Distribution Channels reach CustomersBharathidasan Institute of Management                                         Channel...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management                          Think about it!          What consumer trends have         ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • Primary purpose: creation of    time and place utility  • Extremely complex proce...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management                        •Channel needs to be managed                        to work  ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management       Manufacturers                                                      Selling Dir...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • Exchange: sale of the product to    various members of the distribution    channe...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management •   Barter to industrial specialization in     goods products to service products • ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management    • Multiple linkages that tie      channel members and      other agencies togethe...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management                                        © 2006 YLK
Bharathidasan Institute of Management     Movement of the physical      product from the manufacturer      through all the...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management     Institutions      associated with the      actual exchange      process         ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management     Shows the      movement of      title through      the channel                  ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management    Identifies the    individuals who    participate in the    flow of information   ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management      As technologies advance,      information channels will      offer more precise...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management     Flow of persuasive     communication in the     form of advertising,     persona...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management     • Producer of the product –       craftsman, manufacturer,       farmer or other...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   • Transactional: buying,     selling, risk assumption   • Logistical: assembly,   ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management    • While channel institutions can be eliminated or substituted, the      functions...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • Analyze the customer  • Establish objectives  • Specify distribution tasks  • Eva...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Whom to sell the merchandise   immediately? • Who is the ultimate buyer and   user...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management• Growth in sales: reach new markets,  and/or increase sales in existing one• Mainten...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   • Fully identify tasks, define how     tasks can change with situation,     assign...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   Bases:   • Number of levels: two to     several   • Intensity of the levels:     a...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  Number of LevelsZero-levelOne-level                                             Ret...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management      • Exclusive: single/few outlets; high dealer loyalty, sales        support; gre...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   • Selecting the channel     members   • Training the channel     members   • Motiv...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management• Passive to active; very negative, based on  fear and punishment, to very positive, ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • Role: clearly defining role/tasks    prescriptions of various participants    and...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Sales popular criteria: current   vs. historical; comparison with   other members;...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management    • Conventional      channels    • Vertical Marketing      systems    • Horizontal...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   • Group of independent     businesses, each     motivated by profit,     having li...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Solution to problems of   conventional networks • When a member (usually   the man...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management    Conventional Channel      Functions   Vertical Marketing System   Functions      ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management     • Administered: informally guided by goals and       programs developed by one o...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • When two or more companies    do not have the capital,    technical or production...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management        • Members and non-members        • Members perform negotiation functions, par...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • Firms extract, grow or    make products; vary in    size from one-person    opera...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   • All activities needed to     market consumer goods,     services to the ultimate...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • Department stores: wide    product mixes e.g., hardware,    clothing, each produc...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management         • Large, self-service stores with           central checkout facilities;    ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   • Cut-rate retailers e.g., Walmart   • Emphasis on price as the main     sales app...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   Warehouse:                                        Franchise:   • Relatively new ty...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management    • Wide assortment of products, many alternatives in      one location    • Region...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management                        •Local clusters: shopping                        districts gr...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • In-home selling:    pre-select prospects,    cold calls e.g., Avon  • Demonstrati...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • Mail order: product    description through flyer,    catalog convenience, larger ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  Coin-operated, self-   service machines,   variety of products,   services at   con...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   •   Commercial online channels: both       retailer and consumer need computer    ...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management                           Think about it!   • Retailers are developing a web     pre...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • All activities required to    market goods, services to    businesses, institutio...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management    • Warehousing: receiving, storing, packaging    • Inventory control and order pro...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management     • Full-service merchandise: general, limited-line     • Limited service merchant...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • Take title to the    merchandise; assume    the risk involved in an    independen...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management   • Do not take title to the     merchandise; bring buyers and     sellers together;...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management    • Owned directly by the manufacturers;      performs wholesaling functions for th...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management  • Provide the bridge between    production activities and    markets that are spati...
Bharathidasan Institute of Management    • Defining the physical      distribution (P.D.) standards      that channel memb...
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  • Summary Overview Logistics is the transporting, storing, and handling of goods to match target customers’ needs with a firm’s marketing mix. Physical distribution (PD) is another name for logistics. Whenever the product includes a physical good, Place requires decisions about logistics. Key Issues Physical distribution provides time and place utility and makes possession utility possible. Physical distribution activities typically make up half or more of total marketing costs. By making physical distribution more efficient, an organization can increase its profits, cut prices, improve service, or achieve some combination of all three. An example of how marketers made physical distribution more efficient in the grocery industry is through a system called Efficient Customer Response (ECR). This complex system involves collaboration among many supermarket chains and producers, and the use of technology to streamline transactions. ECR has resulted in savings to U. S. consumers of about $30 billion per year. Discussion Question: What consumer trends have contributed to an increased emphasis on physical distribution as an element of Place? This slide relates to material on p. 321.
