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Company
LOGO
Lean Webinar Series
A3 Management – Part II
September 30, 2010
1
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Your Instructor
 Early career as a scientist; migrated to
quality & operations design in...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Agenda
Part I - Tuesday, September 28
 A3 Overview
 “Plan” stage of PDCA
 Root cause ...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
PDCA: Plan Stage
4
Primary
problem-solving
role:
Investigator
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
PDCA: Do-Check-Act Stages
5
Primary
problem-solving
role:
Director
Common Components of the A3 Report
Theme: ________________________________ Owner: ________________________________
Plan Do...
Common Components of the A3 Report
Theme: “What is our area of focus?” Owner: Person accountable for results.
Plan Do, Che...
Building a Lean Enterprise
Process
Stabilization
Tools
Building a Lean Enterprise
Flow-Enabling
Tools
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Once you know the root cause,
brainstorm and prioritize solutions
1. List relevant counte...
PACE Prioritization Grid
High Low
Anticipated Benefit
EaseofImplementation
DifficultEasy
20
7
5
13
4 23
1
228
9
2
10
16
11...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
 Consider all options
 Be innovate – be willing to challenge your paradigms & help
othe...
Sample Implementation Plan
Task Type Accountable
Implementation Schedule (weeks)
Progress
Date
Complete1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1...
Sample A3
Countermeasures / Implementation Plan
Common Components of the A3 Report
Theme: “What is our area of focus?” Owner: Person accountable for results.
Plan Do, Che...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
The A3 Report:
Effect Confirmation
Tie confirmation directly to the target condition.
D...
Common Components of the A3 Report
Theme: “What is our area of focus?” Owner: Person accountable for results.
Plan Do, Che...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
The A3 Report:
Follow-up Actions
How will you communicate the new process?
Who will mon...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Sample Effect Confirmation Option
19
Metric
Current
State
Projected
Future State
Projecte...
Effect Confirmation & Follow-up
20
Sample A3
Effect Confirmation & Follow-up Actions
Follow-up Actions
Effect Confirmation
When Are You “Done”?
22
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Deming’s PDCA Cycle
Plan
Do
Check
Act
Develop
hypothesis
& design
experiment
Conduct
expe...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Using A3 to develop
organizational
capabilities
24
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
The Role of the A3 Coach
25
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Coaching and Mentoring
Coaching is working in partnership to facilitate
learning, improv...
Mentoring RelationshipCoaching Relationship
?
?
Focus: Asking questions Focus: Providing information
Wisdom Wisdom
Coach C...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Problem-Solving Proficiency
Needed
Lean analytical, process design, and
implementation t...
Coaching vs. Mentoring
Coach Mentor
Purpose Growth/development; helping people realize their potential,
while also generat...
The Wisdom Comes in Knowing When
to Coach and When to Mentor
Types of Coaching
Owner’s Problem-Solving
Skill Level Focus During Session What to Ask / Do
Problem-solving is spot on. Co...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Why should we avoid telling
people what to do?
It robs them of the opportunity to think
...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Socratic Questioning
Named for Socrates
Based on his belief that the
most effective lea...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Questioning “Don’ts”
Masked recommendations
 “Leading the witness”
 Disguising your re...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Questioning “Don’ts”
Harsh or judgmental tone
Multi-tasking or half-listening instead o...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Building Organizational Capabilities –
Model 1 – Leadership Development
 Pre-select 4 pr...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Building Organizational Capabilities –
Model 2 – One-on-One Development
Specific problem...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
How A3 Shifts Culture
Cross-functional engagement
Root cause analysis helps break the
“...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Common Problem-Solving Pitfalls
Problem isn’t tied to key business goals.
Problem owner...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Key Success Factors
 Engage all stakeholders from the beginning.
 They must clearly und...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
In Summary
The A3 process should become a
standardized form of currency for problem-
solv...
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates
Other A3 Applications and
Common A3 Components
Proposal
 Theme
 Background
 Current C...
Professional Development A3
43
For Further Study
© 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 45
Karen Martin, Principal
7770 Regents Road #635
San Diego, CA 92122
858.677.6799
ksm@ks...
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A3 Management (Part 2 of 2)

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Recorded webinar: http://slidesha.re/1l6raT1

Part 1: http://slidesha.re/1glUCgV

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Karen’s Books: http://ksmartin.com/books

This is part 2 of a 2-part series and focuses on the Do, Study, Adjust stages of the Plan, Do, Study, Adjust (PDSA) cycle.

