Hinduism Three main Gods Brahma Vishnu Shivathe Creator The Preserver The Destroyer!
One True GodBrahman - Means Ultimate Reality - Ultimate essence of material that cannot be realizethrough senses but only through self knowledge (atm jnana) - Not to be confused with Hindu preists known as “Brahmins”All three gods were manifestation of one true God
Caste System Priests and ScholarsWarriors and Brahmin Leaders Kshatriya Farmers, Artisans, Vaishya Traders Slaves Sudra Untouchables
Karma Karma - Moral consequences of a person’s actionsHindus believe in a cycle of rebirth. Upon death, the soul is transformed to a higher, or lower category of being depending on their Karma
Moksha and NirvanaMoksha - End of the cycle of rebirthNirvana - When the soul attains true peace and happinessA person’s goal is to achieve good karma in order to avoid reincarnation Moksha and Nirvana are achieved when one’s sould is completely pure and united with Brahman
Origin- Emerged In India as a protest to Hinduism- Founded by Siddharta Gautama Buddha- Buddha opposed the caste system
Siddharta Gautama Buddha - Son of a wealthy king in Nepal - Forbidden to leave his kingdom by his parents- Prophesy said he would either be a king or a sage- Upon seeing the real world, he decided to leave his kingdom to live a life of piety and asceticism - Meditated under a Bodhi tree for 49 days and experienced enlightenment
DivisionMahayana Buddhism Theravada Buddhism Buddha = GOD Buddha = Teacher Later on, Buddhism was divided into
Vardhamana/Mahavira- A contemporary of Buddha- Also opposed caste system- Also left his family- Became a beggar - Meditated silently for 12 years under a Sala Tree- Achieved “Kevala” in the 13th year
JainismAlso believes in reincarnation and karmaKevala can be attained through right conductIt is forbidden to use force in JainismPeaceful action and non violence = AhimsaAll life on earth is sacred, thus it i forbidden toeat meat.
Sikhism QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressorare needed to see this picture.
Guru NanakFounder of SikhismFirst Guru of sikhismGuru - Descent of divine guidance to mankindthrough the Ten Enlightened MastersBorn in Talvandi, now called Nankana Sahibwhich is in Lahore, Pakistan
GodThe God of the Sikh - niranker or formless.God - akal or eternal.He is the creator, sustainer and destroyerGod cannot be human and cannot beunderstood by mortals.God can be understood through his revelation,his creations.God is everywhere
SikhismGoal of man = destroy the cycle of rebirth andunite with GodIf a person overcomes the five cardinal vices,he will be saved5 cardinal vices - Sexual desire, anger, greed,pride, hedonismSacred scripture - Guru Grant Sahib
JudaismReligion of the Jews/IsraelitesFirst monotheistic religionGod = YahwehYahweh’s teachings are in the Torah/ FirstFive books of the bibleChief Leader of Jews - Moses
YahwehYahweh told the Jews, through Moses, thatCanaan was their promised land.Yahweh gave them a covenant, throughmoses, called the ten commandments.Yahweh told the Jews to obey his teachings orthey would be punishedJews do not believe that Jesus Christ is theirlord and savior.
Jesus ChristFounded ChristianityBelieved by his followers to be the messiahBorn in bethlehemTaught people, performed “miracles”Crucified, resurrected after 3 days.
ChristianityJesus Christ is the essence of ChristianityHoly book - BibleJesus is the son of God and was sent to theworld to live in suffering and poverty and to diefor the sake of mankind only to ressurect andascend to the Father.
MuhammadOne of the prophets of islamUsed to visit a cave to meditateRealized the mysteries of faith, concerninggood and evil.Allah is the only one who should berecognized, praised and thanked.All of Muhammad’s intuitions, experienceswere recorded by his spouse, Khadija, and hisfollowers. This became the Sunnah/Hadith
IslamLiterally means Peace or surrenderFollowers are called MuslimsSacred Scripture - Qur’an/KoranThe doctrine of Islam is based on five pillarsMuslims believe In Jesus Christ as a prophet
Five Pillars1. Shahada - There is one God, Allah, andMuhammad is his messenger.2. Salat - Pray five times a day3. Zakat - Being charitable4. Sawn - The Ramadan5. Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once ina life of a Muslim.
