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  1. 1. What are goals and objectives? According to Brown and Green (2006), a goal is a general statement while an objective is more specific. The objective tells us how and to what degree something is to be performed. For example: Goal: Students will recognize people who do not blend in the German environment. Objective1: Students will list traits of what will stand out in Germany. Objective2: Students will demonstrate behavior that will stand out in Germany. Objective3: When given pictures, students will identify those who stand out as tourists in Germany. BLOOM’S TAXONOMY: Bloom created his taxonomy objectives in the 1950s and his approach remains popular today. Bloom classifies his outcomes and objectives. Bloom has three domains BLOOM’S THREE DOMAINS 1-Cognitive-mental skills 2-Affective-growth feelings or emotional areas 3-psychomotor-manual When people refer to Bloom’s Taxonomy, they are usually referring to the cognitive domain. BLOOM’S TAXONOMY COGNITIVE DOMAIN Name Verbs used Evaluation Judge, select, choose, decide, justify, debate, verify, argue, recommend, assess, discuss, note, prioritize, determine Synthesis Create, invent, compose, predict, plan, construct, design, imagine, propose, devise, formulate Analysis Analyze, distinguish, examine, compare,
  2. 2. contrast, investigate, categorize, identify, explain, separate, advertise Application Solve, show, use, illustrate, construct, complete, examine, classify Comprehension Explain, interpret, outline, discuss, distinguish, predict, restate, translate, compare, describe Knowledge Tell, test, describe, relate, locate, write, find , state, name Here is an example of how objectives in a variety of domains might be used to reach a goal: GOAL STATEMENTS FOR EVALUATING A CASUALTY Domain Objective for that Domain Evaluation Evaluate a casualty to determine injuries. Synthesis Plan to treat any injury you might encounter. Analysis Compare the symptoms of the different injuries. Application Demonstrate the methods of evaluation. Comprehension Describe the possible injuries a casualty might have. Knowledge List all of the steps in evaluating a casualty. My Examples: I have chosen objectives from Army manuals to critique. These Army manuals follow Mager’s approach which centers around performance objectives and have three parts to the learning objectives. They are: Mager’s Approach Action: Identify the action the action the learner will be taking when he or she has achieved the objective. Conditions: Describe the relevant conditions under which the learner will be acting. Criterion: Specify how well the learner must perform the action.
  3. 3. GOOD EXAMPLES (each blue box indicates the domain represented in Bloom’s Taxonomy) EXAMPLE 1: Psychomotor Action: Tune your clarinet to a given pitch. Condition: Given a clarinet, adequate warm-up time, and a reference pitch, tune your instrument to the given pitch. Standards: Tuned instrument to within (+)5 cents of a reference pitch within 30 seconds. Why this is a good example: This example follows Mager’s approach and very fitting for a performance objective. The action is clearly identified. So are the conditions and standards. As a learner, I know what to expect. Why psychomotor? I classified this skill as psychomotor because it involves performing and reacting to the environment around you and adjusting to fit that environment. Cognitive EXAMPLE 2 : Action: Evaluate a casualty. Conditions: You have a casualty who has signs/symptoms of injury. Your unit may be under fire. Standards: Evaluate the casualty following the correct sequence. Identify all life- threatening conditions and serious wounds. Why this is a good example:
  4. 4. This example states the action and then gives the conditions and standards. It tells us who well to perform the task by telling us to identify all the serious conditions and wounds. That is pretty important because a real-life situation could be deadly if someone didn’t identify a wound. Why cognitive? I labeled this task cognitive because the learner has to evaluate the casualty. BAD EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 3: Cognitive Action: Implement Operations Security Measures(OPSEC) Conditions: You have received a unit OPSEC plan, which includes essential elements of friendly information, indicators, vulnerabilities, OPSEC measures and AR 530-1. Standards: Implement OPSEC measures based on unit indicators and vulnerabilities; protect the unit’s essential elements of friendly information against threat collection efforts and prevent compromise. Why cognitive? I labeled this example cognitive because the learner has to implement a practice. Why this is a bad example: This is a bad example because there is no real way to evaluate the task. You will not be able to tell how well your measures work unless an unfriendly unit pays a visit. The standards also don’t say how well the learner needs to perform the task other than to prevent compromise. Unfortunately, something always gets compromised. EXAMPLE 4: Psychomotor Action: Perform a clarinet part in a non-marching/non-ceremonial setting at a 2.7 performance level. Conditions: Given an instrument, assigned music, and all the necessary accessories required to perform a clarinet part in a non-marching/non-ceremonial setting, perform individually or as a member of an ensemble. Tuning and preparation have been completed.
