<ul><li>What is reading? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it involve? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it an active process?  </li></ul><ul...
The little girl ate candies. Her mother slapped her. The little girl cried.
Reading is a Constructive Process <ul><li>Reading may be described as </li></ul><ul><li>“ getting meaning” from written </...
<ul><li>1.) the background knowledge of the </li></ul><ul><li>reader; </li></ul><ul><li>2.) the accuracy with which the </...
Reading involves a transaction between the mind of the reader and the language of the text.
<ul><li>Read the story below in parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop after each sentence and </li></ul><ul><li>ask yourself:  </l...
<ul><li>Tony was on his way to school </li></ul><ul><li>last  Tuesday. </li></ul><ul><li>(  Is he a student? </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>He was really worried about </li></ul><ul><li>the Science lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>(  a teacher? </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Last week, he had a problem </li></ul><ul><li>in controlling the class. </li></ul><ul><li>(  a teacher?  </li></ul...
<ul><li>It was unfair for the Dean to </li></ul><ul><li>leave him in charge. </li></ul><ul><li>(  a teacher?  </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>After all, it is quite unusual to </li></ul><ul><li>ask the janitor to take charge of </li></ul><ul><li>the class....
<ul><li>Were your answers correct? </li></ul><ul><li>Why?   </li></ul><ul><li>Why not?  </li></ul><ul><li>What processes d...
<ul><li>The activity clearly shows that your background knowledge determines what you expect from a text.   </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cognitive Processes:  predicting, hypothesizing, deducing, inferring  and  drawing implications. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Reading is a constructive, interactive process which takes place behind the eyes. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Schema-   the term used to describe </li></ul><ul><li>how people, in general, organize and </li></ul><ul><li>store...
<ul><li>Reading is a language process that involves a dialogue between the reader and the author.  (Widdowson, 1979 as cit...
<ul><li>Learning with texts is a strategic act. </li></ul>
<ul><li>HOW TO RUIN AN ASSOCIATION </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Once upon a time, the Midtown Chapter was one of ...
<ul><li>Thxn, onx morx mxmbxr dxcidxd to givx up his sharx of chaptxr activitixs. This mxant thzt two mxmbxrs hzd to do do...
<ul><li>Top-down processing -   reading </li></ul><ul><li>proceeds from  whole to part ; </li></ul><ul><li>from  inside-ou...
<ul><li>Bottom-up processing-   reading </li></ul><ul><li>proceeds from  part to whole ;  </li></ul><ul><li>from  text to ...
 
<ul><li>In most situations, bottom-up and top-down processes work together to ensure the accurate and rapid processing of ...
Six Types of Knowledge to Make Sense of a Text <ul><li>Syntactic knowledge-   rules that govern the ways words combine to ...
<ul><li>General world knowledge -  this relates to </li></ul><ul><li>the reader’s prior knowledge and </li></ul><ul><li>ex...
<ul><li>Topic knowledge -  this has to do with </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge of a topic, an event, a </li></ul><ul><li>situa...
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Process of Reading

