Panhypopituitarism KARA SHAW TAHTIANAH SYNAL IDEAN REZAEI
What it is…The pituitary gland is found at the base of the brain. In panhypopituitarism, the gland produces an insufficient amount of hormones. Figure 1
SymptomsCompression of the tumor on local structures can cause: Blurred vision Loss of visual field Poor temperature control
The different levels of symptomsInsufficient levels of gonadotropins can cause: In premenopausal women: missed menstrual cycles,Infertility In Women , Osteoporosis, vaginal dryness, loss or reduction in female characteristics In men: Impotence, reduced size of testes, decreased production of sperm, Infertility In Men, breast enlargement, reduced muscle mass, loss or reduction in male characteristics (eg, beard growth)
different levels of symptoms (Cont.)Insufficient levels of growth hormone can cause: In children: stunted growth or dwarfism In adults: weakness, Overweight , reduced cardiac output, low blood sugar levels, and reduced exercise tolerance
different levels of symptoms (Cont.)Insufficient levels of thyroid-stimulating hormones can lead to: Hypothyroidism, which causes confusion, hair loss, weakness, slow heart rate, muscle stiffness, intolerance to cold, Constipation, weight gain, and dry skinInsufficient corticotrophic levels can lead to: Underactive adrenal gland, which causes low blood pressure, Hypoglycemia, fatigue, weight loss, vomiting, and low stress tolerance-This can be life-threatening.
different levels of symptoms (Cont.)Excessive prolactin levels can cause:o In women: missed periods, infertility, and milk secretiono In men: reduced facial and body hair, small testes
CausesThis condition is most often caused by damage to the gland. In adults, it is usually a result of pituitary surgery. In children, damage to the pituitary gland may be caused by: Infection Stroke Genetic factors Pituitary Adenoma on or near the pituitary gland
risk factors Damage to the pituitary gland (eg, Trauma, radiation, cancer spread, Postpartum Hemorrhage) Tumor on the pituitary gland
Diagnosed MRI scan -a test that uses magnetic waves to make pictures of structures inside the body Blood tests-Blood tests-to measure pituitary, as well as target gland hormone levels Stimulation tests-to test the maximum capacity of the endocrine glands, usually of the pituitary gland Semen analysis-in males suspected of infertility
TreatmentsFigure 2 The goal is to restore normal blood hormone levels of thyroid, adrenal, estrogen or testosterone, and sometimes growth hormone. Treatment options include: - Hormone replacement therapy-based on what types of hormones are missing - Tumor removal-done if the cause of the damage is a tumor - Radiation therapy -done if the cause of the damage is a cancer or tumor
Background information The anterior pituitary produces the hormones thyrotropin ,corticotropin, luteinizing hormone , follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin . The anterior pituitary is controlled by specific hypothalamic-releasing hormones. The posterior pituitary produces vasopressin antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin.
A 43-Year-Old Male with Untreated Panhypopituitarism due to Absence of the Pituitary Stalk: From Dwarf to Giant. This case shows a particular growth curve with an average growth velocity of 2 cm/yr, resembling patients with estrogen receptor mutation or aromatase deficiency. Figure 3Before Her entire life she had to travel the country visiting various hospitals, having numerous tests and medical procedures. In January 2011 she decided to investigate the possibility of an Electric Stimulator procedure which involves fitting a gastric pacemaker into the stomach. After Figure 4