Delaware Native Plants for Native Bees
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Delaware Native Plants for Native Bees Document Transcript

  • 1. Why Plant for Native Bees? The term “native bee” refers to any of a large and diverse group of wild bees that are indigenous to North America. There are some 4,000 species of native bees north of Mexico, around 200 of which have been found in Delaware. Native bees are a vital component of natural ecosystems, providing pollination services to countless species of wild trees, shrubs and flowers. In addition to wild plants, bees pollinate over 100 crop species in North America. Populations of managed European honey bees have declined in recent years due to mites and diseases. While honey bees are still very important pollinators, native bees can provide “pollination insurance” during times when honey bees are not available. Recent studies in New Jersey and Pennsylvania have shown that native bees alone provide sufficient pollination for most watermelon farms. Native bees are extremely efficient pollinators of pumpkins, tomatoes, apples, berries, and many other crops. Bees benefit from patches of native flowering plants on farms, in home gardens, and in public spaces. Adult bees drink nectar and gather pollen to provide food for their young. A supply of pollen- and nectar-rich plants available throughout the growing season will help maintain large, healthy native bee populations. Farmers, gardeners and land managers can help by establishing plantings of native herbaceous or woody vegetation. In addition to supporting native bee populations, these plantings can also provide food for natural enemies of crop pests (such as predatory bugs and beetles, parasitic wasps, etc.). Many perennial herbaceous and woody plants also provide valuable cover and food for other types of wildlife, including game birds, song birds, and mammals. Permanent native plantings stabilize soil and help prevent erosion. Woody plantings can serve as windbreaks, reducing the effects of high wind on soils and crops, or they may be planted as shelterbelts to protect farmsteads. 1
  • 2. How to Plant for Native BeesChoosing Plants The purpose of this guide is to help you choose plants that are attractive to native bees. There are several important factors to consider when select- ing plants. 1. Timing: Choose a variety of plants that bloom at different times of the year, so that pollinators have access to a source of food from early in the spring to late in the fall (see the chart on pages 14-15 ). 2. Diversity: Choose plants with a variety of flo- ral shapes and colors to appeal to different species of both short-tongued and long-tongued bees.Flowers of different shapes attract bees with 3. Origin: Select native plants whenever possible,different tongue lengths. This sweat bee has a and definitely avoid invasive alien species.relatively short tongue, and can reach nectar 4. Ecotype: Whenever possible, buy seed ormore easily in open flowers than in tubular plants from a nursery that sells local ecotypesflowers. (plants propagated from seed or stock originallycollected in the area you plan to plant, rather than in another region of the country). This helpsensure that the plants you use are adapted to the local climate and growing conditions.5. Annual vs. Perennial: Native perennials are less likely than annuals to become weedy, and theyare easier to maintain, since they don’t need to be reseeded.6. Hybrids: Avoid planting hybrid flower varieties or those that have been bred for showy or“double” blossoms, as these often lack the pollen and nectar rewards of the parent species.Many native herbaceous plants are available as seed. A commercial seed mix containing desirablespecies may be used, or better yet, a custom seed mix can be designed to include any number ofspecies. Herbaceous plants can also be grown from rooted plugs, and these will flower more quickly(within 1-2 years versus 3-5 years from seeds). Woody plants grown from containerized seedlingswill have much better success than those started from seed or bare root seedlings.While it is useful to read about native plants, there is no substitute for getting out into the fieldsand woods to study them in person. As you learn more about each plant, its habitats, and its pol-linators and other insect associates, you will be able to apply that knowledge to your own nativeplantings.Designing a PlantingBee forage plantings should ideally be located nearnesting habitat provided by woodlots, thickets,areas of well-drained untilled ground, or fallowfields. If the site is on a farm, locate plantingswithin flight distance (several hundred feet) ofcrops requiring insect pollination. While smallplantings are beneficial, larger areas of forage habi-tat will support larger populations of native bees.However, larger plantings require more work tomaintain, so plan the size of your planting based onthe time and equipment available.It is important to know your soil characteristics. Long-horned bee, Melissodes druriella, gather-Have the soil in your planting site tested for organic ing goldenrod pollen. 2
  • 3. How to Plant for Native Beescontent and pH, and be sure you are familiar with the type of soil and degree of soil moisture.Analyze the planting site, taking into account the degree of sun exposure, and any tendency forthe site to flood or become excessively dry. Measure your planting area and draw a plan to aidin calculating the right amount of seed. If you will be planting containerized woody seedlingsor rooted plugs of herbaceous species, calculate plant spacing and estimate the number of plantsneeded.An easy way to establish a native meadow is to plant a mix of native warm-season grasses andbee-friendly wildflowers. Consult references and speak with your seed supplier to determineyour desired ratio of wildflower to grass seed in the mix.Establishing a PlantingIf you are establishing a new wildflower planting on fallow ground, you should begin by elimi-nating all competing vegetation in the area you wish to plant. This can be done by mowing orburning, followed by one or more applications of glyphosate herbicide prior to planting. Makesure litter and thatch is cleanly removed before spraying so that the herbicide reaches the vege-tation. Cultivating is an alternative approach, particularly if a crop has been growing on the site.After cultivating, the soil should be firmed by cultipacking to create good seed to soil contact.Fertilizers are not needed and tend to favor rapid growth of non-native weeds, rather than suc-cessful establishment of the native planting.Seeding should take place either in late fall or in the spring. A no-till drill can be used to plantnative grass and wildflower seed, and can often be rented or borrowed from local conservationdistricts or local chapters of Quail Unlimited or Pheasants Forever. Broadcast seeding may beused, but larger amounts of seed are typically needed to achieve the same results.If you already have a number of desirable native species present that you don’t wish to eliminate,it might be possible to add additional wildflower species into the existing vegetation by either 1)strategically planting rooted plugs or 2) burning or mowing the area, overseeding with the