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Transcript of "A3 Management (Part 2 of 2)"

  1. 1. Company LOGO Lean Webinar Series A3 Management – Part II September 30, 2010 1
  2. 2. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Your Instructor  Early career as a scientist; migrated to quality & operations design in the mid-80’s.  Launched Karen Martin & Associates in 1993.  Specialize in Lean transformations in non- manufacturing environments.  Co-author of The Kaizen Event Planner; co-developer of Metrics-Based Process Mapping: An Excel-Based Solution.  Instructor in University of California, San Diego’s Lean Enterprise program. 2 Karen Martin, Principal Karen Martin & Associates
  3. 3. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Agenda Part I - Tuesday, September 28  A3 Overview  “Plan” stage of PDCA  Root cause analysis Part II - Thursday, September 30  “Do-Check-Act” stages of PDCA  How to accelerate building problem owners’ and coaches’ capabilities  Common problem-solving pitfalls 3
  4. 4. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates PDCA: Plan Stage 4 Primary problem-solving role: Investigator
  5. 5. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates PDCA: Do-Check-Act Stages 5 Primary problem-solving role: Director
  6. 6. Common Components of the A3 Report Theme: ________________________________ Owner: ________________________________ Plan Do, Check, Act Background Current Condition Countermeasures / Implementation Plan Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions Target Condition / Measurable Objectives Root Cause & Gap Analysis
  7. 7. Common Components of the A3 Report Theme: “What is our area of focus?” Owner: Person accountable for results. Plan Do, Check, Act Background Current Condition Countermeasures / Implementation Plan Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions • What? • Who? • When? • Where? (if relevant) Target Condition / Measurable Objectives • Diagram of desired state • Measurable targets – how will we know that the improvement has been successful? • Diagram of current situation or process • What about it is not ideal? • Extent of the problem (metrics) • Problem statement • Context - why is this a problem? Root Cause & Gap Analysis • Graphical depiction of the most likely direct (root) causes • What measurable results did the solution achieve (or will be measured to verify effectiveness)? • Who’s responsible for ongoing measurement? • Where else in the organization can this solution be applied? • How will the improved state be standardized and communicated?
  8. 8. Building a Lean Enterprise Process Stabilization Tools
  9. 9. Building a Lean Enterprise Flow-Enabling Tools
  10. 10. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Once you know the root cause, brainstorm and prioritize solutions 1. List relevant countermeasures. 2. Eliminate those that aren’t possible.  Regulatory, budgetary, resource availability, system capability, etc. 3. Combine those that are similar. 4. Number the countermeasures sequentially. 5. Place countermeasures accordingly on the PACE Prioritization Grid.
  11. 11. PACE Prioritization Grid High Low Anticipated Benefit EaseofImplementation DifficultEasy 20 7 5 13 4 23 1 228 9 2 10 16 11 6 12 14 19 15 17 3 21 18
  12. 12. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates  Consider all options  Be innovate – be willing to challenge your paradigms & help others challenge theirs.  Make sure the countermeasure is directly very specifically to the root causes.  Make it clear exactly what will be done – by whom, by when, where, how, in what order, etc.  Aim for full implementation by a certain date.  The problem owner’s role shifts to advocate and project manager.  Cross-functional involvement & consensus is a key success factor. 12 Implementation / Countermeasures
  13. 13. Sample Implementation Plan Task Type Accountable Implementation Schedule (weeks) Progress Date Complete1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Create visual board to track KPIs. KE Mary W. 100 25 75 50 Clearn up data base. Proj George S. 100 25 75 50 Create self-quality checklist. KE Sally R. 100 25 75 50 Create standard template. KE Sally R. 100 25 75 50 Modify weekly report. JDI Bruce M. 100 25 9/22/2010 75 50 100 25 75 50 100 25 75 50 100 25 75 50 100 25 75 50 100 25 75 50 Type: JDI = Just do it; KE = Kaizen Event; Proj = Project 13
  14. 14. Sample A3 Countermeasures / Implementation Plan
  15. 15. Common Components of the A3 Report Theme: “What is our area of focus?” Owner: Person accountable for results. Plan Do, Check, Act Background Current Condition Countermeasures / Implementation Plan Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions • What? • Who? • When? • Where? (if relevant) Target Condition / Measurable Objectives • Diagram of desired state • Measurable targets – how will we know that the improvement has been successful? • Diagram of current situation or process • What about it is not ideal? • Extent of the problem (metrics) • Problem statement • Context - why is this a problem? Root Cause & Gap Analysis • Graphical depiction of the most likely direct (root) causes • What measurable results did the solution achieve (or will be measured to verify effectiveness)? • Who’s responsible for ongoing measurement? • Where else in the organization can this solution be applied? • How will the improved state be standardized and communicated?
