Rand Kannenberg   Theories And Models Of Helping Offenders Change
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Rand Kannenberg Theories And Models Of Helping Offenders Change

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Rand Kannenberg   Theories And Models Of Helping Offenders Change Rand Kannenberg Theories And Models Of Helping Offenders Change Presentation Transcript

  • Theories & Models HELPING Offenders CHANGE By Rand L. Kannenberg
  • Agenda Goals/Objectives After participating in this workshop, you will be able to apply the following theories, models and related topics to helping offenders change.
    • Why do we work in community corrections?
    • Models of Service Delivery
    • Human Services Themes
    • Human Services Purposes
    • Prevention, Intervention, Treatment
    • Continuum of Care
    • Life Cycle/Stages of
    • Psychosocial Development
    • Stages of Change
    • AA’s 12 Steps
    • Behavioral Approach
    • Person-Centered Approach
    • Solution Focused Approach
    • 5 Community Corrections Case Studies
    • How do we help offenders change?
  • WHY do we work in community corrections?
  • Models of Service Delivery
    • Medical
    • based on treatment and cures
    • sees the person diagnosed as sick or diseased
    • probably the oldest model
    • consumers are usually referred to as “patients”
    • Public Health
    • similar to the human welfare perspective
    • solving society’s social problems through prevention is a goal
    • involves improving living conditions for society
    • focused on education, food and water safety and immunization
    • Human Services
    • focus is on individual problem solving
    • populations served include the homeless, drug addicts and prisoners
    • philosophy addresses meeting the needs of the “whole person”
    • requires that clients be actively involved
    Woodside, M. & McClam, T. (1998). An introduction to human services (3rd edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Human Services Themes
    • Problems in Living
    • “ The focus is not on the past but rather on improving the present and changing the future.”
    • Increase in Problems in the Modern World
    • “ Life is complicated by several factors new to the last half of this century.”
    • Self-Sufficiency
    • “ The key to service delivery is providing clients, or consumers of human services, with the opportunity to be self-sufficient.”
    Woodside, M. & McClam, T. (1998). An introduction to human services (3rd edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Human Services Purposes
    • Social Care
    • “ assisting clients in meeting their social needs, with the focus on those who cannot care for themselves.” (e.g., “elderly, children, persons with mental disabilities,” etc.)
    • Social Control
    • “ given to those who cannot provide for themselves.” (e.g., “children, youth, and adults in the criminal justice system”)
    • Rehabilitation
    • “ the task of returning an individual to a prior state of functioning.” (e.g., “veterans, persons with physical disabilities, and victims of psychological trauma,” etc. )
    Woodside, M. & McClam, T. (1998). An introduction to human services (3rd edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Categories of Service in the Addiction Field
    • Prevention
    • goals are to increase the client’s understanding of dangers involved with alcohol and/or other drugs and the potential for his/her abuse or dependence
    • Intervention
    • goals are to increase the client’s awareness of problem(s) with alcohol and/or other drugs and motivate him/her to get help from a support group and/or provider
    • Treatment
    • goals are to develop a relationship with the client, teach the client new skills to correct the problem(s), and to support the client as he/she practices the skills
  • Human Services Continuum of Care
    • Outpatient
    • The client’s problems are manageable, he or she is likely to benefit from problem-focused psychotherapy, and there is a positive support system.
    • Partial
    • Hospitalization
    • The client needs more intensive therapy than outpatient because of severe problems, however, he or she is not in imminent danger to self and/or others, or gravely disabled.
    • Inpatient
    • The client is in imminent danger to self and/or others, or gravely disabled and requires the highest levels of support, structure and safety.