  • Place

    1. 1. Distribution Channels reach CustomersBharathidasan Institute of Management Channels and Physical Distribution © 2006 YLK
    2. 2. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Think about it! What consumer trends have contributed to an increased emphasis on physical distribution as an element of Place? © 2006 YLK
    3. 3. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Primary purpose: creation of time and place utility • Extremely complex process, often the only element of marketing where cost savings still possible • Channel selection is a dynamic part of marketing planning © 2006 YLK
    4. 4. Bharathidasan Institute of Management •Channel needs to be managed to work •Composed of individuals and groups with unique traits that may conflict, may need to be motivated © 2006 YLK
    5. 5. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Manufacturers Selling Directly 40 Contact Lines Retailers Manufacturers Selling Through One Wholesaler Wholesaler Retailers 14 Contact Lines Manufacturers Selling Through Two Wholesalers Wholesalers 28 Contact Lines Retailers © 2006 YLK
    6. 6. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Exchange: sale of the product to various members of the distribution channel • Physical distribution: moves products through the exchange channel, simultaneously with title and ownership • Key role: satisfying customer’s and achieving profit for the firm • Customer satisfaction: maximizing time and place utility to the organization’s suppliers, intermediate and final customers © 2006 YLK
    7. 7. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Barter to industrial specialization in goods products to service products • Marketing channel: sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product/service available for use/consumption; providing a payment mechanism for the provider • Institutions: some under producer’s control, some not; but all must be recognized, selected, integrated into efficient arrangement • Process: continuous management, monitoring, reappraisal • Objectives: make an acceptable profit © 2006 YLK
    8. 8. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Multiple linkages that tie channel members and other agencies together • Product • Negotiation • Ownership • Information • Promotion © 2006 YLK
    9. 9. Bharathidasan Institute of Management © 2006 YLK
    10. 10. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Movement of the physical product from the manufacturer through all the parties who take physical possession of the product until it reaches the ultimate consumer © 2006 YLK
    11. 11. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Institutions associated with the actual exchange process © 2006 YLK
    12. 12. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Shows the movement of title through the channel © 2006 YLK
    13. 13. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Identifies the individuals who participate in the flow of information either up or down the channel. © 2006 YLK
    14. 14. Bharathidasan Institute of Management As technologies advance, information channels will offer more precise delivery of a message. Can you identify an emerging information distribution channel? © 2006 YLK
    15. 15. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Flow of persuasive communication in the form of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and public relations © 2006 YLK
    16. 16. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Producer of the product – craftsman, manufacturer, farmer or other extractive industry producer • User of the product – individual, household, business buyer, institution, government • Certain middlemen at the wholesale or retail level © 2006 YLK
    17. 17. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Transactional: buying, selling, risk assumption • Logistical: assembly, storage, sorting, transportation • Facilitating: post-purchase service and maintenance, financing, information dissemination, channel coordination or leadership © 2006 YLK
    18. 18. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • While channel institutions can be eliminated or substituted, the functions of those institutions cannot be eliminated • All institutional members are part of many channel transactions at any given point in time • Satisfaction of transactions is based on routinization benefits • When available middlemen are incompetent, unavailable or the producer feels he can perform the task better, the best channel arrangement is direct, from the producer to the ultimate user • Service marketers face the problem of delivering their product in the form, at the place and time their customer demands, solutions: banks- ATMs © 2006 YLK
    19. 19. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Analyze the customer • Establish objectives • Specify distribution tasks • Evaluate and select channel alternatives • Evaluating channel member performance • Correct or modify © 2006 YLK
    20. 20. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Whom to sell the merchandise immediately? • Who is the ultimate buyer and user? • Discover buying specifications of the ultimate user e.g., comparison of prices, willingness to bear with inconvenience • Helps to decide on the type of wholesaler or retailer through which a product should be sold • Discover buying specifications of resellers © 2006 YLK
    21. 21. Bharathidasan Institute of Management• Growth in sales: reach new markets, and/or increase sales in existing one• Maintenance or improvement of market share: educate or assist members in their efforts to increase the amount of product they handle• Achieve a pattern of distribution: structure to achieve certain time, place, form, information utilities• Create an efficient channel: improve performance by modifying flow mechanisms © 2006 YLK
    22. 22. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Fully identify tasks, define how tasks can change with situation, assign costs • Provide delivery within a specific period of time • Offer adequate storage space • Provide credit to other intermediaries • Facilitate a product return network • Provide readily available inventory (quantity, type) • Provide for absorption of size and grade obsolescence © 2006 YLK
    23. 23. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Bases: • Number of levels: two to several • Intensity of the levels: actual number of components • Types of intermediaries at each level • Application of selection criterion to channel alternatives © 2006 YLK