  16. 16. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates The A3 Report: Effect Confirmation Tie confirmation directly to the target condition. Define 2-5 key performance indicators (KPIs). Determine ways to verify the effectiveness of the countermeasures, one by one if possible. Plan in advance for the data that will need to be collected. Identify who will help collect the data and how frequently.
  17. 17. Common Components of the A3 Report Theme: “What is our area of focus?” Owner: Person accountable for results. Plan Do, Check, Act Background Current Condition Countermeasures / Implementation Plan Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions • What? • Who? • When? • Where? (if relevant) Target Condition / Measurable Objectives • Diagram of desired state • Measurable targets – how will we know that the improvement has been successful? • Diagram of current situation or process • What about it is not ideal? • Extent of the problem (metrics) • Problem statement • Context - why is this a problem? Root Cause & Gap Analysis • Graphical depiction of the most likely direct (root) causes • What measurable results did the solution achieve (or will be measured to verify effectiveness)? • Who’s responsible for ongoing measurement? • Where else in the organization can this solution be applied? • How will the improved state be standardized and communicated?
  18. 18. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates The A3 Report: Follow-up Actions How will you communicate the new process? Who will monitor the process? Which metrics will be used to measure ongoing performance? Look for similar processes within the department and across the organization that can benefit from these countermeasures Ensure ongoing improvement – who will do this? Share the wealth!  Communicate results across the organization and teach others to problem-solve via the A3 process 18
  19. 19. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Sample Effect Confirmation Option 19 Metric Current State Projected Future State Projected % Improvement Actual Results * Actual % Improvement Lead Time 36 Days 16 Days 56% 20 Days 44% Rolled First Pass Yield 55% 75% 36% 80% 45% Scrap $1.2 M $0.5 M 58% TBD TBD Labor Effort 5.6 FTEs 3.0 FTEs 46% 3.8 FTEs 32% * Measured by Sally Turner on 8/20/2010; monthly measurement; improvement efforts continuing.
  20. 20. Effect Confirmation & Follow-up 20
  21. 21. Sample A3 Effect Confirmation & Follow-up Actions Follow-up Actions Effect Confirmation
  22. 22. When Are You “Done”? 22
  23. 23. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Deming’s PDCA Cycle Plan Do Check Act Develop hypothesis & design experiment Conduct experiment Measure results Analyze results & take appropriate action
  24. 24. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Using A3 to develop organizational capabilities 24
  25. 25. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates The Role of the A3 Coach 25
  26. 26. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Coaching and Mentoring Coaching is working in partnership to facilitate learning, improve performance, and create desired results.  Primarily in service of the A3 owner’s development.  To this end, what will be most supportive? Mentoring is the process for imparting subject matter expertise and wisdom to a less experienced person.  Primarily in service of achieving results.  More of a one-way, training-driven relationship Begin with coaching; move into mentoring as needed. 26
  27. 27. Mentoring RelationshipCoaching Relationship ? ? Focus: Asking questions Focus: Providing information Wisdom Wisdom Coach Coachee Mentor ? ? ? ? Mentee
  28. 28. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Problem-Solving Proficiency Needed Lean analytical, process design, and implementation tools Data analysis Visual display of data Project & time management Team building / people skills Change management skills / psychology 28
  29. 29. Coaching vs. Mentoring Coach Mentor Purpose Growth/development; helping people realize their potential, while also generating results Role Teacher/consultant; learning/thinking partner Relationship Built on respect and trust; supportive in nature Process Drawing out knowledge that resides within coachee Sharing knowledge that resides within mentor Questioning; coach engages in inquiry to guide the coachee Telling; Mentor shares expertise, offering answers and solutions Focus Primary: Developing strong problem-solvers Secondary: Assuring the problem is thoroughly dissected and solved Primary: Assuring the problem is thoroughly dissected and solved Secondary: Developing strong problem-solvers
  30. 30. The Wisdom Comes in Knowing When to Coach and When to Mentor
  31. 31. Types of Coaching Owner’s Problem-Solving Skill Level Focus During Session What to Ask / Do Problem-solving is spot on. Coaching Goal: “Thought partners” “How’s it going?” “What’s working well?” “What’s not?” “What have you learned?” “What’s been most surprising?” “What are you doing next?” “Do you need any help?” Problem-solving is off course and needs correction. Coaching & Mentoring Goal: Get person back on track Probe using Socratic questioning. Focus on one or two areas of the A3. Problem-solving is on track so far, but owner’s having difficulty taking next steps. Coaching & Mentoring Goal: Build confidence; remove obstacles; create an action plan Use Socratic questioning to help person realize his/her strengths & grow competencies; provide mentoring for knowledge transfer (e.g. specific tools).