desiredspecies, then mowing periodically during the first season to promote germination of the newseed.To establish a hedgerow or clump of woody shrubs or trees, complete vegetation control is notnecessary, but competing vegetation immediately surrounding the planting site of each tree shouldbe mowed or sprayed prior to planting. Tree tube shelters secured to stakes should be used to pro-tect seedlings from herbicides and mowing, rodent damage, and deer browse. Weed suppressionmats may be installed around each plant, or periodic mowing or spraying of competing vegeta-tion may be substituted.For establishment of native species in wetlands and wetland edges, special care is required. Toavoid toxicity to aquatic life and contamination of ground water, be sure to use only those her-bicides specifically approved for wetland use. To minimize soil compaction, avoid driving equip-ment through areas that are too wet. These sites may be better suited for broadcast seeding orhand planting of plugs, bareroot, or containerized stock. Control of invasive species such asCommon Reed (Phragmites australis) should be completed before planting. 3
  • 4. How to Plant for Native BeesMaintaining a PlantingIf plantings are properly established in the fall, watering should not be necessary during the sub-sequent growing season. Spring plantings can be susceptible to drought however, and may needto be watered regularly (every 1-2 weeks) during the first year until the plants are well established.It is necessary to mow herbaceous plantings to a height of 6-8” several times during the firstgrowing season with the blades set high, to remove the tops of the weeds that will inevitablygrow faster than the desired perennials. If weeds continue to present problems, they may be con-trolled by mowing or spot-spraying with herbicides during the first 2 to 3 years of establishment.Long-term maintenance of herbaceous native plant communities can be accomplished by peri-odic disturbance such as discing, burning, or dormant season mowing.In some areas, deer can cause significant problems. Many of the plants listed in this guide areunpalatable to deer, but depending on local conditions, even these species may be browsed. Whileit is expensive, fencing may be the best control method in areas with high deer populations.Treating newly planted shrubs and trees with deer repellents may help protect them while theyare becoming established. For woody plantings, tree tubes should be checked and maintained ona regular basis to prevent deer and rodent damage. Replace broken or loose stakes and ties andcheck tubes for contact with the soil, since gaps can result from winter frost heave and allow ac-cess to rodents.Financial AssistanceThere are many federal, state, and private programs available that can provide financial assistanceto landowners for planting native plant species as part of conservation practices. Most of thesepractices can be adapted to benefit bees and other pollinators by choosing plant species such asthose listed in this booklet. NRCS conservation cost-share programs such as the EnvironmentalQuality Incentives Program (EQIP) and the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP) canhelp agricultural producers with the establishment of native species plantings. Some of the NRCScost-share practices that can be adapted for bees include:Field border plantingFilter strip plantingHedgerow plantingShallow-water wetland creationWetland restorationCritical area plantingRiparian herbaceous cover developmentEarly successional habitat developmentRiparian forest buffer plantingUpland wildlife habitat managementWetland wildlife habitat managementContacts for NRCS are listed at the end of NRCS cost-share assistance is available to establishthis booklet. Ask about how you can incor- plantings for bees.porate plantings for native bees into NRCS projects. The Delaware DNREC private lands biol-ogist can assist you with finding public and private cost-share assistance for conservation projects.Delaware Department of Agriculture staff members are available to help you design bee habitatenhancements on your farm. 4
  • 5. About the Plant ListThe following list includes 39 species of Delaware native plants that provide pollen, nectar, andin some cases, nesting sites, to native bees. The plants included in this list were selected basedon the following criteria: 1. Native to the state of Delaware 2. Known to be visited by a variety of native bees 3. Commercially available or, if availability is limited, then a good bee plant that is likely to be present in fallow areas of many farms 4. Historical or current occurrence on the Delaware coastal plain, or if limited to the piedmont, then the plant is thought to be an especially good bee plant and is widely available commerciallyMany excellent native bee plants are not listed here, because they either do not meet the criteriaabove, or because they are represented in the list by other members of the same genus. Groupssuch as Asters, Goldenrods, Joe-pye Weeds, Sunflowers, Willows, and Hawthorns include manymore species than can be listed here. While this list is a good starting point, it is worth experi-menting with other native species as well, especially those that may already grow on your farm.Keep in mind that the insect visitors to many native plant species are only poorly known, andoften what is known is drawn from very old publications and from different parts of the country. The flower preferences of bees and other flower-visiting insects may vary from region to re-gion. Further research is needed to determine what specific combinations of native plants are bestsuited for augmenting populations of crop pollinating bees and natural enemies of crop pests onfarms in our area.Attractiveness: The relative attractiveness of a plant to Bees, and the list of bee Types At-tracted to each plant are based on a variety of published and unpublished records, and includesonly non-parasitic bees (those that collect their own pollen from crops and wild plants). Theselists are not exhaustive, but are meant to summarize the available information. In addition, therelative attractiveness of a plant to Natural Enemies of crop pests is given when available. Thisinformation is based on published records of floral visitation by natural enemies, notably thework of Doug Landis and colleagues in Michigan (see More Information on page 23). Specificnatural enemy groups known to use each plant are mentioned in the Notes section. For the sci-entific names of the insect groups listed, see the table on page 22.Plant Growth requirements are compiled from several sources, including the NRCS Plants Data-base. Bloom times are typically those given by Robert Tatnall in his 1946 Flora of Delaware andthe Eastern Shore. Natural habitat descriptions are from the 2001 Flora of Delaware: an an-notated checklist, by McAvoy and Bennett. The letter codes after the habitat description indicatewhere the plant is found in the wild (P = Piedmont, C = Coastal Plain). Commercial avail-ability is based primarily on the plant lists of the regional nurseries listed on page 25. 5