    24. 24. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Number of LevelsZero-levelOne-level Retailer Producer ConsumerTwo-level Wholesaler RetailerThree-level Agent Wholesaler Retailer © 2006 YLK
    25. 25. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Exclusive: single/few outlets; high dealer loyalty, sales support; greater control; limits potential sales volume; success dependent on the ability of single intermediary e.g., Pantaloon • Intensive: maximum number of intermediaries; increased sales, recognition, impulse purchasing; low price, margin, small order sizes; difficult to stimulate and control large number of intermediaries e.g., Candies • Selective: intermediary strategy, outlets number dependent on market potential, density of population, dispersion of sales, competitor’s policies; some strengths and weaknesses of the other two; difficult to determine optimal number of intermediaries e.g., Baskin Robbins © 2006 YLK
    26. 26. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Selecting the channel members • Training the channel members • Motivating the Channel Members • Evaluating the channel members • Modifying channel arrangements © 2006 YLK
    27. 27. Bharathidasan Institute of Management• Passive to active; very negative, based on fear and punishment, to very positive, based on encouragement and reward• Manufacturer: if control of the product (merchandising, repair) is critical and if the design and redesign of the channel is best done by the manufacturer• Wholesaler: where the manufacturers and retailers have remained small in size, large in number, relatively scattered geographically, are weak in finance, marketing expertise• Retailer: when product development and demand stimulation are relatively unimportant, personal attention to the customer is important © 2006 YLK
    28. 28. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Role: clearly defining role/tasks prescriptions of various participants and communicating them in order to achieve desired results • Communication: sending and receiving information relevant to operation; detect behavioral problems that inhibit effective flow of information and resolve them • Conflict: personal and direct; often confrontational; manage by establishing mechanisms to detect, appraise the effect of and resolve conflict • Power: willingness to use force in a relationship; means of influencing/controlling behavior of the other party © 2006 YLK
    29. 29. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Sales popular criteria: current vs. historical; comparison with other members; comparison of member’s sales with predetermined quotas • Maintenance of adequate inventory • Selling capabilities • Attitudes of intermediaries toward product • Competition from other intermediary, from other product line carried by manufacturer’s own channel members © 2006 YLK
    30. 30. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Conventional channels • Vertical Marketing systems • Horizontal channel systems © 2006 YLK
    31. 31. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Group of independent businesses, each motivated by profit, having little concern about any other member of the distribution sequence • No all-inclusive goals • Assignment of tasks and evaluation process are totally informal; can create deficiencies © 2006 YLK
    32. 32. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Solution to problems of conventional networks • When a member (usually the manufacturer) assumes a leadership role and attempts to coordinate the efforts of the channel so that mutually beneficial goals like better profits, product exposure, can be attained © 2006 YLK
    33. 33. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Conventional Channel Functions Vertical Marketing System Functions • Design • Make • Brand • Design Manufacturer Manufacturer • Price • Make • Promote • Brand • Sell • Price • Promote • Buy • Stock • Buy • Promote • Stock Wholesaler Wholesaler • Display • Display • Sell • Sell • Deliver • Deliver • Finance • Finance • Buy Retailer • Stock • Promote Retailer • Display • Sell • Deliver • Finance Consumer Consumer © 2006 YLK
    34. 34. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Administered: informally guided by goals and programs developed by one or a limited number of firms in the existing channel; channel captain: administrative skills and power of one individual may be the driving force of the channel e.g., Xerox; problems of polarization • Contractual: members formalize relationship; provides additional control; spells out marketing functions • Corporate: members on different levels are owned and operated by one organization; forward (own various intermediaries ) or backward (retailer who takes over wholesaling and manufacturing ) integration © 2006 YLK
    35. 35. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • When two or more companies do not have the capital, technical or production know- how to effectively market their products alone • Establish temporary or quasi- permanent relationship in order to work with each other to create the channel mechanism needed to reach their target markets © 2006 YLK
    36. 36. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Members and non-members • Members perform negotiation functions, participate in negotiation and/or ownership; non-members do not • Producer and manufacturer • Retailing: department stores, chain stores, supermarkets, discount houses, warehouse retailing, franchises, planned shopping centers/malls • Non-store • Retailing: home-selling, automated vending, mail order, online marketing, catalog marketing, kiosks • Wholesaling: independent, part of vertical marketing system © 2006 YLK
    37. 37. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Firms extract, grow or make products; vary in size from one-person operation to those that employ several thousands people, generate billions in sales • Channel members can be useful in designing, packaging, pricing, promoting of the product through the most effective channels © 2006 YLK
    38. 38. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • All activities needed to market consumer goods, services to the ultimate consumer who are motivated to buy for individual/family needs Sales are also made through means other than stores © 2006 YLK
    39. 39. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Department stores: wide product mixes e.g., hardware, clothing, each product in different sections in the store • Chain stores: large size enable buying of a wide variety of items in large quantity discounts; prices lower than small competitors; convenient locations; increased market share © 2006 YLK
