The Three Mental Operations Exploring the Epistemic Foundations of the Science of Correct Reasoning
The need… <ul><li>Studying logic entails the understanding of how the mind works. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning as a men...
The Framework: Formal Logic <ul><li>ADVANTAGES:  WHY FORMAL AND ARISTOTELICO LOGIC? </li></ul><ul><li>HUMANISTIC IN CHARAC...
Simple Apprehension A PROCEDURE WHERE THE MIND GRASPS A THING WITHOUT AFFIRMING OR DENYING IT. qualities SENSE EXPERIENCE ...
Simple Apprehension IDEA – internal product IDEOGENESIS – birth of an idea ABSTRACTION Stripping off accidents to arrive a...
TREE COCONUT Tree  Coconut ideas Terms Material sign Formal sign Intellectual image/representation of an essence; the buil...
Judgment THE ACT OF THE MIND WHERE TWO APPREHENDED TERMS ARE JOINED THEN AFFIRMED OR DENIED. Materially expressed: spoken/...
Coconut  Tree COCONUTS ARE TREES. MENTAL SENTENCE – internal product <ul><li>PROPOSITION – EXTERNAL PRODUCT </li></ul><ul>...
Reasoning THE ACT OF THE MIND WHERE WE DRAW A CONCLUSION FROM A GIVEN SET OF VALIDLY DRAWN PREMISES. THE MIND PROCEEDS TO ...
ALL TREES ARE TALL ALL COCONUTS ARE TREES Ergo:  ALL COCONUTS ARE TALL. ARGUMENTATION  – internal product - ARGUMENT: grou...
A, B, C ideas A is B. proposition A is B. C is A. : C is B. syllogism
The Acts of the Mind and their Features   1 ST  ACT 2 ND  ACT 3 RD  ACT NAME  Simple Apprehension Judgment Reasoning MENTA...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Logic - Three mental operations

30,435 views
29,654 views

Published on

This is a

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
3 Comments
17 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
30,435
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
78
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
630
Comments
3
Likes
17
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Logic - Three mental operations

  1. 1. The Three Mental Operations Exploring the Epistemic Foundations of the Science of Correct Reasoning
  2. 2. The need… <ul><li>Studying logic entails the understanding of how the mind works. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning as a mental procedure needs to be shown, in a framework coming from the originary Organon - Aristotle. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These mental operations practically presents the Course Plantilla in Formal Logic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarity allows one to understand the procedure and the necessity of undergoing each step so as to achieve the ends of reasoning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Eventual realization of the limits of logic as a tool to truth and validity. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Framework: Formal Logic <ul><li>ADVANTAGES: WHY FORMAL AND ARISTOTELICO LOGIC? </li></ul><ul><li>HUMANISTIC IN CHARACTER. Reasoning comes from man, in his attempt to provide sense in life and his world. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy: advantageous in teaching students from the Humanities, Fine Arts and Social Sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum: provides a paradigm that is consistent with the usual presentation of basic Philosophy Classes: Philosophy of the Human Person and Ethical Systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Never a passé. A paradigm that is ever timely and timeless. Unchanging in substance, flexible in expression. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Simple Apprehension A PROCEDURE WHERE THE MIND GRASPS A THING WITHOUT AFFIRMING OR DENYING IT. qualities SENSE EXPERIENCE external internal COMMON SENSE, MEMORY, IMAGINATION, ESTIMATIVE FACULTY he Acts of the Mind T
  5. 5. Simple Apprehension IDEA – internal product IDEOGENESIS – birth of an idea ABSTRACTION Stripping off accidents to arrive at being. - Physical, Mathematical, Metaphysical TERM – expressed product he Acts of the Mind T q1 q2 q3 External sense Internal sense Idea Term
  6. 6. TREE COCONUT Tree Coconut ideas Terms Material sign Formal sign Intellectual image/representation of an essence; the building blocks knowledge. Word; sensible conventional signs expressive of an idea.
  7. 7. Judgment THE ACT OF THE MIND WHERE TWO APPREHENDED TERMS ARE JOINED THEN AFFIRMED OR DENIED. Materially expressed: spoken/written IDENTITY NON-IDENTITY he Acts of the Mind T
  8. 8. Coconut Tree COCONUTS ARE TREES. MENTAL SENTENCE – internal product <ul><li>PROPOSITION – EXTERNAL PRODUCT </li></ul><ul><li>A statement or a component, standing as one, and is capable of expressing truth/falsity. </li></ul><ul><li>A plausible premise. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reasoning THE ACT OF THE MIND WHERE WE DRAW A CONCLUSION FROM A GIVEN SET OF VALIDLY DRAWN PREMISES. THE MIND PROCEEDS TO CERTAIN KNOWLEDGE BY WAY OF INFERENCE. he Acts of the Mind T
  10. 10. ALL TREES ARE TALL ALL COCONUTS ARE TREES Ergo: ALL COCONUTS ARE TALL. ARGUMENTATION – internal product - ARGUMENT: group of statements that is claimed to provide support one of the others. <ul><li>SYLLOGISM – expressed product. </li></ul><ul><li>Premises: statements setting forth reason/evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: statement that the evidence is claimed to support or imply. </li></ul>
  11. 11. A, B, C ideas A is B. proposition A is B. C is A. : C is B. syllogism
  12. 12. The Acts of the Mind and their Features   1 ST ACT 2 ND ACT 3 RD ACT NAME Simple Apprehension Judgment Reasoning MENTAL PRODUCT Concept Mental Sentence Argument LINGUISTIC EXPRESSION Term Declarative Sentences Paragraph EXAMPLES “ Man”, “Mortal” Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. STRUCTURAL PARTS None, unitary Subject Term, Predicate Term Premises, Conclusion QUESTION ANSWERED What it is. Whether it is. Why it is. ASPECT OF REALITY Essence Existence Cause GOOD WHEN Clear True Valid HOW TO ACHIEVE Definition of terms No one way. Rules of Logic BAD WHEN Unclear False Invalid, Fallacious QUESTION TO HABITUALLY ASK What do you mean? (Define your terms) What is your point? (State your conclusion.) Why? (Prove it)

×