  • 6. Herbaceous PlantsSwamp Milkweed Common Milkweed Yellow Wild IndigoAsclepias incarnata Asclepias syriaca Baptisia tinctoriaPerennial Forb Perennial Forb Perennial LegumeBloom: Pink, Jun - Aug Bloom: Pale Purple, Jun - Jul Bloom: Yellow, Jun - JulHeight: 4 - 6 ft. Height: 3.5 - 6 ft. Height: 1 - 3 ft. AttractivenessAttractiveness Bees: Good AttractivenessBees: Good Natural Enemies: Limited Bees: GoodNatural Enemies: Good data Natural Enemies: No dataTypes attracted: Bumble Types attracted: Bumble Types attracted: Bumblebees, large carpenter bees, bees, leaf-cutter bees, long- bees, leaf-cutter bees, long-long-horned bees, plasterer horned bees, plasterer bees, horned bees, sweat beesbees, sweat bees sweat bees Growth Growth Light: Full Sun to Part ShadeGrowth Light: Full Sun Moisture: DryLight: Full Sun to Part Shade Moisture: Dry Soil Type: Loam, SandMoisture: Moist to Wet Soil Type: Loam, Sand Soil pH: 5.8 – 7.0Soil Type: Clay, Loam Soil pH: 5.1 – 7.5 Propagation: Seed, PlugSoil pH: 5.0 – 8.0 Propagation: Seed, Plug Availability: ModeratePropagation: Seed, Plug Availability: Good Natural habitat:Availability: Good Natural habitat: Dry sandy soils (P, C)Natural habitat: Old fields, thickets, roadsidesMarshes, wet meadows (P, C) (P, C) Notes This legume is drought-toler- NotesNotes While sometimes considered an ant and does well even inGrows well in low meadows, agricultural weed, this deer-resis- poor, dry soils. It is visitedpond and marsh edges. Like tant plant is nevertheless a valu- by a variety of mostly long-most milkweeds, it is not pre- able pollinator plant, visited tongued bees, and is a host-ferred by deer. Natural primarily by bumble bees and plant for caterpillars of theenemies attracted include: large wasps. It provides a good Wild Indigo Duskywing, the mid-summer nectar source, andlacewings; lady and soldier Io Moth, and the rare Frosted also hosts hover flies and tachinidbeetles; dance, long-legged, flies. Milkweeds are the caterpil- Elfin.and tachinid flies, parasitic lar host plants for the Monarchand predatory wasps, and butterfly, Danaus plexippus.minute pirate bugs. 6
  • 7. Herbaceous PlantsPartridge Pea Three-nerved Common BonesetChamaecrista fasciculata Joe-Pye Weed Eupatorium perfoliatumAnnual Legume Eupatorium dubium Perennial ForbBloom: Yellow, Jul - Sep Perennial Forb Bloom: White, Aug - SepHeight: 0.5 - 3 ft. Bloom: Whitish Purple, Height: 3 - 5 ft. Aug - SepAttractiveness Attractiveness Height: 2 - 5 ft.Bees: Moderate Bees: GoodNatural Enemies: Good Attractiveness Natural Enemies: ExcellentTypes attracted: Bees: No data Types attracted: BumbleBumble bees, large carpenter Natural Enemies: No data bees, digger bees, leaf-cutterbees, leaf-cutter bees, long- Types attracted: No data bees, plasterer bees, smallhorned bees, sweat bees carpenter bees, sweat bees GrowthGrowth Light: Full Sun to Part Shade GrowthLight: Full Sun Moisture: Moist to Wet Light: Full Sun to Part ShadeMoisture: Dry Soil Type: Sand Moisture: Moist to WetSoil Type: Sandy Soil pH: 4.5 – 6.5 Soil Type: Clay, Loam, SandSoil pH: 5.5 – 7.5 Propagation: Plug Soil pH: 6.5 – 7.0Propagation: Seed Availability: Moderate Propagation: Seed, PlugAvailability: Moderate Natural habitat: Availability: GoodNatural habitat: Swamps, stream banks, wet Natural habitat:Roadsides, old fields (P, C) meadows (P, C) Swales, wet meadows, marshes (P, C)Notes NotesAn excellent soil builder that An attractive species that does Notesestablishes rapidly and pro- well in coastal plain sites, and Attracts good numbers ofvides erosion control and provides a good source of late bees and large numbers ofnitrogen fixation for slower- summer nectar and pollen. natural enemies, includinggrowing perennial forbs. The There are few published minute pirate bugs, predatoryshowy flowers are pollinated records of floral visitors to the plant bugs, hover flies, ta-primarily by bumblebees, plant, but other purple Eupa- chinid flies, lady and soldierwhile short-tongued bees, torium species are visited by beetles, and predatory andpredatory wasps, hover flies, bumble bees, large carpenter parasitic wasps. This is an ex-and tachinid flies suck nectar bees, leaf-cutter bees, long- cellent choice for ditches,from glands on the leaf peti- horned bees, and small car- pond edges and other wetoles. penter bees. areas. 7
  • 8. Herbaceous PlantsWild Strawberry Giant Sunflower Ox-eye SunflowerFragaria virginiana Helianthus giganteus Heliopsis helianthoidesPerennial Forb Perennial Forb Perennial ForbBloom: White, Apr - May Bloom: Yellow, Aug - Sep Bloom: Yellow, Jul - SepHeight: 3 - 8 in. Height: 3 - 10 ft. Height: 3 - 6 ft Attractiveness AttractivenessAttractiveness Bees: Good Bees: ModerateBees: Good Natural Enemies: Natural Enemies: No dataNatural Enemies: Good Limited data Types attracted: BumbleTypes attracted: Mason Types attracted: Bumble bees, large carpenter bees,bees, mining bees, plasterer bees, leaf-cutter bees, long- leaf-cutter bees, long-hornedbees, small carpenter bees, horned bees, mining bees, bees, mining bees, sweat beessweat bees sweat bees GrowthGrowth Light: Full Sun to Part Shade GrowthLight: Full Sun to Part Shade Moisture: Moist to Wet Light: Full Sun to Part ShadeMoisture: Dry to Moist Soil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Moisture: Dry to MoistSoil Type: Loam, Sand Soil pH: 5.5 – 7.5 Soil Type: Loam, SandSoil pH: 5.1 – 7.8 Propagation: Seed Soil pH: : 6.0 – 7.5Propagation: Plug, Availability: Moderate Propagation: Seed, PlugContainerized Stock Natural habitat: Availability: GoodAvailability: Limited Wet meadows, tidal marshes Natural habitat:Natural habitat: (P, C) Thickets and meadows (P, C)Moist woods, meadows,fields, roadsides (P, C) Notes Notes The flowers are visited prima- The flowers bloom for aNotes rily by long-tongued bees, but lengthy period during mid-A good early season bee plant, the data is sparse. A related summer, attracting a varietyespecially attractive to mining Midwestern species attracts of bees, as well as hover flies,bees of the genus Andrena, a parasitic wasps, minute pirate soldier beetles, and predatorywide variety of sweat bees, and bugs, and other natural ene- plant bugs. The species ishover flies. Despite its small, mies. The seeds of sunflow- easy to grow in a wide rangeedible berries, which are also ers are one of the most of well-drained soils.consumed by at least 25 species favored wild bird foods andof eastern birds, this plant is not are widely consumed bywidely available commercially. dozens of species. 8
