Leadership new

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  • Leadership new

    1. 1. Leadership and Followership
    2. 2. Leadership and FollowershipLeadership – the process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environmentFormal leadership – the officially sanctioned leadership based on the authority of a formal positionInformal leadership – the unofficial leadership accorded to a person by other members of the organizationFollowership – the process of being guided and directed by a leader in the work environment
    3. 3. Kotter: Management and LeadershipManagement – Reduces uncertainty – Stabilizes organizationsLeadership – Creates uncertainty – Creates change
    4. 4. Kotter: Management and LeadershipManagement Characteristics – Planning and budgeting – Organizing and staffing – Controlling and problem solvingLeadership Characteristics – Setting a direction for the organization – Using communication to align people with that direction – Motivating people to action through empowerment and basic need gratification
    5. 5. Leadership vs. Management Leaders and managers – Have distinct personalities – Make different contributionsLeaders agitate for Managers advocate for change and new stability and approaches status quo Both make valuable contributions Each one’s contributions are different
    6. 6. Leaders and Managers Personality Manager Leader Dimension Attitudes Impersonal, passive, Personal, active; goals arise toward goals functional; goals arise out from desire and imagination of necessity and realityConceptions of Combines people, ideas, Looks for fresh approaches work things; seeks moderate to old problems; seeks high- risk, enables process risk with high payoffsRelationships Prefers to work with Comfortable in solitary work; with others others; avoids close and encourages close, intense intense relationships, relationships; not averse to avoids conflicts conflict Sense of self Born once; accepts life as struggles for sense of order it is; unquestioning questions life
    7. 7. Early Trait Theories• Distinguished leaders by – Physical attributes – Personality characteristics – Social skills and speech fluency – Intelligence and scholarship – Cooperativeness – Insight• Early trait theory research resulted in controversial findings
    8. 8. Leadership BehavioralTheory: Lewin Studies Autocratic Style – the leader uses strong, directive, controlling actions to enforce the rules, regulations, activities, and relationships; followers have little discretionary influence Democratic Style – the leader takes collaborative, reciprocal, interactive actions with followers; followers have high degree of discretionary influence Laissez-Faire Style – the leader fails to accept the responsibilities of the position; creates chaos in the work environment
    9. 9. Leadership BehavioralTheory: Ohio State StudiesInitiating Structure – leader behavioraimed at defining and organizing workrelationships and roles; establishing clearpatterns of organization, communication,and ways of getting things doneConsideration – leader behavior aimedat nurturing friendly, warm workingrelationships, as well as encouragingmutual trust and interpersonal respectwithin the work unit
    10. 10. Leadership BehavioralTheory: Michigan Studies Production-Oriented Leader • Constant leader influence • Direct or close supervision • Many written or unwritten rules and regulations • Focus on getting work done Employee-Oriented Leader • Relationship-focused environment • Less direct/close supervision • Fewer written or unwritten rules and regulations • Focus on employee concern and needs
    11. 11. Leadership Grid Definitions• Leadership Grid – an approach to understanding a leader’s or manager’s concern for results (production) and concern for people• Organization Man (5,5) – a middle-of- the-road leader High Concern for 5,5 People Low Low High Concern for Production
    12. 12. Leadership Grid Definitions• Authority Compliance Manager (9,1) – a leader who emphasizes efficient production• Country Club Manager (1,9) – a leader who creates a happy, comfortable work environment High 1,9 Concern for People Low 9,1 Low High Concern for Production
    13. 13. Leadership Grid Definitions• Team Manager (9,9) – a leader who builds a highly productive team of committed people• Impoverished Manager (1,1) – a leader who exerts just enough effort to get by High 9,9 Concern for People Low 1,1 Low High Concern for Production
    14. 14. Leadership Grid Definitions• Paternalistic “father knows best” Manager (9+9) – a leader who promises reward and threatens punishmentOpportunistic “what’s in it for me” Manager (Opp) – a leader whose style aims to maximize self benefit
    15. 15. Fiedler’s Contingency TheoryFiedler’s Contingency Theory – classifies theleaders need structure and favorableness of theleader’s situation (task oriented or relation ship) Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) – the person a leader has least preferred to work with over his or her career – Task Structure – degree of clarity, or ambiguity, in the group’s work activities – Position Power – authority associated with the leader’s formal position in the organization – Leader–Member Relations – quality of interpersonal relationships among a leader and group members
    16. 16. Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative Decision Model Decide Use the decision Consult individually method mostappropriate Consult groupfor a given decision Facilitate situation Delegate
    17. 17. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership® Model Leader Behavior (high) S3 S2 Share ideas Explain g Se Relationship Behavior tin and facilitate decisions llin ipa In decision and provide g(Supportive Behavior) tic making opportunity r Pa for High-Rel High Task clarification Low Task High-Rel Low-Rel High Task Low Task Low-Rel g tin S4 S1 ga Te le llin Turn over Provide specific De g responsibility instructions and for decisions closely supervise and implementation performance (low) ® (low) Task Behavior (high) (Directive Behavior)
    18. 18. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership® Model Follower Readiness High Moderate Low R4 R3 R2 R1 Able and Able but Unable but Unable willing or unwilling willing or and confident or confident unwilling insecure or insecure Follower Leader Directed Directed
    19. 19. Developments in Leadership Theory Leader–Member ExchangeIn-groups Out-Groups• Members similar to • Managed by formal rules and leader policies• Given greater • Given less attention; fewer responsibilities, rewards, rewards attention • Outside the leader’s• Within leader’s inner circle of communication circle communication • More likely to retaliate against• High job satisfaction and the organization organizational commitment, • Stress from being left low turnover out of communication• Stress from added network responsibilities
    20. 20. Developments in Leadership TheoryTransformational Leadership As a transactional leader, I use formal rewards and punishments. As a transformational leader, I inspire and excite followers to high levels of performance.
    21. 21. Charismatic Leadership• Charismatic Leadership – the use, by a leader, of personal abilities & talents in order to have profound & extraordinary effects on followers• Charisma – means gift in Greek• Potential for high achievement and performance• Potential for destructive and harmful courses of action
    22. 22. Emerging Issues in Leadership Emotional Intelligence Trust Women Leaders Servant Leadership
    23. 23. Emergence of Women Leaders
    24. 24. Five Types of Followers Independent, critical thinking Alienated Effective followers followers Survivors Passive Active Yes Sheep people Dependent, uncritical thinkingSOURCE: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. From “In Praise of Followers,” by R. E. Kelley, Vol. 66, 1988, p. 145. Copyright © 1988 byHarvard Business School Publishing Corporation.
    25. 25. Dynamic Follower• Responsible steward of his or her job• Effective in managing the relationship with the boss• Practices self- management
    26. 26. Cultural Differences in Leadership Essential for Leadership leaders to viewed understand differently other culturesacross cultures Leaders need to alter approaches when crossing national boundaries
    27. 27. Guidelines for Leadership• Unique attributes, and talents of each leader should be appreciated• Organizations should select leaders who challenge but not destroy the organizational culture• Leader behaviors should demonstrate a concern for people; it enhances follower well-being• Different leadership situations call for different leadership talents & behaviors• Good leaders are likely to be good followers
    28. 28. Leadership and Followership Caring Dynamic Leadership Followership go hand-in-hand

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