Management Skills Management SkillsTechnical skillsThe ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise.Conceptual SkillsThe mental ability to analyze and diagnose complexsituations.Human skillsThe ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people,both individually and in groups
Challenges and Opportunities for OB Challenges and Opportunities for OB• Responding to Globalization – Increased foreign assignments – Working with people from different cultures – Coping with anti-capitalism backlash – Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low- cost labor• Managing Workforce Diversity – Embracing diversity – Changing demographics – Implications for managers • Recognizing and responding to differences
Major Workforce Diversity Categories Major Workforce Diversity CategoriesGenderGender National National Disability Disability Origin Origin Age Age Heterogeneous Heterogeneous Community/ Community/ religious mix religious mix Caste Caste Domestic Domestic Partners Partners
Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d)Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d)• Improving Quality and Productivity – Quality management (QM) – Process reengineering• Responding to the Labor Shortage – Changing work force demographics – Fewer skilled laborers – Early retirements and older workers• Improving Customer Service – Increased expectation of service quality – Customer-responsive cultures
Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d)Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d)• Quality management (QM) – The constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes. – Requires employees to rethink what they do and become more involved in workplace decisions.• Process reengineering – Asks managers to reconsider how work would be done and their organization structured if they were starting over. – Instead of making incremental changes in processes, reengineering involves evaluating every process in terms of its contribution.
HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS• Conducted between 1924 and 1930• At Western Electric Company, Hawthorne works in Illinois• Elton Mayo, Harvard Professor• Three stages – conflicting results• Conclusions – novelty of the situation, type of supervision, involvement in the experiment
There Are Few Absolutes in OB There Are Few Absolutes in OBContingency variables Situational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more other variables and improve the correlation x Contingency Variables y
Basic OB Model Basic OB ModelModelAn abstraction of reality.A simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.
A Better Definition OB is the science of understanding,predicting, and managing human behaviour in organizations
Activity What do you think is the single most critical “people”problem facing any organisation (of your choice) today? What is the cause and what are the effects of this problem?Can you analyze the issue at all three (individual, group, and organizational) levels?
What Is Perception, and Why Is What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? It Important?Perception ••People’s behavior is People’s behavior isA process by which based on their based on their individuals organize and perception of what perception of what interpret their sensory reality is, not on reality reality is, not on reality impressions in order to itself. itself. give meaning to their environment. ••The world as it is The world as it is perceived is the world perceived is the world that is behaviorally that is behaviorally important. important.
Factors ThatFactors That Influence Influence Perception Perception
Person Perception: Making Judgments About OthersAttribution TheoryWhen individuals observebehavior, they attempt todetermine whether it isinternally or externallycaused.
Errors and Biases in AttributionsFundamental Attribution ErrorThe tendency to underestimatethe influence of external factorsand overestimate the influenceof internal factors when makingjudgments about the behavior ofothers.
Errors and Biases in AttributionsSelf-Serving Bias (cont’d)The tendency for individuals toattribute their own successesto internal factors while puttingthe blame for failures onexternal factors.
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging OthersSelective PerceptionPeople selectively interpret what they see on thebasis of their interests, background, experience,and attitudes.
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging OthersHalo EffectDrawing a general impressionabout an individual on thebasis of a single characteristicContrast EffectsEvaluation of a person’s characteristics thatare affected by comparisons with otherpeople recently encountered who rank higheror lower on the same characteristics.
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others StereotypingProjection Judging someone on theAttributing one’s own basis of one’s perception ofcharacteristics to other the group to which thatpeople. person belongs.
Specific Applications in Organizations• Employment Interview – Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants.• Performance Expectations – Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.• Ethnic Profiling – A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out—typically on the basis of race or ethnicity—for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation.
Specific Applications in Organizations (cont’d)• Performance Evaluations – Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s job performance.• Employee Effort – Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias.
ActivityYou are a new recruit in an organisation. You do notknow anybody in the organisation. Use your perceptualskills in deciding:- the choice of a friend- a strategy to deal with your boss- in determining the power centres in your organization- in dealing with your subordinates Explain the process of your decision making
What is Personality? Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.Personality Traits Personality PersonalityEnduring characteristics Determinants Determinantsthat describe an • •Heredity Heredityindividual’s behavior. • •Environment Environment • •Situation Situation
The Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)A personality test that taps four characteristics andclassifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. Personality Types Personality Types • •Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) • •Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) • •Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) • •Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J)
The Big Five Model of Personality DimensionsExtroversionSociable, gregarious, and assertiveAgreeablenessGood-natured, cooperative, and trusting.ConscientiousnessResponsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.Emotional StabilityCalm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed,and insecure (negative).Openness to ExperienceImaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism.
Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB• Locus of control• Self-esteem• Self-monitoring• Risk taking• Type A personality
Locus of ControlLocus of ControlThe degree to which people believe theyare masters of their own fate. Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
Self-Esteem and Self-MonitoringSelf-Esteem (SE)Individuals’ degree of likingor disliking themselves.Self-MonitoringA personality trait that measuresan individuals ability to adjust hisor her behavior to external,situational factors.
Risk-Taking• High Risk-taking Managers – Make quicker decisions – Use less information to make decisions – Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations• Low Risk-taking Managers – Are slower to make decisions – Require more information before making decisions – Exist in larger organizations with stable environments• Risk Propensity – Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations.
Personality TypesType A’s1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;3. strive to think or do two or more things at once;4. cannot cope with leisure time;5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.Type B’s1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience;2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments;3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost;4. can relax without guilt.
Personality TypesProactive PersonalityIdentifies opportunities,shows initiative, takesaction, and perseveresuntil meaningful changeoccurs.Creates positive changein the environment,regardless or even inspite of constraints orobstacles.
Achieving Person-Job FitPersonality-Job FitTheory (Holland) Personality Types Personality TypesIdentifies six personalitytypes and proposes that ••Realistic Realisticthe fit between personality ••Investigative Investigativetype and occupational ••Social Socialenvironment determinessatisfaction and turnover. ••Conventional Conventional ••Enterprising Enterprising ••Artistic Artistic
TEAM EXERCISEWhat’s a “Team Personality”?It is the unusual organization today that is not using work teams. But noteverybody is a good team player. This prompts the questions: Whatindividual personality characteristics enhance a team’s performance? Andwhat characteristics might hinder team performance?(a) identify personality characteristics you think are associated with highperformance teams and justify their choices(b) identify personality characteristics you think hinder high performanceteams and justify their choices, and(c) resolve whether it is better to have teams composed of individuals withsimilar or dissimilar traits.