  • 9. Herbaceous PlantsRound-head Bush-clover Dense Blazing-star Great Blue LobeliaLespedeza capitata Liatris spicata Lobelia siphiliticaPerennial Legume Perennial Forb Perennial ForbBloom: White, Aug – Sep Bloom: Purple, Aug - Sep Bloom: Blue, Aug - SepHeight: 2 - 4 ft. Height: 2 - 5 ft. Height: 2 - 3 ft.Attractiveness Attractiveness AttractivenessBees: Moderate Bees: Limited data Bees: ExcellentNatural Enemies: No data Natural Enemies: Natural Enemies: ExcellentTypes attracted: Bumble Limited data Types attracted: Bumblebees, leaf-cutter bees, mining Types attracted: Bumble bees, digger bees, long-bees, sweat bees bees, leaf-cutter bees, long- horned bees, plasterer bees, horned bees, sweat bees small carpenter bees, sweatGrowth beesLight: Full Sun Growth Light: Full Sun to Part Shade GrowthMoisture: Dry Moisture: Dry to Moist Light: Full Sun to Part ShadeSoil Type: Loam, Sand Soil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Moisture: Moist to WetSoil pH: : 6 .0 – 8.0 Soil Type: Clay, Loam, SandPropagation: Seed Soil pH: 5.6 – 7.5 Propagation: Seed, Plug Soil pH: : 6.5 – 7.0Availability: Moderate Propagation: Seed, PlugNatural habitat: Availability: Moderate Availability: GoodDry sandy soils (P, C) Natural habitat: Natural habitat: Fields and roadsides (P, C) Wet meadows, stream banks, swamps (P)Notes NotesThis drought-tolerant legume The stock sold by many nurs- Notesis relatively easy to grow, eries is of Midwestern, rather This deer-resistant perennialthough it can be susceptible to than eastern, origin. This is found naturally alongdamage from mammal brows- plant is visited primarily streams in the piedmont, buting. The seeds provide food by long-tongued bees, but may be difficult to grow onfor upland game birds and species records are few. Nat- the coastal plain without soilsongbirds. It is a hostplant for ural enemies attracted include amendments. It attracts nu-the Eastern Tailed-Blue and hover flies and soldier beetles. merous bees, as well asGray Hairstreak butterflies. L. graminifolia is more com- minute pirate bugs, predatory mon in the wild in Delaware plant bugs, parasitic and but is seldom available com- predatory wasps, lady beetles, mercially. and soldier beetles. 9
  • 10. Herbaceous PlantsWild Blue Lupine Wild Bergamot Spotted HorsemintLupinus perennis Monarda fistulosa Monarda punctataPerennial Legume Perennial Forb Perennial ForbBloom: Purple, May - Jun Bloom: Pale Pink, Aug - Sep Bloom: Yellow/Pink,Height: 1 - 2 ft. Height: 2 - 5 ft. Jul - Aug Height: 2 - 3.5 ft. AttractivenessAttractiveness Bees: GoodBees: Excellent Natural Enemies: AttractivenessNatural Enemies: Limited data Bees: GoodLimited data Types attracted: Bumble Natural Enemies: ExcellentTypes attracted: Bumble bees, digger bees, large car- Types attracted: Bumblebees, digger bees, large car- penter bees, leaf-cutter bees, bees, digger bees, large car-penter bees, leaf-cutter bees, long-horned bees, mason penter bees, leaf-cutter bees,long-horned bees, mason bees, small carpenter bees, long-horned bees, miningbees, mining bees, plasterer sweat bees bees, plasterer bees, smallbees, small carpenter bees, carpenter bees, sweat bees Growthsweat bees Light: Full Sun to Part Shade Growth Moisture: Dry to Moist Light: Full SunGrowth Soil Type: Clay, Loam Moisture: DryLight: Full Sun to Part Shade Soil pH: 6.0 – 8.0 Propagation: Seed, Plug Soil Type: SandMoisture: Dry Soil pH: : 5.0 – 7.5Soil Type: Sand Availability: Good Natural habitat: Propagation: Seed, PlugSoil pH: : 6.1 – 7.5 Availability: Good Dry open soils (P)Propagation: Seed, Plug Natural habitat:Availability: Moderate Notes Sandy soils, old fields,Natural habitat: While only long-tongued bees roadsides (C)Dry, sandy soils (C) can reach the nectar at the bot- tom of the flower tubes, someNotes short-tongued bees also drink at NotesWhile this showy, deer-resis- holes made in the flower by nectar-stealing wasps. Preda- Highly attractive to bees astant species is available from well as to natural enemies, tory and parasitic wasps, hovernative plant suppliers, it is dif- such as minute pirate bugs, flies, and soldier beetles alsoficult to find stock of a true visit the flowers. This deer- predatory plant bugs, soldiereastern ecotype. It is a superb resistant species is rare in beetles, and parasitic wasps.bee plant for dry, sandy soils, Delaware in the piedmont, and Adapted to dry, sandy habi-also visited by hover flies and may need soil amendments if tats, the species is extremelypredatory wasps. grown on the coastal plain. drought tolerant. 10
  • 11. Herbaceous PlantsTall White Beard-tongue Black-eyed Susan Canada GoldenrodPenstemon digitalis Rudbeckia hirta Solidago canadensisPerennial Forb Perennial Forb Perennial ForbBloom: White, Jun Bloom: Yellow, Jun - Jul Bloom: Yellow, Sep - OctHeight: 2 - 4 ft. Height: 1 - 3 ft. Height: 3 - 6 ft.Attractiveness Attractiveness AttractivenessBees: Good Bees: Excellent Bees: ExcellentNatural Enemies: Natural Enemies: Good Natural Enemies: ExcellentLimited data Types attracted: Bumble Types attracted: BumbleTypes attracted: Bumble bees, leaf-cutter bees, long- bees, large carpenter bees,bees, digger bees, large car- horned bees, mining bees, leaf-cutter bees, long-hornedpenter bees, leaf-cutter bees, small carpenter bees, sweat bees, mining bees, plastererlong-horned bees, mason bees bees, small carpenter bees,bees, small carpenter bees, sweat beessweat bees Growth Growth Light: Full Sun to Part Shade Light: Full Sun to Part ShadeGrowth Moisture: Dry to Moist Moisture: Dry to MoistLight: Full Sun to Part Shade Soil Type: Clay, Loam Soil Type: Clay, Loam, SandMoisture: Dry to Moist Soil pH: : 5.0 – 7.5 Soil pH: 4.8 – 7.5Soil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Propagation: Seed, Plug Propagation: SeedSoil pH: 5.5 – 7.0 Availability: GoodPropagation: Seed, Plug Natural habitat: Availability: ModerateAvailability: Good Old fields, roadsides, Natural habitat:Natural habitat: edges (P, C) Old fields, roadsides,Meadows, roadsides (P, C) edges (P, C) NotesNotes Notes A deer-resistant, widely dis-A relatively easy-to-grow, A widely available, deer- tributed goldenrod that at-deer-resistant plant. Penste- resistant wildflower with tracts a tremendous diversitymons are especially important showy yellow blossoms, it is of bees. Natural enemiespollen sources for some easy to grow from seed in a attracted include predatory wide range of soils. Attracts plant bugs, hover flies,species of mason bees. Hover natural enemies, including tachinid flies, lady and soldierflies are also known to visit predatory plant bugs, ladythis species. beetles, and predatory and beetles, hover flies, tachinid parasitic wasps. flies, and predatory and parasitic wasps. 11
  • 12. Herbaceous PlantsEarly Goldenrod New England Aster Hairy Heath AsterSolidago juncea Symphyotrichum Symphyotrichum pilosumPerennial Forb novae-angliae Perennial ForbBloom: Yellow, Jul - Sep Perennial Forb Bloom: White, Sep - OctHeight: 3 - 4 ft. Bloom: Purple, Aug - Sep Height: 2 - 5 ft. Height: 2 - 6 ft. AttractivenessAttractiveness Bees: ExcellentBees: Excellent Attractiveness Natural Enemies: ExcellentNatural Enemies: Good Bees: Good Types attracted: Bumble-Types attracted: Bumble- Natural Enemies: Excellent bees, leaf-cutter bees, long-bees, leaf-cutter bees, long- Types attracted: Bumble horned bees, mining bees,horned bees, mason bees, bees, large carpenter bees, plasterer bees, small carpentermining bees, plasterer bees, leaf-cutter bees, long-horned bees, sweat beessmall carpenter bees, sweat bees, mining bees, small Growthbees carpenter bees, sweat bees Light: Full Sun to Part Shade Moisture: Dry to MoistGrowth Growth Soil Type: Clay, Loam, SandLight: Full Sun to Part Shade Light: Full Sun to Part Shade Soil pH: 5.4 – 7.0 Availability: LimitedMoisture: Dry to Moist Moisture: Moist Propagation: SeedSoil Type: Sand Soil Type: Loam Soil pH: 5.5 – 7.0 Natural habitat:Soil pH: 5.0 – 7.5 Fields, open woods, roadsidesPropagation: Seed Propagation: Seed, Plug (P, C)Availability: Moderate Availability: GoodNatural habitat: Natural habitat: NotesThin woods and edges, old Marshes, wet meadows (P, C) Establishes rapidly on disturbedfields (P, C) sites and fallow fields. The Notes numerous small white flowersNotes Like many other asters, attracts are visited by a multitude of beeThe first goldenrod to bloom good numbers of bees and high and hover fly species. Thisin late summer, this deer- numbers of natural enemies, species is not widely available including minute pirate bugs, commercially (seed is sometimesresistant species is highly dance flies, hover flies, lady available), but two varieties (var.attractive to bees. Also beetles and parasitic wasps. It pilosum and var. demotus) areattracted are hover flies, grows well in areas that are common in Delaware. Alsotachinid flies, lady beetles, moist, but not too wet, and is attracts tachinid flies, soldierand predatory and parasitic resistant to deer browse. beetles, and predatory andwasps. parasitic wasps. 12