    Woodside, M. & McClam, T. (1998). An introduction to human services (3rd edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Case Study #1 Bob Bob (not the client’s real name) is a thirty-eight year old White male. He is employed as a truck and diesel mechanic for a company owned by his brother. He dropped out of school in the ninth grade. As a teenager he had multiple arrests for theft of auto parts and was placed on probation. He was also assaultive against peers. He is one of seven children. Both parents had problems with alcohol and domestic abuse. His father would regularly drink and drive. Bob has been married four times. He has not been a responsible parent with regards to consistent financial support or visitation with the two children from two of the relationships. He has been arrested for DWAI (twice), Second Degree Assault, Shoplifting, Disturbing the Peace, First Degree Criminal Trespass, Larceny, Driving after Revocation Prohibited (four times), DUI (three times), Eluding a Police Officer, First Degree Sexual Assault, Disturbing the Peace (two times), Threat to Injure Person/Property, Assault, Wrongs to Minors, Intimidating a Witness, Third Degree Assault (twice), Sexual Assault on a Child, Third Degree Sexual Assault, Driving while Habitual Drug User, Driving under Restraint, Domestic Violence (three times), Menacing, Criminal Mischief, Failure to Display Insurance, Reckless Driving and Speeding. As an adult he has used several aliases. He has been repeatedly indifferent to hurting others. He does not have Schizophrenia, or Bipolar Disorder; however, he has been treated for depression and anxiety in the past. He did not attend mental health counseling and stopped taking the medications when he went to jail but “did not notice a difference.” Bob is a chronic alcoholic. He has increased tolerance, quantity and duration; he has been unable to discontinue drinking; he has had legal and social impairments related to the alcohol; and he continued to drink despite the depressive episodes. He has been non-compliant with substance abuse treatment and did not take Antabuse as directed on a regular basis while on probation. Most recently he has been given a direct sentence to community corrections after his fourth conviction for Driving after Revocation Prohibited and has been referred to Resocial Group (TM) for cognitive behavioral treatment that deals with co-occurrence of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Alcohol Dependence. He is also attending “offense specific” (sex offender) treatment and AA meetings. Kannenberg, R. (2001). Sociotherapy for sociopaths (TM) . Lakewood, CO: Criminal Justice Addiction Services.
  • Case Study #2 Gene Gene (not the client’s real name) is a twenty-one year old White male. He dropped out of school in the eighth grade. He does not have a G.E.D. His parents divorced when he was thirteen. He has lived with his father, stepmother and sister where he continued to reside rent-free until his most recent arrest. He has also worked sporadically as a roofer for his father’s business. Gene has never been married and has no children. He denies gang involvement but says all of his friends drink alcohol excessively and use illegal drugs. Gene was adjudicated as a juvenile delinquent for Misdemeanor Theft, Underage Possession of Alcohol, Minor in Possession of Alcohol (twice), and Third Degree Assault. He admits to starting drinking and using drugs when he was fifteen and that before being sentenced for the current charge of Criminal Trespass he used both alcohol and marijuana daily. He states that he was intoxicated at the time of his recent arrest and all he knows is that when he woke up he was in jail. He is diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence and Cannabis Abuse. Adult criminal history includes the following: Harassment, Burglary Two-of a Dwelling, Theft, Second-Degree Burglary, Child Abuse/No Injury/Neglect, and Possession of Paraphernalia. He has been on probation several times and violated the terms and conditions of probation at least twice. He has also served time in county jail. He is now sentenced to a private halfway house and has been placed in Resocial Group (TM) for the treatment of his substance use disorders and Antisocial Personality Disorder (repeated arrests, fighting, impulsivity, carelessness, and lack of remorse). Kannenberg, R. (2001). Sociotherapy for sociopaths (TM) . Lakewood, CO: Criminal Justice Addiction Services.
  • Case Study #3 Susan Susan (not the client’s real name) is a thirty-two year old, Hispanic female. She is currently separated. In the past she has worked as a waitress. She completed the eleventh grade. She got in trouble in school, was aggressive to people her own age and deceitful with family and friends. Susan has two sisters and one brother. Her brother has a history of domestic violence. One of her sisters has also been involved in the criminal justice system. Her parents divorced when Susan was nineteen years old. She blames her father’s problems with violence and alcohol abuse. She had her first child when she was twenty and another child by a different boyfriend four years later. Her current crimes involve stealing money from a cash register and new clothing items from her place of employment; as well as stealing and cashing checks from a housecleaning customer, and stealing the wallet from one of her children’s teachers. Susan pretended to have a seizure when arrested for the last incident described above. She blames the drinking and domestic violence of her ex husband and past boyfriend for her behavior. She has been convicted of Forgery (three counts), Criminal Impersonation, Shoplifting (twice), and Conspiracy to Commit Theft. She has repeatedly lied and used aliases and been unable or unwilling to sustain consistent employment and honor her financial obligations. Susan has Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Alcohol Abuse, Cocaine Abuse and Cannabis Abuse diagnoses. After being sentenced to community corrections her case manager referred her to Resocial Group (TM). Kannenberg, R. (2001). Sociotherapy for sociopaths (TM) . Lakewood, CO: Criminal Justice Addiction Services.
