projected Future State Projected % Improvement Actual Results * Actual % Improvement Lead Time 36 Days 16 Days 56% 20 Days 44% Rolled First Pass Yield 55% 75% 36% 80% 45% Scrap $1.2 M $0.5 M 58% TBD TBD Labor Effort 5.6 FTEs 3.0 FTEs 46% 3.8 FTEs 32% * Measured by Sally Turner on 8/20/2010; monthly measurement; improvement efforts continuing.
  • 20. Effect Confirmation & Follow-up 20
  • 21. Sample A3 Effect Confirmation & Follow-up Actions Follow-up Actions Effect Confirmation
  • 22. When Are You “Done”? 22
  • 23. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Deming’s PDCA Cycle Plan Do Check Act Develop hypothesis & design experiment Conduct experiment Measure results Analyze results & take appropriate action
  • 24. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Using A3 to develop organizational capabilities 24
  • 25. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates The Role of the A3 Coach 25
  • 26. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Coaching and Mentoring Coaching is working in partnership to facilitate learning, improve performance, and create desired results.  Primarily in service of the A3 owner’s development.  To this end, what will be most supportive? Mentoring is the process for imparting subject matter expertise and wisdom to a less experienced person.  Primarily in service of achieving results.  More of a one-way, training-driven relationship Begin with coaching; move into mentoring as needed. 26
  • 27. Mentoring RelationshipCoaching Relationship ? ? Focus: Asking questions Focus: Providing information Wisdom Wisdom Coach Coachee Mentor ? ? ? ? Mentee
  • 28. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Problem-Solving Proficiency Needed Lean analytical, process design, and implementation tools Data analysis Visual display of data Project & time management Team building / people skills Change management skills / psychology 28
  • 29. Coaching vs. Mentoring Coach Mentor Purpose Growth/development; helping people realize their potential, while also generating results Role Teacher/consultant; learning/thinking partner Relationship Built on respect and trust; supportive in nature Process Drawing out knowledge that resides within coachee Sharing knowledge that resides within mentor Questioning; coach engages in inquiry to guide the coachee Telling; Mentor shares expertise, offering answers and solutions Focus Primary: Developing strong problem-solvers Secondary: Assuring the problem is thoroughly dissected and solved Primary: Assuring the problem is thoroughly dissected and solved Secondary: Developing strong problem-solvers
  • 30. The Wisdom Comes in Knowing When to Coach and When to Mentor
  • 31. Types of Coaching Owner’s Problem-Solving Skill Level Focus During Session What to Ask / Do Problem-solving is spot on. Coaching Goal: “Thought partners” “How’s it going?” “What’s working well?” “What’s not?” “What have you learned?” “What’s been most surprising?” “What are you doing next?” “Do you need any help?” Problem-solving is off course and needs correction. Coaching & Mentoring Goal: Get person back on track Probe using Socratic questioning. Focus on one or two areas of the A3. Problem-solving is on track so far, but owner’s having difficulty taking next steps. Coaching & Mentoring Goal: Build confidence; remove obstacles; create an action plan Use Socratic questioning to help person realize his/her strengths & grow competencies; provide mentoring for knowledge transfer (e.g. specific tools).
  • 32. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Why should we avoid telling people what to do? It robs them of the opportunity to think through the problem themselves. It deprives them of ownership of the problem. You might be wrong. 32
  • 33. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Socratic Questioning Named for Socrates Based on his belief that the most effective learning results from a disciplined practice of thoughtful questioning.  Way of assuring “rigorous thinking” Open-ended questions that cause the learner to think deeply. 33
  • 34. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Questioning “Don’ts” Masked recommendations  “Leading the witness”  Disguising your recommendation as a question (and thinking that counts as a question) “Run on” questions  Long questions that contain multiple questions “The inquisition” – asking question after question  Instead of pausing and allowing the person to answer Closed-ended questions  That can be answered with yes, no, or a word or two. 34
  • 35. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Questioning “Don’ts” Harsh or judgmental tone Multi-tasking or half-listening instead of engaging the person in a focused dialogue If the problem owner asks, “What do you think?”, don’t take the bait! 35
  • 36. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Building Organizational Capabilities – Model 1 – Leadership Development  Pre-select 4 problems related to annual business goals.  Break into 4 teams; team lead is the problem owner; others play dual role, focused primarily on building coaching skills.  1-day workshop – learn P stage of PDCA.  4-6 weeks to work on projects; heavy support throughout from seasoned coach/mentor (2nd coach).  1-day workshop – teams present progress; much discussion; learn DCA stage of PDCA.  4-6 weeks to work on projects; heavy support throughout from seasoned coach/mentor (2nd coach).  1-day workshop – teams present progress; focus on sustainability and spreading the learning across the organization. 36
  • 37. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Building Organizational Capabilities – Model 2 – One-on-One Development Specific problem is selected. Identify problem owner and coach/mentor (typically the project owner’s direct supervisor). Seasoned coach/mentor serves as either:  “2nd coach” – coaches the coach (if coach is skilled in improvement tools)  Primary coach to problem owner, with side-bar coaching discussions with coach. Support from seasoned coach is heaviest during the P stage of PDCA. 37
  • 38. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates How A3 Shifts Culture Cross-functional engagement Root cause analysis helps break the “band-aid syndrome” Learning together Alignment with organizational strategy Coaching role of leadership helps move them away from tactical involvement 38
  • 39. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Common Problem-Solving Pitfalls Problem isn’t tied to key business goals. Problem owner isn’t proficient in analytical and improvement tools. Coach isn’t proficient in analytical and improvement tools. Consensus isn’t built throughout the process. A3 drags on forever. A3 used for everything. 39 Comment on how A3s and VSMs relate to one another, and which one to turn to in the beginning.
  • 40. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Key Success Factors  Engage all stakeholders from the beginning.  They must clearly understand why “this” is a problem.  Gain consensus every stage of PDCA.  Keep leadership from getting into tactics.  Their role is strategy and policy.  Test/experiment before rolling out an improvement.  Assign clear accountability for monitoring the improved state and continued improvement.  Avoid moving forward until true root cause is known.  Establish measurable targets.  Develop leaders into engaged and active coaches/mentors.  Share the process company-wide. 40
  • 41. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates In Summary The A3 process should become a standardized form of currency for problem- solving, dialogue, and decision-making in your organization – creating an organization of “scientists” who continually improve operations and achieve results through constant learning from the work at hand. 41
  • 42. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Other A3 Applications and Common A3 Components Proposal  Theme  Background  Current Condition  Analysis and Proposal  Plan Details  Unresolved Issues (if relevant)  Implementation Schedule  Total Effect Status Report  Theme  Background  Current Condition  Results  Unresolved Issues / Follow-up Actions  Total Effect During Kaizen Events
  • 43. Professional Development A3 43
  • 44. For Further Study
  • 45. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 45 Karen Martin, Principal 7770 Regents Road #635 San Diego, CA 92122 858.677.6799 ksm@ksmartin.com To register for our newsletter: www.ksmartin.com/subscribe For Further Questions