  • 13. Herbaceous PlantsBlue Vervain New York Ironweed Golden AlexandersVerbena hastata Vernonia noveboracensis Zizia aureaPerennial Forb Perennial Forb Perennial ForbBloom: Purple, Jun - Aug Bloom: Purple, Aug – Sep Bloom: Yellow, Apr - JunHeight: 2 - 5 ft. Height: 3 - 7 ft. Height: 1 - 3 ft. Attractiveness AttractivenessAttractiveness Bees: Excellent Bees: Good Natural Enemies: ExcellentBees: Good Natural Enemies: No dataNatural Enemies: Types attracted: Bumble Types attracted: Bumble bees, long-horned bees,Limited data bees, long-horned bees, and mason bees, mining bees,Types attracted: Bumble others plasterer bees, small carpenterbees, leaf-cutter bees, long- bees, sweat beeshorned bees, mining bees, Growthsmall carpenter bees, sweat Growth Light: Full Sun Light: Full Sun to Part Shadebees Moisture: Wet to Moist Moisture: Dry to Moist Soil Type: Loam Soil Type: Clay, Loam, SandGrowth Soil pH: 4.5 – 8.0 Soil pH: 4.0 – 6.5Light: Full Sun to Part Shade Propagation: Seed, Plug Propagation: Seed, PlugMoisture: Moist to Wet Availability: Good Availability: GoodSoil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Natural habitat: Natural habitat:Soil pH: 6.0 – 7.0 Wet meadows, marshes, Moist rich woods and swales (P, C) floodplains (P)Propagation: Seed, PlugAvailability: Good NotesNatural habitat: One of the best early seasonWet meadows, ditches (P, C) Notes herbaceous bee plants. It While there is limited infor- occurs naturally in Delaware mation available on the beesNotes in moist, rich soils on the that visit this species, relatedThis deer-resistant plant grows piedmont, but may be difficult species of Vernonia in thebest in moist soils that are not to grow on the coastal plain Midwest are visited by atoo acidic. Natural enemies without soil amendments. variety of long-tongued bees,attracted include tachinid flies. Also attracts minute pirate including bumble bees, leaf- bugs, predatory plant bugs;The small seeds are eaten by cutter bees, long-horned bees, dance, tachinid and hoversongbirds, including cardinals and small carpenter bees. flies; lady and soldier beetles;and several species of sparrow. and predatory and parasitic wasps. 13
  • 14. Flowering Periods of Delaware Native Bee PlantsCommon Name Scientifc Name Mar AprBlack Willow Salix nigraRed Maple Acer rubrumCanadian Serviceberry Amelanchier canadensisHighbush Blueberry Vaccinium corymbosumWild Strawberry Fragaria virginianaAmerican Wild Plum Prunus americanaGolden Alexanders Zizia aureaBlack Raspberry Rubus occidentalisBlackhaw Viburnum prunifoliumWild Blue Lupine Lupinus perennisCockspur Hawthorn Crataegus crus-galliBlackgum Nyssa sylvaticaBlack Cherry Prunus serotinaNorthern Dewberry Rubus flagellarisTall White Beard-tongue Penstemon digitalisSilky Dogwood Cornus amomumCommon Milkweed Asclepias syriacaYellow Wild Indigo Baptisia tinctoriaSwamp Milkweed Asclepias incarnataBlack-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirtaBlue Vervain Verbena hastataButtonbush Cephalanthus occidentalisWild Bergamot Monarda fistulosaWinged Sumac Rhus copallinumOx-eye Sunflower Heliopsis helianthoidesPartridge Pea Chamaecrista fasciculataSweet Pepperbush Clethra alnifoliaEarly Goldenrod Solidago junceaNew York Ironweed Vernonia noveboracensisSpotted Horsemint Monarda punctataGreat Blue Lobelia Lobelia siphiliticaThree-nerved Joe-pye Weed Eupatorium dubiumGiant Sunflower Helianthus giganteusDense Blazing-star Liatris spicataCommon Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatumRound-head Bush-clover Lespedeza capitataCanada Goldenrod Solidago canadensisNew England Aster Symphyotrichum novae-angliaeHairy Heath Aster Symphyotrichum pilosum 14
  • 15. May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Note: Tree and shrub flowering times are shown in green. Wildflower flowering times are shown in yellow. 15
  • 16. Woody PlantsRed Maple Canadian Serviceberry ButtonbushAcer rubrum Amelanchier canadensis Cephalanthus occidentalisBloom: Red, Mar - Apr Shrub ShrubHeight: 60 - 100 ft. Bloom: White, Apr - May Bloom: White, Jul - Aug Height: 15 - 25 ft. Height: 6 - 12 ft.Attractiveness AttractivenessBees: Good Attractiveness Bees: ModerateNatural Enemies: Bees: Excellent Natural Enemies: GoodLimited data Natural Enemies: Types attracted: BumbleTypes attracted: Limited data bees, digger bees, leaf-cutter Types attracted: Mining bees, long-horned bees, smallMason bees, mining bees, bees, plasterer bees, small carpenter bees, sweat beesplasterer bees, sweat bees carpenter bees, sweat bees GrowthGrowth Growth Light: Full Sun to ShadeLight: Full Sun to Moisture: Moist to Wet Light: Full Sun to ShadePart Shade Soil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Moisture: Moist to WetMoisture: Moist to Wet Soil pH: 6.1 – 8.5 Soil Type: Clay, Loam, SandSoil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Soil pH: 5.6 – 7.5 Propagation: ContainerizedSoil pH: 5.4 – 7.1 Propagation: Containerized SeedlingPropagation: Containerized Seedling Availability: GoodSeedling Availability: Good Natural habitat:Availability: Good Natural habitat: Coastal plain ponds, marshes,Natural habitat: Moist woods, fields, edges (C) wet meadows (P, C)Forests and low ground (P, C) Notes Notes Also called shadbush, this The unusual spherical flowerNotes heads are visited most fre-This fast-growing tree is deer-resistant shrub is a quently by bumble bees andknown for its brilliant red fall highly attractive pollen source leaf-cutter bees that can reachfoliage. Although it is wind- for early spring mining bees the abundant nectar deep insidepollinated, the profuse early and sweat bees. Natural ene- the tubular flower. Minuteseason flowers present nectar mies attracted include hover pirate bugs, dance flies, hoverfor bees at a time when few flies and tachinid flies. The flies and parasitic wasps areother plants are blooming. fruits of Amelanchier species also attracted. The plant needsHover flies are also known to provide food for at least 25 plenty of moisture to thrive, andvisit the flowers. species of eastern birds and can tolerate complete flooding, numerous mammals. often forming thickets at the edge of ponds and wetlands. 16