  • Case Study #4 Clinton Clinton (not the client’s real name) is a twenty-two year old Hispanic male. He is single. His only employment history is doing a variety of jobs that his grandfather paid him for. He stopped going to school in the tenth grade. He is working on his GED currently. He was adjudicated as a juvenile (starting at the age of 14) for Criminal Mischief (twice), Second Degree Burglary, Criminal Conspiracy, Third Degree Assault, and Possession of Marijuana under Eight Ounces. His father moved out of the family home when Clinton was thirteen and even though his mother had custody he lived with his maternal grandmother. Three years later (when Clinton was sixteen), his father was stabbed and killed by the woman he was living with at the time. Clinton also started using marijuana when he was sixteen (about three times a week per self-report). Marijuana continues to be his current drug of choice. As an adult he has been arrested for Making a False Report, Conspiracy, Possession of Drug Paraphernalia, Criminal Mischief and Auto Theft. He has been sentenced to community corrections for his Auto Theft conviction. He has been referred to Resocial Group (TM) for the Cannabis Abuse and Antisocial Personality Disorder (primary problem areas have been identified as chronic and continuous lying, carelessness, irresponsibility and lack of remorse). Kannenberg, R. (2001). Sociotherapy for sociopaths (TM) . Lakewood, CO: Criminal Justice Addiction Services.
  • Case Study #5 Steve Steve (not the client’s real name) is a thirty-six year old White common law married male with two children who is employed as a union ironworker. He has a third child from a previous relationship as well. He has no contact with that former girlfriend or their young son. He completed the ninth grade and is enrolled in a GED preparation class at this time. He said he “lost interest” in the tenth grade and simply stopped going to school. He has five siblings. His parents were divorced when he was sixteen. His father was an alcoholic and drug addict with a legal history of domestic violence against Steve’s mother, himself and his brothers and sisters. His father died in an alcohol related motor vehicle accident when Steve was twenty-one. As a juvenile, Steve was adjudicated for Second Degree Burglary. Adult arrests are for Second Degree Forgery (two times) Menacing, Theft, Making False Report, Possession of Under One Ounce of Marijuana (five times), Larceny, Disturbing the Peace (four times), Assault (four times), Evasion of Admission Fee, Damage/Deface/Destroy Property (three times), Second Degree Assault, Criminal Mischief, Carrying a Dangerous Weapon, Threat to Injure Person/Property (twice), DUI, Driving under Suspension, Driving under Restraint (two times), No Operators License, Failure to Present Proof of Insurance, Violation of Restraining Order (twice), Disturbance by Use of Phone. He was convicted of Possession with Intent to Distribute Marijuana most recently; sentenced to a community based halfway house and placed in Resocial Group (TM). In addition to having Alcohol Abuse and Cannabis Dependence diagnoses, and his chronic legal problems, Steve has repeatedly used aliases and different birth dates, repeatedly been involved in assaults, and repeatedly been indifferent to disregarding and violating the rights of others. His only mental health diagnosis is Antisocial Personality Disorder. Kannenberg, R. (2001). Sociotherapy for sociopaths (TM) . Lakewood, CO: Criminal Justice Addiction Services.
  • Examination
    • 1. Why would you want to work with this offender?
    • 2. Which model of service delivery would be most appropriate for this offender?
    • 3. Which human services theme best describes the needs of this offender?
    • 4. Which human services purpose best describes the needs of this offender?
    • 5. Does this offender require prevention, intervention or treatment services?
    • 6. Which category on the continuum of care is most appropriate for this offender?
    Case Study #_____
  • Life Cycle Stages of Psychosocial Development (Erik Erikson)
    • Infancy
    • (birth-1 year) “Trust vs. Mistrust”
    • Toddlerhood
    • (2-3 years) “Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt”
    • Early Childhood
    • (4-5 years) “Initiative vs. Guilt”
    • Middle Childhood
    • (6-9 years) “Industry vs. Inferiority”
    • Late Childhood
    • (10-12 years) “Industry vs. Inferiority”
    • Adolescence
    • (13-19 years) “Identity vs. Role Confusion”
    • Young Adulthood
    • (20-29 years) “Intimacy vs. Isolation”
    • Middle Adulthood
    • (30-49 years) “Generativity vs. Stagnation”
    • Late Adulthood
    • (50-death) “Integrity vs. Despair”
    Turner, J.S. & Helms, D.B. (1995). Lifespan Development (5th edition). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publications.