ZoroastrianismFounded by Zoroaster/ ZarathustraSacred Book - Zend AvestaThere are 2 forces; Good and Bad.God of goodness: Ahura MazdaGod of evil: Angra Mainyu/ AhrimanTHERE IS ONE WAY TO FIGHT EVIL,DOING GOOD
ConfucianismFounded By Confucius (chinese- Kong fu-tzu,Kongfuzi, meaning - Master Kung)Confucius wanted to find solutions to solvesociety’s problems.Everyone should have good virtues like:1. Jen - Benevolence2. Yi - Righteousness, Right conduct3. Li - Ritual, ProprietyTeachings of Confucius are contained in FiveClassics
Five Classics1. Classic of Changes - originally used fordivination2. Book of History - collection of speeches anddiscussions3. Classic of Odes - odes and folk songs4. Classic of Rites - discussion of principles ofconduct and description of courtly and privateceremonials5. Spring and Autumn Annals - Chronicle ofthe state of Lu
TaoismFounded by Lao Tze/ Laozi/ Lao Zi/ Lao TzuAccording to some accounts, Lao Zi did notexist. He was made up by Taoist scholars tohave a founder for Taoism.Sacred Scripture - Dao De Jing/ Tao Te ChingTaoists believe that nature has its own courseand path and humans should just go with theflow
TaoismThe purpose of Taoism is to attain balance inthe world. It is symbolized by the yin yangYin - represents females: soft and calmYang - represents males: hard and energeticTaoists believe that immortality can be obtainedby meditating, dieting, yoga, and alchemyTaoists believe that nature is inhabited by GodsThey regard Buddha as one of their Gods
LegalismConfucianism and Taoism failed to end thechaos during the Zhou Dynasty thus Legalismemerged.It is the anti-thesis of ConfucianismFocused on strengthening state and wideningits power.Came from the ideas of Shang yang and HanFeizi
LegalismState is the most importantStrict laws and heavy punishment arenecessaryAdopted as a state religion by Qin DynastyShi Huang Di embraced legalism and orderedto burn all confucian books and execution ofconfucian scholars
Zen BuddhismJapanese sect of BuddhismCame from an Indian monk: Bodhidharma.Later it spread to JapanEmphasis of zen is the attainment ofenlightenment through meditation and selfdiscipline. These characteristics appealed tothe Samurai.
Tibetan Buddhism/Lamaismfrom the word “lamas” meaning the superiorLamas refers to Tibetan monksTibet is a theocracy, Dalai Lama is the spiritualand political leader. Every time a Dalai Lamadies, Tibetans search for the next Dalai Lamawho is believed to be the reincarnation of theprevious.
ShintoIndigenous religion of JapanIn Japanese, it means kami no michi or way ofthe godsIn shinto, kami or sacred spirits areworshippedkami inhabit naturekami can also refer to dead emperors, leaders,samurai and ancestors
ShintoAmeterasu, the sun-goddess, is whom theshintoists worship and regard her as theirprogenitorUntill the end of WWII, the emperor of Japanwas worshipped as a godBuddha was also regarded as a kami
ShamanismReligion of the ancient Mongols and particularlyduring the time of Genghis KhanShaman - Expert who serves intermediariesbetween humans and gods. They cure the sickand exorcise the evil spiritsgod of the ancient Mongols - Tengri; symbolizesblue skyThey also worship guardian spirits, or spirits thatinhabit natureUpon the death of Genghis Khan, He wasregarded as Tengri
AnimismAnima - soul spiritThe world is inhabited by spirits living instones, trees, rivers, mountaine and otherobjects of natureThere are good and bad spiritsPhilippines - anito and diwataMyanmar - natPhi - Laos
AnimismPrayers and offerings to these spirits will blessthe people.Earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions, andother calamities are the result of the anger ofthe spiritsIn addition to natural spirits, Ancestral spiritsare also worshipped