  • 17. Woody PlantsSweet Pepperbush Silky Dogwood Cockspur HawthornClethra alnifolia Cornus amomum Crataegus crus-galliShrub Shrub ShrubBloom: White, Jul - Sep Bloom: White, Jun – Jul Bloom: White, May - Jun Height: 6 - 10 ft. Height: 20 - 30 ft.Height: 6 - 10 ft. AttractivenessAttractiveness Bees: Excellent AttractivenessBees: Excellent Natural Enemies: Bees: Good Limited data Natural Enemies:Natural Enemies: No data Types attracted: Bumble Limited dataTypes attracted: Bumble Types attracted: Bumblebees, large carpenter bees, bees, large carpenter bees, leaf-cutter bees, mining bees, bees, mining bees, plastererleaf-cutter bees, sweat bees bees, sweat bees plasterer bees, small carpenter bees, sweat beesGrowth GrowthLight: Part Shade to Shade Growth Light: Full Sun to Part ShadeMoisture: Moist to Wet Light: Full Sun to Part Shade Moisture: Dry to MoistSoil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Moisture: Moist to Wet Soil Type: Clay, Loam, SandSoil pH: 4.5 – 7.0 Soil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Soil pH: : 4.5 – 7.2Propagation: Containerized Soil pH: 5.0 – 7.0 Propagation: ContainerizedSeedling Propagation: Containerized SeedlingAvailability: Good Seedling Availability: Good Availability: ModerateNatural habitat: Natural habitat: Natural habitat:Swamps (C) Swamps, wet meadows, Thickets, old fields, low marshes (P, C) ground, floodplains (P, C)Notes NotesThis deer-resistant shrub at- Notes Hawthorns attract a numbertracts large numbers of in- The best available bee records of spring-flying mining beessects. Published records of for this species are from Cornus and sweat bees, as well asbee species are few, but the obliqua, formerly considered a dance flies, hover flies, andplant produces ample nectar. subspecies of C. amomum. As predatory wasps. The thorny many as 20 species of bees haveGrows well in wet places and tree is not preferred by deer, been collected on C. obliqua inhas attractive yellow fall and will grow in a wide range a single day, and it is probablefoliage. The fruits are attrac- of soil types. Hawthorn thick- that C. amomum is similarlytive to birds. ets provide excellent nesting attractive. Hover flies, tachinid cover for a variety of songbirds. flies, and predatory wasps are also visitors. 17
  • 18. Woody PlantsBlackgum American Wild Plum Black CherryNyssa sylvatica Prunus americana Prunus serotinaTree Shrub Tree Bloom: White, Apr - May Bloom: White, May – JunBloom: Green, May - Jun Height: 10 - 30 ft.Height: 60 - 80 ft. Height: 50 - 80 ft. Attractiveness AttractivenessAttractiveness Bees: Excellent Bees: GoodBees: Moderate Natural Enemies: Natural Enemies:Natural Enemies: No data Limited data Limited dataTypes attracted: Bumble Types attracted: Bumble Types attracted: Bumblebees, leaf-cutter bees, mining bees, long-horned bees, min- bees, long-horned bees, min-bees, plasterer bees, sweat ing bees, plasterer bees, small ing bees, plasterer bees, small carpenter bees, sweat bees carpenter bees, sweat beesbees Growth GrowthGrowth Light: Full Sun Light: Full Sun to Part ShadeLight: Full Sun to Part Shade Moisture: Dry to Moist Moisture: Dry to MoistMoisture: Dry to Wet Soil Type: Loam Soil Type: Loam, SandSoil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Soil pH: 5.0 – 7.5 Soil pH: 5.0 – 7.0Soil pH: 4.5 – 6.0 Propagation: Containerized Propagation: ContainerizedPropagation: Containerized Seedling SeedlingSeedling Availability: Good Availability: ModerateAvailability: Good Natural habitat: Natural habitat:Natural habitat: Woods, edges, old fields Thickets, meadows, openWoods (P, C) (P, C) woods (P, C)Notes NotesA survey of the insects visiting Notes A valuable timber tree, and oneblackgum blossoms in Mary- Attractive to spring mining of the foremost wildlife trees inland found 46 bee species. bees and sweat bees, as well the eastern U.S. It attracts aThe tree is moderately palat- as dance flies, hover flies, ta- number of bee species, as wellable to deer and is favored as chinid flies, and predatory and as dance flies, hover flies, and predatory wasps. The fruits arean ornamental for its brilliant parasitic wasps. The fruits are eaten by numerous birds andorange-red autumn color. eaten by many birds, includ- mammals; and while the palata- ing quail, pheasant, robins, bility of the foliage to deer is and woodpeckers. low to moderate, some 200 species of butterflies and moths feed on the tree. 18
  • 19. Woody PlantsWinged Sumac Northern Dewberry Black RaspberryRhus copallinum Rubus flagellaris Rubus occidentalisShrub Woody vine ShrubBloom: Yellow, Jul – Aug Bloom: White, May - Jun Bloom: White, MayHeight: 10 - 25 ft. Height: 2 - 3 ft. Height: 5 - 6 ft AttractivenessAttractiveness Bees: Good AttractivenessBees: Moderate Natural Enemies: No data Bees: ModerateNatural Enemies: Types attracted: Bumble Natural Enemies:Limited data bees, leaf-cutter bees, long- No data horned bees, mason bees, Types attracted: BumbleTypes attracted: Leaf-cutter mining bees, plasterer bees, bees, leaf-cutter bees, long-bees, long-horned bees, plas- horned bees, mason bees,terer bees, sweat bees small carpenter bees, sweat bees mining bees, small carpenterGrowth bees, sweat bees GrowthLight: Full Sun to Part Shade Light: Full Sun to Part Shade GrowthMoisture: Dry Moisture: Dry to Moist Light: Full Sun to Part ShadeSoil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Soil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Moisture: MoistSoil pH: 5.3 – 7.5 Soil pH: 5.0 – 7.0 Soil Type: LoamPropagation: Containerized Propagation: Bareroot, Soil pH: 5.2 – 7.5Seedling Containerized Seedling, Propagation: ContainerizedAvailability: Good Root Cuttings Seedling, BarerootNatural habitat: Availability: Limited Availability: ModerateThickets, old fields, edges Natural habitat: Natural habitat:(P, C) Dry open soils (P, C) Thickets, old fields, edgesNotes Notes (P, C)One of the most common The berries, though small, areshrubs along field margins on edible, and are also eaten by a Notesthe coastal plain, this species wide variety of game birds, Many stem-nesting bee speciesis often abundant enough to song birds, and mammals. The build nests in the canes of thisprovide significant bee forage species is difficult to find com- and other Rubus species. Theyfor sweat bees, the primary mercially, but is common in the hollow out the soft pith andvisitors. All sumacs are ex- wild. All wild blackberries, build chambers in which to laytremely good nesting sites for dewberries, and raspberries their eggs. Black Raspberry isstem-nesting bees. Also at- (genus Rubus) are valuable bee one of many eastern brambles plants and should be encour- that are excellent insect andtracts hover flies, tachinid aged on the farm. wildlife plants.flies, and predatory wasps. 19