  • Stages of Change (James Prochaska & Carlo DiClemente)
    • Pre-Contemplation
    • the client does not think that there is
    • a problem that needs to be changed
    • Contemplation
    • the client begins to consider that there is a problem
    • and that it might be possible and desirable to change
    • Determination
    • the client makes a definite decision
    • to address the problem by changing
    • Action
    • the client begins to actually
    • change his or her behavior
    • Maintenance
    • the client has initiated change and the process
    • needs to be sustained over time to be successful
    • Termination
    • the client has completely changed the behavior
    • and there is no fear that the problem will return
    Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C. (1982). Transtheoretical therapy toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice , 19(3), 276-287.
  • The Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous
    • 1. We admitted we were powerless over alcohol - that our lives had become unmanageable.
    • 2. Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity.
    • 3. Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood Him.
    • 4. Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves.
    • 5. Admitted to God, to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs.
    • 6. Were entirely ready to have God remove all these defects of character.
    • 7. Humbly asked Him to remove our shortcomings.
    • 8. Made a list of all persons we had harmed, and became willing to make amends to them all.
    • 9. Made direct amends to such people wherever possible, except when to do so would injure them or others.
    • 10. Continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admitted it.
    • 11. Sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God as we understood Him, praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out.
    • 12. Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to alcoholics and to practice these principles in all our affairs.
    Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions, New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc.
  • Behavioral Approach
    • theory is that behavior is learned (addiction included), therefore, it can be unlearned
    • behavior change techniques are based on research and science vs. personal beliefs
    • counselor should assess client’s problems, make a plan based on needs, reassess problems, review and update plan
    • “ here and now” focus vs. past problems
    • client action required vs. “just talking”
    • client must be taught new skills to manage
    • goals should be observable/measurable
    • client must practice newly learned skills
    • client should respect and trust counselor
    • counselor should support client
    • counselor may use conditioning, punishment/rewards and modeling
    Woodside, M. & McClam, T. (1998). An introduction to human services (3rd edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • 7. Emotionally/behaviorally, where is this offender on the life cycle/ stages of psychosocial development? 8. In terms of age, where should this offender be on the life cycle/ stages of psychosocial development? 9. Explain the difference (if there is one) in where the client is and should be (on the life cycle/stages of psychosocial development). 10. What stage of change is this offender in? 11. Which, if any, AA step is this offender working on now? 12. Which AA step(s) do you think this offender will have a difficult time with? 13. Based on the Behavioral Approach, how would you work with this offender (i.e., what would the assessment look like, what would the treatment plan address, what agencies would you connect the client with, what would you do with and say to this offender in weekly case management meetings, how would you monitor this offender, and how would you discuss this offender in staff meetings, etc.)?
  • Person-Centered Approach
    • theory is that the clients (“persons”) are in the best position to resolve their own problems because they know themselves best
    • focus should be on the person, not the problem
    • theory is that all people are capable of self direction and can be trusted to change
    • the counselor is not the authority
    • the counselor should not teach behavior change to the client
    • the client may change by self if the counselor is genuine, has “unconditional positive regard and acceptance” for the client, and is empathetic
    • clients should choose their own goals about growth and independence
    Woodside, M. & McClam, T. (1998). An introduction to human services (3rd edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Solution Focused Approach
    • past and current problems are ignored
    • the focus is on the future (however, the solutions the client has successfully used to solve problems before can be addressed)
    • the counselor should consistently express optimism that the client can be successful
    • the counselor should use the client’s language (words, pacing and tone)
    • the counselor should use the client’s belief system
    • changes should be small and achievable
    • client strengths are “utilized” to bring about change
    • instead of being blamed, a new treatment plan is developed if the client fails
    • the counselor cooperates with the client instead of confronting him or her
    Insoo, K. & Miller, S. (1992). Working with the problem drinker . New York, NY: WW Norton & Company, Inc.
  • 14. Based on the Person-Centered Approach, how would you work with this offender (i.e., what would the assessment look like, what would the treatment plan address, what agencies would you connect the client with, what would you do with and say to this offender in weekly case management meetings, how would you monitor this offender, and how would you discuss this offender in staff meetings, etc.)? 15. Based on the Solution Focused Approach, how would you work with this offender (i.e., what would the assessment look like, what would the treatment plan address, what agencies would you connect the client with, what would you do with and say to this offender in weekly case management meetings, how would you monitor this offender, and how would you discuss this offender in staff meetings, etc.)? 16. Which approach (theory and model) would fit best for you personally and professionally? 17. Which approach would fit best for your agency (based on philosophy of leadership, standards, regulations, etc.)? 18. Which approach would be most likely to help this offender change? 19. What should be done if the approach that is best for this offender is not the one to be employed by the counselor or the program? 20. How would you define a successful outcome for this offender?