    40. 40. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Large, self-service stores with central checkout facilities; extensive line of food items, often nonfood products • Mass-merchandising, low- cost distribution methods • Availability of large assortments of a variety of goods like food, household cleaning, maintenance products at a minimal price © 2006 YLK
    41. 41. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Cut-rate retailers e.g., Walmart • Emphasis on price as the main sales appeal • Merchandise assortments are broad including hard and soft goods, but limited to most popular items, colors and sizes • Large self-service operations with long hours, free parking, relatively simple fixtures © 2006 YLK
    42. 42. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Warehouse: Franchise: • Relatively new type • Catalog showrooms • Response to largest type e.g., competition from large Costco chain stores • Only sell the products of the franchiser • Operate the business to some extent as the manufacturer wishes • e.g., dealer of Ford © 2006 YLK
    43. 43. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Wide assortment of products, many alternatives in one location • Regional : larger centers that have one or more major department stores as major tenants • Community: moderately sized with junior department stores • Neighborhood: small with the key store a supermarket © 2006 YLK
    44. 44. Bharathidasan Institute of Management •Local clusters: shopping districts grown over time around key intersections, courthouses •String street locations: along major traffic routes •Isolated locations: freestanding sites not necessarily in heavy traffic areas; use promotion to attract shoppers © 2006 YLK
    45. 45. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • In-home selling: pre-select prospects, cold calls e.g., Avon • Demonstration party: one customer acts as host and invites friends e.g., Tupperware © 2006 YLK
    46. 46. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Mail order: product description through flyer, catalog convenience, larger geographic coverage, limited service • Catalog: companies mail one or more product catalogs to select addresses that have a high likelihood of placing an order • Kiosks: “customer-order placing machines” located at airports, stores © 2006 YLK
    47. 47. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Coin-operated, self- service machines, variety of products, services at convenient locations e.g., banking transactions © 2006 YLK
    48. 48. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Commercial online channels: both retailer and consumer need computer and modem; companies set up online information and marketing services that can be assessed by those who have signed up and paid a monthly fee • Internet: global web that allows instantaneous and decentralized global communication; users can send e-mails, exchange views, shop for products, access real-time news; marketers can use e-mails, participate in forums, newsgroups, bulletin boards, place ads online, create electronic storefront © 2006 YLK
    49. 49. Bharathidasan Institute of Management Think about it! • Retailers are developing a web presence, and moving from a “brick-and-mortar” to a “click- and-mortar” business model. • Can you identify any potential problems for these companies? Can you identify any unique marketing opportunities that such a change would offer these companies? © 2006 YLK
    50. 50. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • All activities required to market goods, services to businesses, institutions, industrial users motivated to buy for resale or to produce and market other goods, services e.g., a bank buying computer for data processing © 2006 YLK
    51. 51. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Warehousing: receiving, storing, packaging • Inventory control and order processing: track physical inventory, manage its composition and level, process transactions • Transportation: arranging physical movement of goods • Information: supplying information about markets to producers and about products and suppliers to buyers • Selling: personal contact with buyers • Planning, financing, developing marketing mix © 2006 YLK
    52. 52. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Full-service merchandise: general, limited-line • Limited service merchant: cash and carry, rack jobbers, drop shippers, mail orders • Agents and brokers: agents – buying agents, selling agents, commission merchants, manufacturer’s agents; brokers – real estate, food, other products • Manufacturer’s sales • Facilitator: warehouses, finance companies, transportation companies, trade marts © 2006 YLK
    53. 53. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Take title to the merchandise; assume the risk involved in an independent operation; buy and resell products; offer a complete range of services • Same as full but offer a limited range of services © 2006 YLK
    54. 54. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Do not take title to the merchandise; bring buyers and sellers together; negotiate the terms of the transactions • Agents merchants represent either the buyer or seller, usually on a permanent basis • Brokers bring parties together on a temporary basis © 2006 YLK
    55. 55. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Owned directly by the manufacturers; performs wholesaling functions for the manufacturer • Perform some specialized functions such as financing or warehousing; to facilitate the wholesale transactions; may be independent or owned by producer or buyer © 2006 YLK
    56. 56. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Provide the bridge between production activities and markets that are spatially and temporally separated • Process of strategically managing the movement and storage of materials, parts, finished inventory from suppliers, between enterprise facilities, and to customers • Valuable marketing tool to stimulate consumer demand © 2006 YLK
    57. 57. Bharathidasan Institute of Management • Defining the physical distribution (P.D.) standards that channel members want • Making sure the proposed P.D. program designed by an organization meets the standard of channel members • Selling channel members on P.D. programs • Monitoring the results of P.D. once it has been implemented © 2006 YLK

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