  • 20. Woody PlantsBlack Willow Highbush Blueberry BlackhawSalix nigra Vaccinum corymbosum Viburnum prunifoliumTree Shrub ShrubBloom: Yellow-green, Bloom: White, Apr - May Bloom: White, Apr - MayMar - Apr Height: 6 - 12 ft. Height: 12 - 20 ft.Height: 40 - 60 ft. Attractiveness AttractivenessAttractiveness Bees: Excellent Bees: ExcellentBees: Excellent Natural Enemies:Natural Enemies: No data Natural Enemies: Limited dataTypes attracted: Bumble Types attracted: Bumble Limited databees, mining bees, plasterer Types attracted: Long- bees, mason bees, mining horned bees, mason bees,bees, small carpenter bees,sweat bees bees, plasterer bees, small mining bees, plasterer bees, carpenter bees small carpenter bees, sweatGrowth bees GrowthLight: Full Sun to Part Shade Light: Full Sun to Part ShadeMoisture: Moist to Wet Growth Moisture: Moist to WetSoil Type: Clay, Loam, Sand Light: Full Sun to Shade Soil Type: Clay, Loam, SandSoil pH: 4.8 – 8.0 Moisture: Dry to Wet Soil pH: 4.7 – 7.5Propagation: Containerized Soil Type: Clay, Loam Propagation: ContainerizedSeedling Soil pH: 4.8 – 7.5 SeedlingAvailability: Good Propagation: Containerized Availability: GoodNatural habitat: Seedling Natural habitat:Marshes, wet meadows, Availability: Good Swamps and wet woods (P, C)ditches (P, C) Natural habitat: Notes Rich woods, thickets, edgesNotes Blueberries are pollinated pri- (P, C)Early season mining bees andsweat bees depend on willow marily by buzz-pollinatingpollen as a major food source. bumble bees. This species is a good choice for plantings in NotesThe tree is also very attractive This species is highly attractiveto dance, hover, and tachinid Delaware, but all Vaccinum to short-tongued bees, espe-flies, and hosts a surprising di- species are valuable for early cially mining bees, and alsoversity of butterfly and moth season bees. Hover flies also attracts good numbers of preda-caterpillars. Other species of visit the flowers, and the fruits tory hover flies, dance flies andwillows are also valuable, but are eaten by at least 30 species tachinid flies. It grows well in aBlack Willow is readily avail- of birds. broad range of soils, and likeable and does well in most any other Viburnum species, is atwet site. Deer palatability is least moderately deer resistant.low to moderate. 20
  • 21. Plants for Wet and Dry SitesBee Plants for Wet Areas (Ditches, swamp edges, wet meadows)Swamp Milkweed Asclepias incarnataThree-nerved Joe-pye Weed Eupatorium dubiumCommon Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatumGiant Sunflower Helianthus giganteusGreat Blue Lobelia (piedmont) Lobelia siphiliticaNew England Aster Symphyotrichum novae-angliaeBlue Vervain Verbena hastataNew York Ironweed Vernonia noveboracensisRed Maple Acer rubrumCanada Serviceberry Amelanchier canadensisButtonbush Cephalanthus occidentalisSweet Pepperbush (coastal plain) Clethra alnifoliaSilky Dogwood Cornus amomumBlack Willow Salix nigraBee Plants for Dry Areas (Sandy soils and drought prone areas)Common Milkweed Asclepias syriacaYellow Wild Indigo Baptisia tinctoriaPartridge Pea Chamaecrista fasciculataRound-head Bush Clover Lespedeza capitataWild Blue Lupine (coastal plain) Lupinus perennisWild Bergamot Monarda fistulosaSpotted Horsemint (coastal plain) Monarda punctataWinged Sumac Rhus copallinumNorthern Dewberry Rubus flagellaris 21
  • 22. Scientific NamesScientific Names of the Bees and Other Insects Listed in this BookletCommon Name Family Tribe GeneraBees:Bumble bees Apidae Bombini BombusDigger bees Apidae Anthophorini Anthophora, Habropoda, SvastraLarge carpenter bees Apidae XylocopaLeaf-cutter bees Megachilidae Megachile, Anthidium, Anthidiellum, and othersLong-horned bees Apidae Eucerini Melissodes, Synhalonia, EuceraMason bees Megachilidae Osmiini Osmia, HoplitisMining bees Andrenidae Andrena, Calliopsis, Perdita and othersPlasterer bees Colletidae Colletes, HylaeusSmall carpenter bees Apidae CeratinaSweat bees Halictidae All Halictus, Agapostemon, Lasioglossum, and othersNatural Enemies:Lacewings Chrysopidae Braconidae, Chalcididae, Cynipidae,Parasitic wasps Ichneumonidae, and many othersPredatory wasps Vespidae, SphecidaeDance flies EmpididaeHover flies SyrphidaeLong-legged flies DolichopodidaeTachinid flies TachinidaeMinute pirate bugs Anthocoridae Orius and others 22
  • 23. More InformationA companion booklet, Farm Management for Native Bees: a Guide for Delaware, is availablefrom the Delaware Department of Agriculture. Contact them at the address listed on page 26 toobtain a copy, or visit the website: http://dda.delaware.gov/plantind/pollinator.shtmlBee Use of Native Plants:Brooklyn Botanic Gardens New York Metropolitan Flora Project, Metropolitan Plant Encyclopedia www.bbg.org/sci/nymf/encyclopedia/index.htmlEnhancing Beneficial Insects with Native Plants (MI). http://nativeplants.msu.eduInsect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers www.shout.net/~jhilty/Loose, J.L., F.A. Drummond, C. Stubbs, S. Woods and S. Hoffman. 2005. Conservation and management of native bees in cranberry. Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 191. Orono, ME: University of Maine. www.umaine.edu/mafes/elec_pubs/techbulletins/tb191.pdfNAPPC Pollinator Conservation Digital Library http://libraryportals.com/PCDLChoosing Native Plants:Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Database www.wildflower.org/plants/Missouri Botanical Garden’s Kemper Center For Home Gardening Plantfinder www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/NRCS Plants Database: http://plants.usda.gov/Regional Resources:Delaware Native Plant Society (DNPS) www.delawarenativeplants.orgDelaware Native Plant Society. 2005. Delaware native plants for landscaping and restoration: recommended species for the property owner and land steward. 2nd ed. DNPS. 21 pp.McAvoy, W.A. and K.A. Bennett. 2001. The flora of Delaware: an annotated checklist. Dover, DE: Delaware Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Division of Fish and Wildlife. 265 pp. Available for purchase at: www.dnrec.state.de.us/fw/floraform.pdfUniversity of Delaware Cooperative Extension Native Plant Publications http://ag.udel.edu/extension/horticulture/index.htmMaryland Native Plant Society (MNPS) www.mdflora.orgAdkins Arboretum: www.adkinsarboretum.org 23
  • 24. More InformationRegional Resources:US Fish and Wildlife Service Bayscapes Program www.fws.gov/chesapeakebay/Bayscapes.htmNative Plant Society of New Jersey: www.npsnj.orgPennsylvania Native Plant Society (PNPS) www.pawildflower.orgBowman’s Hill Wildflower Preserve: www.bhwp.orgVirginia Native Plant Society (VNPS): http://vnps.orgVirginia Natural Heritage Program Native Plant Lists www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/nativeplants.shtmlPlanting for Pollinators:The Xerces Society provides a wealth of information on pollinator conservation at their website: www.xerces.orgMacCulloch, Bonnie. 2007. Farming for Native Bees in Delaware. Dover, DE: Delaware Department of Agriculture. Available from: http://dda.delaware.gov/plantind/pollinator.shtmlVaughan, M., M. Shepherd, C. Kremen and S.H. Black. 2007. Farming for Bees: Guidelines for Providing Native Bee Habitat on Farms. 2nd ed. www.xerces.org/pubs_merch/Farming_for_Bees.htmVaughan, M. and S.H. Black. 2006. Agroforestry Note 33: Improving Forage For Native Bee Crop Pollinators. USDA National Agroforestry Center. www.unl.edu/nac/agroforestrynotes/an33g07.pdfEstablishment and Maintenance of Native Plantings:Michigan State University’s Enhancing Beneficial Insects with Native Plants program http://nativeplants.msu.edu/getstarted.htmMichigan DNR Wildflower Planting Guide www.dnr.state.mi.us/publications/pdfs/huntingwildlifehabitat/landowners_guide/ Habitat_Mgmt/Backyard/Wildflower_Planting.htmPlanting the Seed: A guide to establishing prairie and meadow communities in southern Ontario www.on.ec.gc.ca/wildlife/docs/doc-planting-prairie-e.htmlWildlife Habitat Fact sheets from Illinois DNR www.in.gov/dnr/fishwild/hunt/facts.htm 24
