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# Problem frames

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Problem Frames

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### Problem frames

1. 1. PROBLEM FRAMES Joseph k Raj M. Tech 1st Sem
2. 2. HISTORY OF PROBLEM FRAMES • Problem frames is an approach to Software Requirements Analysis. It was developed by British software consultant Michael A. Jackson in the 1995. • It has received its fullest description in his Problem Frames: Analysing and Structuring Software Development Problems (2001).
3. 3. PROBLEM FRAME • It is a description of a recognizable class of problems, where the class of problems has a known solution • It provide a conceptual language for recognizing familiar problems in the client’s requirements. • A recognized class of problems is called a problem frame. • What happens if you just start building right away? • You could build the wrong system • You could discover a critical issue late in development.
4. 4. DOMAINS In problem or context diagrams In problem frame diagrams Machine Domain Given Domain • The system to be built Machine Domain Causal Domain • Behavior might be partial  Behaves predictably  But might fail C Given Domain  Behaves unpredictably  Often a human user Biddable Domain B Designed Domain Lexical Domain  Data repository  Physical embodiment ignored X
5. 5. CONTEXT DIAGRAMS Given Domain 1 a Machine Domain c d b Given Domain 2 • Show the relevant domains in the problem • Lines show shared phenomena (events, states) • • • • a – states shared only by machine and domain 1 b – states shared only by machine and domain 2 c – states shared only by domains 1 and 2 d – states shared by all three domains
6. 6. RECOGNIZED PROBLEM FRAMES • Required Behaviour • Commanded Behaviour • Information Display • Simple Workpieces • Transformation
7. 7. REQUIRED BEHAVIOUR • There is some part of the physical world whose behavior is to be controlled so that it satisfies certain conditions. The problem is to build a machine that will impose that control. Control Machine b Controlled Domain a Required Behaviour
8. 8. COMMANDED BEHAVIOUR • There is some part of the physical world whose behaviour is to be controlled in accordance with commands issued by an operator. The problem is to build a machine that will accept the operator's commands and impose the control accordingly. b Operator a Control Machine Commanded Behaviour c Controlled Domain d
9. 9. INFORMATION DISPLAY • There is some part of the physical world about whose states and behaviour certain information is continually needed. The problem is to build a machine that will obtain this information from the world and present it at the required place in the required form. b Real World a Information Machine DisplayReal World c Display d
10. 10. SIMPLE WORKPIECES • A tool is needed to allow a user to create and edit a certain class of computer processing text or graphic objects, or similar structures, so that they can be subsequently copied, printed, analysed or used in other ways. The problem is to build a machine that can act as this tool. b User a Ending Tool Command Effects c Work Pieces d
11. 11. TRANSFORMATION • There are some given computer-readable input files whose data must be transformed to give certain required output files. The output data must be in a particular format, and it must be derived from the input data according to certain rules. b Inputs a Transform Machine IO Relation c Outputs d
12. 12. EXAMPLE: ONE-WAY TRAFFIC LIGHTS • The repairers put one unit at each end of the one-way section and connect it to a small computer that controls the sequence of lights. Each unit has a Stop light and a Go light. The computer controls the lights by emitting RPulses and GPulses, to which the units respond by turning the lights on and off. The regime for the lights repeats a fixed cycle of four phases. First, for 50 seconds, both units show Stop; then, for 120 seconds, one unit shows Stop and the other Go; then for 50 seconds, both show Stop again; then for 120 seconds the unit that previously showed Go shows Stop, and the other shows Go. Then the cycle is repeated.
13. 13. ONE-WAY TRAFFIC PROBLEM DIAGRAM Lights Controller a b Light units Light cycle • a: { RPulse1, GPulse1, RPulse2, GPulse2 } • b: { Stop1, Go1, Stop2, Go2 } • Exclamation point shows which domain controls events • a: LC ! { RPulse1, GPulse1, RPulse2, GPulse2 } • b: LU ! { Stop1, Go1, Stop2, Go2 } • Notice that we carefully distinguish pulses from lights