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Process of Reading

  1. 2. <ul><li>What is reading? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it involve? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it an active process? </li></ul><ul><li>Does meaning reside in the text? </li></ul>
  2. 3. The little girl ate candies. Her mother slapped her. The little girl cried.
  3. 4. Reading is a Constructive Process <ul><li>Reading may be described as </li></ul><ul><li>“ getting meaning” from written </li></ul><ul><li>text, and a reader’s skill in </li></ul><ul><li>comprehension depends on three </li></ul><ul><li>things: </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>1.) the background knowledge of the </li></ul><ul><li>reader; </li></ul><ul><li>2.) the accuracy with which the </li></ul><ul><li>reader responds to printed or written </li></ul><ul><li>material; and </li></ul><ul><li>3.) the reader’s understanding of the </li></ul><ul><li>message of the text. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Reading involves a transaction between the mind of the reader and the language of the text.
  6. 7. <ul><li>Read the story below in parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop after each sentence and </li></ul><ul><li>ask yourself: </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Tony? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes me think so? </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Tony was on his way to school </li></ul><ul><li>last Tuesday. </li></ul><ul><li>( Is he a student? </li></ul><ul><li>a teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes you think so? ) </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>He was really worried about </li></ul><ul><li>the Science lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>( a teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>a student? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes you think so? )   </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Last week, he had a problem </li></ul><ul><li>in controlling the class. </li></ul><ul><li>( a teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>a student? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes you think so? ) </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>It was unfair for the Dean to </li></ul><ul><li>leave him in charge. </li></ul><ul><li>( a teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>a student? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes you think so? ) </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>After all, it is quite unusual to </li></ul><ul><li>ask the janitor to take charge of </li></ul><ul><li>the class. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Were your answers correct? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why not? </li></ul><ul><li>What processes did you use </li></ul><ul><li>to arrive at your answers? </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>The activity clearly shows that your background knowledge determines what you expect from a text.   </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Cognitive Processes: predicting, hypothesizing, deducing, inferring and drawing implications. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Reading is a constructive, interactive process which takes place behind the eyes. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Schema- the term used to describe </li></ul><ul><li>how people, in general, organize and </li></ul><ul><li>store information.   </li></ul><ul><li>Schema activation- is the mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>which people access what they know </li></ul><ul><li>and match it to the information in a </li></ul><ul><li>text.   </li></ul><ul><li>Schemata- have been called ‘the </li></ul><ul><li>building blocks of cognition </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Reading is a language process that involves a dialogue between the reader and the author. (Widdowson, 1979 as cited by Hedge, 2000) </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Learning with texts is a strategic act. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>HOW TO RUIN AN ASSOCIATION </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Once upon a time, the Midtown Chapter was one of the most active chapters in the association. It was a smooth-running, efficient organization that enjoyed great prestige in the community. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Then one day, things began to change. One of the members said to himself, &quot;No-one will miss me. I have so many other things to do, I think I'll drop out of the chapter's activities.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>So hx bxgan to avoid chaptxr functions. Hx rxfusxd to accxpt his rxsponsibilitixs, and thx chaptxr had to limp along with onx lxss mxmbxr. Of coursx, thx chaptxr could gxt along without him, but it mxant that onx of thx rxmaining mxmbxrs had to doublx up and do twicx as much work as bxforx. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Thxn, onx morx mxmbxr dxcidxd to givx up his sharx of chaptxr activitixs. This mxant thzt two mxmbxrs hzd to do doublx duty. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Thxn z third mxmbxr droppxd jut, znd thrxx jf thx jthxrs hzd tj wjrk hzrdxr thzn xvxr. </li></ul><ul><li>Thxn z fjurth drjppxd jut, znd mjrx jf qhx rxmzining zctivx mxmbxrs sqzrqxd wjrking hzrdxr thzn xvxr. </li></ul><ul><li>Zs qimx wxnq jn, mzny mjrx jf qhx chzptxr mxmbxrs ljsq inqxrxsq, znd prxqqy sjjn qhx chzptxr wzs bxing run by jnly z fxw mxmbxrs, znd iq ljjkxd likx qhis: Qkj kzqxx kzjxq jxk jzkxqk kqjz xjq kzjx xjz. Zkxq kqx zkkxq, kjz zkzxjqk zkk xkkq xxkziq kzjxq. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Top-down processing - reading </li></ul><ul><li>proceeds from whole to part ; </li></ul><ul><li>from inside-out . </li></ul>The uptake of information is guided by an individual’s prior knowledge and expectations.
  22. 23. <ul><li>Bottom-up processing- reading </li></ul><ul><li>proceeds from part to whole ; </li></ul><ul><li>from text to reader ; or, from </li></ul><ul><li>outside-inside . </li></ul><ul><li>The readers take in stimuli from the outside world -- letters and words, for reading -- and deal with those information with little recourse to higher-level knowledge. </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>In most situations, bottom-up and top-down processes work together to ensure the accurate and rapid processing of information. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Six Types of Knowledge to Make Sense of a Text <ul><li>Syntactic knowledge- rules that govern the ways words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. It helps a reader decode meaning through his knowledge of language features. </li></ul><ul><li>Morphological knowledge - identification, analysis, and description, in a language, of the structure of morphemes and other linguistic units, such as words, affixes, and parts of speech. </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>General world knowledge - this relates to </li></ul><ul><li>the reader’s prior knowledge and </li></ul><ul><li>experiential background. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural knowledge - this is also </li></ul><ul><li>called schematic knowledge and is </li></ul><ul><li>related to the reader’s background </li></ul><ul><li>information of things, people, events </li></ul><ul><li>that make up his sociocultural </li></ul><ul><li>world. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Topic knowledge - this has to do with </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge of a topic, an event, a </li></ul><ul><li>situation that enables the reader to </li></ul><ul><li>make sense of a text. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Genre knowledge - this type of </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge enables a reader to work </li></ul><ul><li>with the language of the text in order </li></ul><ul><li>to interpret its meaning. </li></ul>
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