  • 25. Some Regional Native Plant Suppliers for ConservationProjectsNote: this list includes primarily wholesale suppliers that can provide large quantities of plants andseed to individuals enrolled in cost-share programs. Many additional retail native plant nurseries andgarden centers sell native plants in smaller quantities to homeowners and gardeners. Consult your localnative plant society or search the internet to locate additional suppliers.American Native Plants John S. Ayton State Tree Pinelands Nursery, Inc.4812 E. Joppa Road Nursery 323 Island RoadPerry Hall, MD 21128 3424 Gallagher Road Columbus, NJ 08022(410) 529-0552, wholesale Preston, MD 21655 (609) 291-9486(443) 552-7022, retail 800/TREESMD (609) 298-8939 fax(410) 529-3883 fax (410) 673-2467 sales@pinelandsnursery.comretailnativeplants@comcast.net (410) 673-7285 fax www.pinelandsnursery.comwww.americannativeplants.net anursery@dnr.state.md.usChesapeake Natives www.dnr.state.md.us/forests/annwing@ nursery/ Redbud Native Plantchesapeakenatives.org Nurserywww.chesapeakenatives.org/ North Creek Nurseries 1214 Middletown Road 388 North Creek Rd. Glen Mills, PA 19342Environmental Concern, Inc. Landenberg, PA 19350 (610) 358-4300P.O. Box P (877) ECO-PLUG (610) 358-3330 fax201 Boundary Lane (610) 255-4762 fax catheris@mindspring.comSt. Michael’s, MD 21663 order@northcreeknurseries.com www.redbudnativeplantnurs-(410) 745-9620 www.northcreeknurseries.com ery.com(410) 745-4066 faxhorticulture@wetland.org New Moon Nursery Sylva Native Nursery &www.wetland.org 13 Ways Lane Seed Co.Ernst Conservation Seeds Kennett Square, PA 19348 3815 Roser Road9006 Mercer Pike (888) 998-1951 Glen Rock, PA 17327Meadville, PA 16335 (888) 998-1952 fax (717) 227-0486(800) 873-3321 info@newmoonnursery.com (717) 227-0484 fax(814) 336-5191 fax www.newmoonnursery.com sylvanat@aol.comernst@ernstseed.com www.sylvanative.comwww.ernstseed.com Octoraro Native Plant Nursery Temple UniversityGo Native Tree Farm 6126 Street Rd. Propagation Center2310 Chestnut View Drive Kirkwood, PA 17536 580 Meetinghouse RoadLancaster PA 17603(717) 399-0195 (717) 529-3160 Ambler, PA 19002(717) 380-1489 mobile (717) 529-4099 fax (215) 283-1330www.gonativetrees.com mail@octoraro.com www.OCTORARO.com 25
  • 26. Contacts for Information on Cost-share and TechnicalAssistance Programs:DNREC:Shelley TovellPrivate Lands BiologistDNREC Division of Fish and Wildlife6180 Hay Point Landing RoadSmyrna, DE 19977Phone: 302-735-3600Email: Shelley.Tovell@state.de.usUSDA NRCS:Kent County Agriculture Center800 Bay Road, Suite #2Dover, Delaware 19901-4667Phone: 302-741-2600Fax: 302-741-0341Georgetown Agriculture Center21315 Berlin Road, Unit #3Georgetown, Delaware 19947Phone: 302-856-3990Fax: 302-856-4381New Castle Agriculture Center2430 Old County RoadNewark, DE 19791Phone: 302-832-3100Fax: 302-834-0783DE Department of Agriculture:Faith KuehnPlant Industries AdministratorDelaware Department of Agriculture2320 S. DuPont HighwayDover, DE 19901Phone: 302-698-4500Email: Faith.Kuehn@state.de.usCITATION: Sarver, Matthew J., ed. 2007. Delaware Native Plants for Native Bees. Dover, DE:USDA NRCS and Delaware Department of Agriculture.This booklet was prepared by Matthew Sarver, in collaboration with the DDA Pollinator ProjectTeam: Dewey Caron, Faith Kuehn, Heather Harmon, Bonnie MacCulloch, and Robert Mitchell. 26
  • 27. Photo CreditsAll images that appear in this brochure, except those in the public domain, are the property of the orig-inal photographer and are used here by direct permission or under the terms of the specified license.David G. Smith’s photos of Delaware native plants, used throughout much of this booklet, can be foundon his website: www.delawarewildflowers.orgFront Cover:Top row (l-r): New England Aster, Symphyotrichum novae-angliae, PA DCNR Forestry Archive, Bug-wood.org (Licensed under: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/); Bumble bee (Bombus sp.)on Sweet Pepperbush, Clethra alnifolia, David G. Smith.Middle row: Digger bee, Svastra obliqua on Aster, Symphyotrichum sp., Dan Tenaglia.Bottom row (l-r): Polyester bee, Colletes eulophi on Goldenrod, Solidago sp., Edward Trammel; North-ern Dewberry, Rubus flagellaris, David G. Smith; Blue Vervain, Verbena hastata, David G. Smith.Back Cover:Soldier beetle Chauliognathus sp. and Skipper, Hesperiidae, on native Field Thistle, Cirsium discolor,David G. Smith.Page:1: Large carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica on False Foxglove, Agalinis sp., Dan Tenaglia.2: Sweat bee, Halictidae on Spring Beauty, Claytonia sp., Edward Trammel; Long-horned bee, Melissodes druriella on Golenrod, Solidago sp., Edward Trammel.4: Bee forage planting in Delaware, Randolph Ciurlino.6-20: All photos by David G. Smith except as noted below.9: Dense Blazing-star, Frank Wouters, Wikimedia Commons. Licensed under: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/10: Wild Blue Lupine, Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org; Wild Bergamot, Dan Tenaglia.12: New England Aster, Dan Tenaglia.16: Red Maple, Dan Tenaglia.17: Cockspur Hawthorn, Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1991. Southern wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. South National Technical Center, Fort Worth.18: Black Gum, Jean-Pol Grandmont; American Wild Plum, Quentin Cronk.20: High Bush Blueberry, Quentin Cronk.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:The following people assisted by providing information or data, reviewing the manuscript, or providingtechnical support: Sam Droege, USGS; Sally Griffith-Kepfer, NRCS; John Hilty; Rob Jean and PeterE. Scott, Indiana State University; Doug Landis, Michigan State University; Lauren Morgens; T’aiRoulston, University of Virginia; John Timmons, NRCS; Mace Vaughan, The Xerces Society. Layout:Jennie Hess, State of Delaware Printing and Publishing Office.This booklet was made possible by funding from the USDA Natural Resources ConservationService and the Delaware Department of Agriculture.The data and information in this booklet, Delaware Native Plants for Native Bees, are provided "as is." Delaware Department of Agriculture (DDA)and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) make no warranty, express or implied, to any user including without limitation the im-plied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose of the information in this publication. DDA and NRCS will not be liable forspecial, incidental, consequential, indirect or other similar damages. Reference to commercial products, trade names, organizations, or businessesdoes not imply endorsement by DDA or NRCS or bias against those not mentioned.The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, nationalorigin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic infor-mation, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or a part of an individuals income is derived from any public assistance program. (Notall prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of programinformation (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDAs TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file acomplaint of discrimination write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410 or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202) 720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. 27
  • 28. Notes: 28