  32. 32. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Why should we avoid telling people what to do? It robs them of the opportunity to think through the problem themselves. It deprives them of ownership of the problem. You might be wrong. 32
  33. 33. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Socratic Questioning Named for Socrates Based on his belief that the most effective learning results from a disciplined practice of thoughtful questioning.  Way of assuring “rigorous thinking” Open-ended questions that cause the learner to think deeply. 33
  34. 34. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Questioning “Don’ts” Masked recommendations  “Leading the witness”  Disguising your recommendation as a question (and thinking that counts as a question) “Run on” questions  Long questions that contain multiple questions “The inquisition” – asking question after question  Instead of pausing and allowing the person to answer Closed-ended questions  That can be answered with yes, no, or a word or two. 34
  35. 35. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Questioning “Don’ts” Harsh or judgmental tone Multi-tasking or half-listening instead of engaging the person in a focused dialogue If the problem owner asks, “What do you think?”, don’t take the bait! 35
  36. 36. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Building Organizational Capabilities – Model 1 – Leadership Development  Pre-select 4 problems related to annual business goals.  Break into 4 teams; team lead is the problem owner; others play dual role, focused primarily on building coaching skills.  1-day workshop – learn P stage of PDCA.  4-6 weeks to work on projects; heavy support throughout from seasoned coach/mentor (2nd coach).  1-day workshop – teams present progress; much discussion; learn DCA stage of PDCA.  4-6 weeks to work on projects; heavy support throughout from seasoned coach/mentor (2nd coach).  1-day workshop – teams present progress; focus on sustainability and spreading the learning across the organization. 36
  37. 37. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Building Organizational Capabilities – Model 2 – One-on-One Development Specific problem is selected. Identify problem owner and coach/mentor (typically the project owner’s direct supervisor). Seasoned coach/mentor serves as either:  “2nd coach” – coaches the coach (if coach is skilled in improvement tools)  Primary coach to problem owner, with side-bar coaching discussions with coach. Support from seasoned coach is heaviest during the P stage of PDCA. 37
  38. 38. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates How A3 Shifts Culture Cross-functional engagement Root cause analysis helps break the “band-aid syndrome” Learning together Alignment with organizational strategy Coaching role of leadership helps move them away from tactical involvement 38
  39. 39. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Common Problem-Solving Pitfalls Problem isn’t tied to key business goals. Problem owner isn’t proficient in analytical and improvement tools. Coach isn’t proficient in analytical and improvement tools. Consensus isn’t built throughout the process. A3 drags on forever. A3 used for everything. 39 Comment on how A3s and VSMs relate to one another, and which one to turn to in the beginning.
  40. 40. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Key Success Factors  Engage all stakeholders from the beginning.  They must clearly understand why “this” is a problem.  Gain consensus every stage of PDCA.  Keep leadership from getting into tactics.  Their role is strategy and policy.  Test/experiment before rolling out an improvement.  Assign clear accountability for monitoring the improved state and continued improvement.  Avoid moving forward until true root cause is known.  Establish measurable targets.  Develop leaders into engaged and active coaches/mentors.  Share the process company-wide. 40
  41. 41. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates In Summary The A3 process should become a standardized form of currency for problem- solving, dialogue, and decision-making in your organization – creating an organization of “scientists” who continually improve operations and achieve results through constant learning from the work at hand. 41
  42. 42. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates Other A3 Applications and Common A3 Components Proposal  Theme  Background  Current Condition  Analysis and Proposal  Plan Details  Unresolved Issues (if relevant)  Implementation Schedule  Total Effect Status Report  Theme  Background  Current Condition  Results  Unresolved Issues / Follow-up Actions  Total Effect During Kaizen Events
  43. 43. Professional Development A3 43
  44. 44. For Further Study
  45. 45. © 2010 Karen Martin & Associates 45 Karen Martin, Principal 7770 Regents Road #635 San Diego, CA 92122 858.677.6799 ksm@ksmartin.com To register for our newsletter: www.ksmartin.com/subscribe For Further Questions
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