  5. 5. Standards: Perform designated selections at a 2.7 level while recognizing and responding to the conductor’s directions. Why this is a bad example: I think I am a little biased here because I was quite shocked to find that a training pamphlet for clarinet player exists. It is my belief that we should know how to do our job when we come into the army. That being said, the action and condition part of the objective are clear. The standards section lets us know how well(2.7 level) the player needs to perform. Recognizing and responding to the conductor’s directions seems a little vague to me. There is really no way to measure this task. In fact, it is really hard to quantify someone’s playing. I think this task is subjective and there is really no way to measure it. Why Psychomotor? I classified this as psychomotor because it involves performing the task to the conductor’s standards and reacting to the environment around the performer. Here are some examples from conference brochures: Jennifer Dick, San Francisco Unified School District with Pearson Foundation Staff Cognitive As a result of this workshop, participants will: -Understand what makes a quality digital story -Receive basic hands-on knowledge of how to edit digital video clips in Adobe Premiere -Plan ideas for conducting digital storytelling projects in their own classrooms/schools -Reflect on project-based learning as an instructional strategy -Understand how to use student’s written narratives to create multimedia video narratives Why this is a good example: This is a good example because the verbs in the objectives clearly fit with the Cognitive Domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Why cognitive? I labeled this example as cognitive because the learner will understand, reflect, and plan.
  6. 6. The verbs in the objectives clearly fit with the cognitive domain. Greg Jones University of North Texas Purpose & Objectives Psychomotor Cognitive This workshop will accomplish the following: 1) describe and discuss the technology and provide participants with hands-on experiences with different 3D online learning environments; 2) give an overview of and discuss the latest research regarding emerging uses of this technology as well as innovative applications of games and simulations being used for teaching and learning; and will 3) conclude with exploration and use of a 3D environment focused on 6th and 8th grade literacy practices. Why this is not a good objective: These objectives do a pretty good job of describing what the learner will be doing and the conditions, but it doesn’t really say to what standard the objectives will be performed. Why psychomotor and cognitive? I labeled this example as psychomotor because the learner will be doing some hands-on tasks. I used cognitive because the student has to describe, discuss, and conclude. Conclusion: I could not find a sample objective in the Affective Domain. I believe that this domain could be best used in a Music Appreciation Class. An example would be: Listen to Bach. The student is not using a psychomotor or cognitive skill, but they are actively engaged in listening and appreciating. *All Army Regulations are approved for public release with unlimited distrubution References: Brown, A. & Green, T.D(2006). The Essentials of Instructional Design: Connecting Fundamental Principles with Process and Practice. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merill/Prentice Hall. Clark, D. (2004). Performance, Learning, Leadership, and Knowledge. Retrieved October 5, 2008 from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html Dalton, J. & Smith, G (1986). quot;Extending Children's Special Abilities-Strategies for
  7. 7. Primary Classroomsquot; . Retrieved October 5, 2008 from http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/researchskills/Dalton.htm Dick, J. and Pearson Foundation Staff(2007). The Digital Arts: Creating Digital Portfolios. http://center.uoregon.edu/ISTE/NECC2007/program/search_results_details.php?sessi onid=41130614&selection_id=43681625&rownumber=14&max=18 Retrieved October 8, 2008. Jones, J.G. & Warren, S. (2007). 3D Online Learning Environments: The Technology, Research, and Classroom Applications. Workshop at the National Educational Computing Conference, Atlanta, GA. ISTE. Retrieved October 8, 2008. Van Merrienboer, J.G. (2007) Alternate Models of Instructional Design: Holistic Design Approaches and Complex Learning. Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. (pp.75,76). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merill/Prentice Hall. Soldier's Manual and Training Guide: MOS 42R9J(Clarinet Player) Skill Levels 1 and 2. (2005). [Pamphlet]. Washington D.C.: Headquarters Department of the Army. Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks: Warrior Leader Skills, Skill Level 1. (2006). [Pamphlet]. Washington D.C. Headquarters Department of the Army.